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  1.  33
    Review of:" bipolar transistors (pMOS) have a state voltage connected (Von) around ۲ to ۳ volts.Afshin Rashid - 2024 - Qeios 15.
    In addition to that, the presence of particles prevents the selective reaction of internal nanotubes, and this issue of purity confuses nanotubes based on their size, type, or use as macromolecular species. Absorption spectroscopy (NIR-Vis-UV) can be used to check the population of the sample or the degree of grouping of the sample. If how to distribute nanotubes by NIR-Vis-UV absorption spectroscopy is desired, the sample should be dispersed or in the form of a thin layer. Optical absorption measurements provide (...)
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  2.  30
    Review of: "_ Lindemann's change structure section in electrical nanostructures Lindemann change / (change structure) in multilayer nanostructures".Afshin Rashid - 2024 - Qeios 11.
    To solve this problem , they usually use an intermediate layer of retarding materials such as Ta, w or Mo as a penetration barrier to improve the thermal stability of the Si/Cu layer . In the characterization of Si/Ta/Cu nanoparticles and multilayer systems, there is an effect of negative bias voltage on the improvement of the electrical and structural properties of the permeation barrier of the Ta sputtering layer in the Si/Ta system. Surface processes of the Si layer, including burning, (...)
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  3.  28
    Review of: "A combination of interference nanolithography and nanoelectronics lithography enables the fabrication and reproduction of high-resolution structures in large areas".Afshin Rashid - 2024 - Qeios 19 (6535638_7765).
    Electron beam lithography provides the possibility of precise control of nanostructure characteristics that form the basis of various nanotechnologies. The nanostructure fabrication and measurement group advances lithography precision at the nanometer scale and creates processes for manufacturing innovative devices and standards in physical fields ranging from photonics to fluids.< /span>Such measurements create a positive feedback loop for the fabrication and measurement of nanostructures.Electron beam lithography is used for pattern standards for atomic force correlation microscopy and ultra-resolution optical microscopy, with highthroughput (...)
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  4.  30
    Review of: "Nano supercapacitor called (electrostatic) -- The total thickness of each < a i=4>electrostatic nanocapacitors only 25 nm".Afshin Rashid - 2024 - Qeios 18:10 -12.
    Electrostatic nanocapacitors also benefit from a very short distance between their electrodes. Electrostatic nanocapacitors are unique in this respect. If the electrodes are far apart, like charges on their surface strongly repel each other. When the electrodes are placed closer together, the negative and positive charges on both sides balance these repulsive forces, and more total charge can be stored in a given area.
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  5.  28
    Review of: "transistor nMOS (with ultra-low power consumption, energy-efficient computing, during the subthreshold range)".Afshin Rashid - 2024 - Qeios 17 (67307_76234):1 _ 2.
    Note: The field-effect tunnel transistor nMOS is an experimental type of transistor. Even if its structure is very similar to a metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor nMOS , the basic switching mechanisms in these two transistors differ from each other; nMOS instead of exhibiting thermionic emission modulation, changes through a quantum tunnel modulation 12> They change through a dam. The field-effect tunneling transistor nMOS, as an alternative to conventional CMOS by enabling the voltage supply (VDD) with ultra-low power consumption, enables energy-efficient (...)
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  6.  26
    Review of: "Investigating the performance of ( C۶۰ and C۷۰ endohistal bucky tubes and nano-fullers ) and diamond in the manufacture of nano-electronic devices".Afshin Rashid - 2024 - Qeios 43 (764653_11).
    Fullerenes are nanometer-sized molecules that, in their simplest form, form 60 carbon atoms of a graphite layer with a three-dimensional structure. 60 Unlike diamond and graphite, whose molecules are continuous, fullerenes are closed molecules: they are like C60 and... (60) fullerenes, which are also called buckyball and buckytube, include nanotubes, nanofibers, fullerene has a structure similar to graphite, but instead of completely hexagonal sections, carbon atoms are placed in the vertices of the 5th or 7th polygons.
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  7.  26
    Review of: "Nano Fullerenes with The Ability to Store Electrostatic Energy That can be Used as Nano Supercapacitors With Very High Capacity".Afshin Rashid - 2024 - Qeios 3.
    Nano fullerenes with the ability to store electrostatic energy that can be used as nano supercapacitors with very high capacity. Also, with these nanotubes, the nervous network can be repaired. Carbon nano fullerenes are allotropes of carbon such as diamond and graphite. These compounds are made of carbon and take on spherical and elliptical shapes. Those that are spherical are called buckyballs.Fullerenes do not have much chemical activity. The width of the graphite plate is about a few nanometers. The length (...)
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  8.  24
    Review of: "Normally, the length of nanowires is more than 1000 times greater than their diameter. This huge difference in ratio (length to diameter) compared to nanowires is often referred to as ۱D materials".Afshin Rashid - 2024 - Qeios 11.
    Nanowires are less than 100 nm in diameter and can be as small as 3 nm. Typically, nanowires are more than 1000 times larger than their diameter. This huge difference in length-to-diameter ratio compared to nanowires is often referred to as 1D materials. This leads to unique properties not seen in bulk materials, The minute size of nanowires means that the quantum mechanical effects of are of great importance. "Quantum Wires" They use quantum mechanics to produce wires with a wide (...)
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  9.  24
    Review of: In General, an Electrical Nano-Biosensor Consists of an Immobilized Static Biological System (Based on their own Built-in Immobilized Static Biological System).Afshin Rashid - 2024 - Qeios 14.
    The development of biosensors to measure the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the blood began. This sensor is also called COBD because it covers the surface of the electrode with an enzyme whose constituent is sometimes called (electro-calorie). Later, it helped oxidize glucose. This sensor was used to measure blood sugar. In the same Bapvshandn electrode, an enzyme that has the ability to convert urea into ammonium carbonate in the electrode material ++ ion, NH4, was used to create biosensors that (...)
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  10.  23
    Review of: "Micro and nano-electromechanical systems ( MEMS / NEMS ) are devices in which the physical motion of a micro- or nano-scale structure is controlled by an electronic circuit".Afshin Rashid - 2024 - Qeios 25.
    Micro and nano-electromechanical systems ( MEMS / NEMS ) are devices in which the physical motion of a micro or nano-scale structure is controlled by an electronic circuit or vice versa. MEMS and NEMS can be used to build sensitive sensors and stable timing devices. Nano System is a function at the molecular scale. This includes both current work and more advanced concepts. In its core meaning, nanotechnology refers to the predicted ability to make items from the bottom up, using (...)
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  11.  23
    Review of: "distribution of nanotubes by NIR-vis-UV absorption spectroscopyresulting in preparation like valence electrons (dopingP)".Afshin Rashid - 2024 - Qeios 9.
    In addition to that, the presence of particles prevents the selective reaction of internal nanotubes, and this issue of purity confuses nanotubes based on their size, type, or use as macromolecular species. Absorption spectroscopy (NIR-Vis-UV) can be used to check the population of the sample or the degree of grouping of the sample. If how to distribute nanotubes by NIR-Vis-UV absorption spectroscopy is desired, the sample should be dispersed or in the form of a thin layer. Optical absorption measurements provide (...)
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  12.  39
    Review of: "Production of nano supercapacitors using nanoparticles (a piezoelectric and ferroelectric material)".Afshin Rashid - 2023 - Qeios 32.
    Production of nano supercapacitors using nanoparticles that can be polarized so that electrical energy can be stored. Nanostructure multilayer technology (solid state) is a known dielectric material used in nano supercapacitors because it is a piezoelectric and ferroelectric material. In this work, by creating passive filters, they provide storage between different types of these electric nano layers. The degree of electrical properties in solid materials (nanosupercapacitors) is very diverse. Based on the amount of resistance (nano supercapacitors) against the passage of (...)
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  13.  21
    Review of: "Many types of electrical nano-sensors using CP nanomaterials designed for nano-biological applications".Afshin Rashid - 2024 - Qeios 8 (815_987654):1 _ 2.
    Note: Many types of nanosensors are designed using CP nanomaterials for nanobiological applications. (Conductive surface) The oxidation of conductive polymeric materials is easily altered by redox mechanisms, and the charge transfer properties of these materials are affected by structural parameters, such as diameter and dimensions. CP materials are able to provide sensitive and rapid responses to specific biological and chemical species. Techniques such as chemical polymerization are often used to make CP nanomaterials. Manufacturing strategies can be divided into three categories: (...)
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  14.  17
    Review of: "FinFET nanotransistor downscaling causes more short channel effects, less gate control, exponential increase in leakage currents, drastic process changes and unmanageable power densities".Afshin Rashid - 2024 - Qeios 9 (7680_765667).
    FinFEET nanotransistors are field-effect nanotransistors (metal-oxide-semiconductor) that are made on asubstrate. The gate is located on two, three, or four sides of the channel or is wrapped. The channel forms adouble gate structure. These devices are given the general name "finfets" because the source/drain region formsfins on the silicon surface. FinFET devices, compared to flat technology and using nanowires in the structureand (complementary metal oxide and semiconductor), < a i=8>have significantly faster switching and highercurrent density.Due to the reduction of the (...)
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  15.  32
    Review of: "Propagation of Oligophenylene vanillin nanowires by focused ion beam (FIB) nanolithography method (below ۱۰۰ nm - ۱۰ nm range)".Afshin Rashid - 2023 - Qeios 13:1 _ 5.
    Nanowires ( SiNWs) have high mobility and surface-to-volume ratio, which makes them easy to control using a weak electric field. These one-dimensional nanostructures are created from nanowires with a diameter in the range of nanometers and a length of more than a micrometer. It has been done in the manufacture of nanowires through regular one-dimensional arrays with the help of different physical and chemical methods. Methods such as the use of electron beam or lithography method, heavy ion irradiation, laser, chemical (...)
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  16.  17
    Review of: "Nano supercapacitors (supercapacitors or electrochemical nanocapacitors)".Afshin Rashid - 2024 - Qeios 23.
    Nanosupercapacitors, also called electrochemical supercapacitors or nanocapacitors, thus emerge as promising fuel sources with astonishingly fast charge release rates. Incredibly fast charging occurs. Created to improve power execution (high-speed capability), they still depend on similar inherent breakpoints. About the electrical characteristics and the manufacturing process of a nanocapacitor structure using (metalinsulator-carbon-metal nanotube layers). This structure shows high capacitance and the possibility of extremely high integration density due to the unique structure of the nanotubes. Nanoscale patterns and a high aspect ratio (...)
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  17.  23
    Review of: "Reproduction (electrical nano memories) by the method combined nanolithography (۱۲ V), Fast switching speed (۱ microsecond)".Afshin Rashid - 2023 - Qeios 34:15-19.
    Graphene nanomemories have been developed molecularly, providing excellent programmable nanoscale memory performance compared to previous graphene memory devices and a memory window. Large (12V), fast switching speed (1 microsecond), shows strong electrical reliability. Graphene molecular nanomemories show unique electronic properties, and their small dimensions, structural strength, and high performance make them a charge storage medium for Nano memory applications. We use a set of techniques involving a solution of nanoparticles, which creates a very thin layer on the target substrate and (...)
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  18.  24
    Review of: "Experiment (nanoelectronic memory) using small organic molecules Chlorophyll pseudo instead of charge storage capacitors".Afshin Rashid - 2023 - Qeios 23 (342345_78865).
    Note: In electrical conduction from a conductor to a semiconductor or an electrically changeable insulator, nanotubes depend on their molecular chiral structure and angle. Since carbon nanotubes are able to pass electric current through the ballistic transfer of electrons without friction from their surface-this current is a hundred times higher than the current that passes through a copper wire-the nanotube is an ideal choice for building nano memory cloud chips. Creating chipsNano memory cloud-Nano memory cloud is made of carbon nanotubes. (...)
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  19.  29
    Review of: "High speed (doping) nMOS graphene transistor in p- and n-doping electronic circuits (positive and negative)".Afshin Rashid - 2023 - Qeios 15 (232_87651):18 _ 32.
    In a nMOS graphene field effect transistor, the resistance between two electrodes can be transferred or controlled by a third electrode. In a multilayer graphene field effect nMOS transistor, the current between the two electrodes is controlled by the electric field from the third electrode. Unlike the bipolar transistor, it is capacitively connected to the third electrode and is not in contact with the semiconductor. Three electrodes in the structure of the nMOS graphene field effect transistor are connected to the (...)
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  20.  23
    Review of: "Nano electrical memories and testing Nickel nanoparticles NI_nanoparticle Strong conductors of electric current".Afshin Rashid - 2023 - Qeios 5 (78484_8637):1 _ 3.
    Note: NI_nanoparticle nickel nanoparticles is a strong conductor of electric current and its surface is shiny and polished. This element belongs to the group of iron and cobalt elementsUsing particles from the microscale to the nanoscale provides benefits for various scientific fields, but because a large percentage of their atoms is on the surface, nanomaterials can be highly reactive and pose risks. have a potential for humans. Nanoparticles are of great interest due to their wide application, both in industry and (...)
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  21.  22
    Review of: "Oligophenylene vanillin (silicon/germanium ) structured nanowires and cylinders for possible applications in electronic energy".Afshin Rashid - 2023 - Qeios 23.
    Oligophenylene vanillin nanowires (Si Silicon / Germanium Gi) , narrow structures whose diameter is only a few billionths of a meter but thousands or millions of times longer. They exist in various forms—made of metals, semiconductors, insulators, and organic compounds—and are used for applications in the fields of electronics, energy conversion, optics, and chemical sensing. Because of their extreme thinness, Oligophenylene vanillin nanowires with a (Si Silicon / Germanium Gi) structure are essentially one dimensional. Nanowires are quasi-one-dimensional materials, "their two (...)
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  22.  21
    Review of: "(Field effect nano transistors) Nano transistor electronic quantity and ionization potential)".Afshin Rashid - 2023 - Qeios 28:9 _ 18.
    An increase in the surface-to- volume ratio and changes in geometry and electronic structure have a strong impact on the chemical interactions of matter, and for example, the activity of small particles changes with changes in the number of atoms (and thus the size of the particles). Unlike today's nano-transistors, which behave based on the movement of a mass of electrons in matter, new devices follow the phenomena of quantum mechanics at the nano scale, in which the discrete nature of (...)
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  23.  20
    Review of: "Nano wire immersion method (structure and function)".Afshin Rashid - 2023 - Qeios 9.
    In the immersion method, nanowires have enough time to transfer from nanoparticle particles to cavities ; The formation step of uniform nanoparticles is done slowly and finally uniform nanowires are formed. Structural study with FESEM in the immersion method of single-stranded nanowires in all porosities and in a large area of nanowire particles are formed. Changing the Sr / Fe ratio does not change the morphology of the nanowires. And spectroscopy of nanowires with a ratio of Sr / Fe states (...)
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  24.  12
    Review of: "The concept of (Nano assembler) in smart electronic nano structures".Afshin Rashid - 2023 - Qeios 11.
    In smart electronic nano-structures, the concept of Nano -assemblies is summed up in all the information and codes necessary to produce an entity similar to itself. We have a very small machine that knows how to produce similar to itself , which in nano science is called a "nano-assembler". It is interpreted.
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