Results for 'Political Theology'

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  1. Political Theology Without Religion.Zachary Isrow - 2021 - Journal of Humanities and Social Science Studies 3 (1):24-31.
    There is a constant tension that exists within each individual. This is the struggle between the hidden ideologies and fixed ideas which enslave the individual and the need to rid themselves of them. It is through these that implicit religion forms. We require, in order to counteract this, a new theology, a secular theology – one which emphasizes the individual. In order to bring about a new theology, it is necessary to reconsider the philosophies of Adam Weishaupt, (...)
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  2. Desacralizing Political Theology: Dionysius the Areopagite and Giorgio Agamben.David Newheiser - 2020 - Modern Theology 36 (1):76-89.
    Giorgio Agamben argues that Christian thought provides the paradigm of modern governmental power, which reinforces mundane government by investing it with glory. Agamben claims that Dionysius the Areopagite exemplifies this structure; in his view, Dionysian negative theology serves to sacralize ecclesiastical power. In response, I argue that Dionysius desacralizes every authority, affirming that some things are sacred even as he subjects that affirmation to thoroughgoing critique. Against both dogmatic adherence and pure profanation, Dionysius models a politics that draws on (...)
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  3.  22
    The Political Theology of Salomon Maimon.Yitzhak Y. Melamed - forthcoming - In Jason Yonover (ed.), Spinoza in Germany: Political and Religious Thought across the long nineteenth Century. Oxford University Press.
    The term ‘Political Theology’ was not coined in the twentieth century. I am not absolutely sure about who was the first to introduce the term. As we shall shortly see, Salomon Maimon (1753-1800) used the term as part of the title to one of the chapters of his 1792/3 Lebensgeschichte, and it is the primary aim of my chapter to explain his understanding of the term. The idea that views about the divine (‘theology’) – true or false (...)
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  4. Normative Political Theology as Intensified Critique.David Newheiser - 2018 - Political Theology 19 (8):669-674.
    Some theorists are suspicious of normative political theology because they believe it undermines critical rationality. In my view, these theorists neglect theological traditions that resist dogmatism through intensified critique. Because authoritarian dogma is not unique to religion, theology offers sophisticated techniques that may be useful for those who are not themselves religious. A normative theology that intensifies critique represents a valuable resource for political reflection, and not only for the faithful.
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  5. Stasis: Beyond Political Theology?Dimitris Vardoulakis - 2009 - Cultural Critique 73:125-47.
    Vardoulakis examines the concept of political theology in terms of the ancient greek term "stasis." The term "stasis" means both mobility and immobility. Vardoulakis explores these seemingly contradictory meanings generate a notion of agonistic politics that challenges perceived ideas about political theology.
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  6. Comparative Political Theology.Erich Kofmel - manuscript
    For a research project I engaged in from 2004-2007, I gathered and analysed statements made by representatives of Islamist terrorist movements on the Internet and compared key themes of their ideology (such as "democracy", "capitalism", "globalization", "colonialism" and "underdevelopment") to the writings and ideology of authors in various traditions of Christian "political theology". In this paper, it is being established that there are clear similarities in the socio-political analysis advanced by Christian political and liberation theologians and (...)
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  7. Sovereign Nothingness: Pyotr Chaadaev's Political Theology.Kirill Chepurin & Alex Dubilet - 2019 - Theory and Event 22 (2):243-266.
    This paper speculatively reconstructs the unique intervention that Pyotr Chaadaev, the early nineteenth-century Russian thinker, made into the political-theological debate. Instead of positioning sovereignty and exception against each other, Chaadaev seeks to think the (Russian) exception immanently, affirming its nonrelation to, and even nullity or nothingness vis-à-vis, the (European, Christian-modern) world-historical regime—and to theorize the logic of sovereignty that could arise from within this nullity. As a result, we argue, nothingness itself becomes, in Chaadaev, operative through and as the (...)
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  8. Why the World Needs Negative Political Theology.David Newheiser - 2020 - Modern Theology 36 (1):5-12.
    Some theorists argue that religion relates to politics in one of two ways: either it asserts its authority over the public sphere or it withdraws from the world in preference for spiritual concerns. In response, this special issue offers an expanded vision of what political theology can contribute to public reflection. Against those who appropriate divine authority in support of a given regime, Jewish and Christian negative theology argues that God is radically elusive. Where resistance movements sometimes (...)
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  9.  70
    Autoimmunities: Derrida, Democracy and Political Theology.Dimitris Vardoulakis - 2018 - Research in Phenomenology 48 (1):29-56.
    I argue that a distinction between three autoimmunities is implied in Derrida’s _Rogues_. These are the autoimmunities of democracy as a regime of power, of democracy to come and of sovereignty. I extrapolate the relations between three different autoimmunities using the figure of the internal enemy in order to argue for an agonistic conception of democracy.
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  10. Leibniz and the Political Theology of the Chinese.Eric S. Nelson - 2017 - In Wenchao Li (ed.), Leibniz and the European Encounters with China: 300 Years of Discours sur la théologie naturelle des Chionois.
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  11. The Sovereignty of the World: Towards a Political Theology of Modernity (After Blumenberg).Kirill Chepurin & Joseph Albernaz - 2020 - In Agata Bielik-Robson & Daniel Whistler (eds.), Interrogating Modernity: Debates with Hans Blumenberg. London: pp. 83-107.
    Reading with and against Blumenberg’s The Legitimacy of the Modern Age, and following his own account of the epochal shift from the Middle Ages to modernity, this chapter takes up the genealogy and the political theology of Blumenbergian modernity so as to reanimate its relevance for contemporary theory. Beginning with the shared opposition to Gnosticism found in both Christianity and modernity, we trace the emergence of modernity as creating a “counterworld” of possibility in the face of the alienation (...)
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  12. The Political Theology of Sir James Stephen.Raymond Heslehurst - 2015 - Solidarity: The Journal for Catholic Social Thought and Secular Ethics 5 (1):Article 5.
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  13.  10
    Gottlob Frege’s Völkisch Political Theology.Stephen D’Arcy - 2022 - Politics, Religion, and Ideology 23 (2).
    Gottlob Frege (1848-1925) has been called ‘the undisputed father of analytic philosophy’ and ‘the most important logician since Aristotle.’ Even if his impact on philosophy were to extend no further than his decisive influence on leading early twentieth-century thinkers of the stature of Bertrand Russell, Ludwig Wittgenstein and Rudolf Carnap, that alone would assure him a notable place in the history of modern philosophy. Nevertheless, there are other areas of Frege’s intellectual activity that have largely escaped the attention of his (...)
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  14.  66
    On the General Secular Contradiction: Secularization, Christianity, and Political Theology.Alex Dubilet - 2021 - In Alex Dubilet & Kirill Chepurin (eds.), Nothing Absolute: German Idealism and the Question of Political Theology. New York, NY, USA: pp. 240-255.
    Dubilet’s contribution turns to Marx’s “On the Jewish Question” in order to diagnose the collusive interplay between mediation and sovereignty as modes of transcendence that, together, prevent real immanence from irrupting. It does so by recovering the logic of “the general secular contradiction”—the division between the state and civil society that materializes and secularizes the structure of diremption originally articulated in theological form, as the opposition between heaven and earth. In this analysis, the logic of Christianity is shown to be (...)
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  15.  72
    Spinoza’s Empty Law: The Possibility of Political Theology.Dimitris Vardoulakis - 2012 - In Beth Lord (ed.), Spinoza Beyond Philosophy. Edinburgh, UK: pp. 135-48.
    The article considers the position of Spinoza within the discourse of political theology.
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  16.  28
    Preface to Forenames of God: Enumerations of Ernesto Laclau Toward a Political Theology of Algorithms.Virgil W. Brower - 2021 - Internationales Jahrbuch Für Medienphilosophie 7 (1):243-251.
    Perhaps nowhere better than, "On the Names of God," can readers discern Laclau's appreciation of theology, specifically, negative theology, and the radical potencies of political theology. // It is Laclau's close attention to Eckhart and Dionysius in this essay that reveals a core theological strategy to be learned by populist reasons or social logics and applied in politics or democracies to come. // This mode of algorithmically informed negative political theology is not mathematically inert. (...)
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  17.  35
    Political and Economic Theology After Carl Schmitt: The Confessional Logic of Deferment.Andrea Mura - 2022 - Journal for Cultural Research 2022:1-13.
    Carl Schmitt’s critical insights into ‘economic-technical thinking’ and the dominant role that a ‘magical technicity’ is said to assume in the social horizon of his times offers an opportunity to reframe contemporary debates on political and economic theology, exposing a theological core behind technocratic administration. Starting from this premise, the article engages with recent inquiries into so-called ‘debt economy’, assessing the affective function that ‘deferment’ and ‘confession’ perform as dominant operators in the social imaginary of neoliberal governance.
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  18. Spirit and Utopia: (German) Idealism as Political Theology.Kirill Chepurin - 2015 - Crisis and Critique 2 (1):326-348.
    Can we understand (German) idealism as emancipatory today, after the new realist critique? In this paper, I argue that we can do so by identifying a political theology of revolution and utopia at the theoretical heart of German Idealism. First, idealism implies a certain revolutionary event at its foundation. Kant’s Copernicanism is ingrained, methodologically and ontologically, into the idealist system itself. Secondly, this revolutionary origin remains a “non-place” for the idealist system, which thereby receives a utopian character. I (...)
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  19. The Metaphysics of the Theological-Political Treatise.Yitzhak Y. Melamed - 2010 - In Yitzhak Y. Melamed & Michael A. Rosenthal (eds.), Spinoza's 'Theological-Political Treatise': A Critical Guide. Cambridge University Press.
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  20. Review: Revisiting Spinoza’s Theological-Political Treatise. [REVIEW]Sean Erwin - 2014 - Renaissance Quarterly 4:1407-1408.
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  21.  72
    Spinoza’s Law: The Epicurean Definition of the Law in the Theological Political Treatise.Dimitris Vardoulakis - 2019 - Radical Philosophy 5 (2):23-33.
    In the first few pages of chapter 4 of his Theological Political Treatise (1670), Spinoza defines his conception of the law. In fact, he defines the law twice, first in terms of compulsion or necessity and then in terms of use. I would like to investigate here these definitions, in particular the second one, as it is Spinoza’s preferred one. The difficulty with understanding this definition is that it contains an expression, ratio vivendi, that is repeated several times in (...)
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  22.  45
    Priestley on Politics, Progress and Moral Theology.Alan Tapper - 1996 - In Knud Haakonssen (ed.), Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in Eighteenth-Century Britain. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 272-86.
    This essay compares and contrast Priestley and Burke on the nature of progress and politics and why, after having begun as political comrades, they arrived at such different evaluations of the French Revolution. Priestley had a robust account of progress, Burke a fragile one. Priestley's ideal, unlike Burke's, was not that of civic virtue but that of commercial virtue. By restricting the scope of government, Priestley diminished the status of the political virtues.
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  23. Freedom as Overcoming the Fear of Death: Epicureanism in the Subtitle of Spinoza’s Theological Political Treatise.Dimitris Vardoulakis - 2020 - Parrhesia 32:33-60.
    It is often put forward that the entire political project of epicureanism consists in the overcoming of fear, whereby its scope is deemed to be very narrow. I argue that the overcoming of the fear of death should actually be linked to a conception of freedom in epicureanism. This idea is further developed by Spinoza, who defines the free man as one who thinks of death least of all in the Ethics, and who develops this idea more in the (...)
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  24. Theology, Metaphysics, and Science: Twenty-First Century Hermeneutical Allies, Strangers, or Enemies?Peter M. Antoci - 2019 - Socio-Historical Examination of Religion and Ministry 1 (3):226-239.
    This article answers the question of whether the study of theology and metaphysics can be classified currently, or ever qualify in the future, as a scientific endeavor. Rather than choose a particular theology or metaphysics as the subject of inquiry, this essay argues that it is not only necessary to recognize the role of hermeneutics within different fields of study, but that it is also necessary to begin a human hermeneutic with human experience. Changes in our global context, (...)
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  25. The Metaphysics of Spinoza's Theological Political Treatise.Yitzhak Y. Melamed - 2010 - In Yitzhak Melamed (ed.), Spinoza's Theological Political Treatise: A Critical Guide. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
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  26.  44
    Agamben’s Theories of the State of Exception: From Political to Economic Theology.Tim Christiaens - 2021 - Cultural Critique 1 (110):49-74.
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  27. Review of Michah Gottlieb, Faith and Freedom: Moses Mendelssohn's Theological-Political Thought (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011. [REVIEW]Yitzhak Y. Melamed - 2012 - Journal of Religion.
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  28. Theological Themes in Ricardo’s Papers and Correspondence.Sergio Volodia Marcello Cremaschi - 2017 - European Journal of the History of Economic Thought 24 (4):784-808.
    I review evidence from published and unpublished sources on Ricardo’s theological ideas. The main focuses of interest are the existence of a natural morality independent of religious confessions, morality as the essence of religion, useless of theological speculation, justification of toleration for everybody, including atheists, and the miscarriage of any attempt at a philosophical theodicy. The paper explores also the connection between Ricardo’s interest for theodicy and his views on the scope and method of political economy and suggests that (...)
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  29. Theology and the Secular.David Newheiser - 2016 - Political Theology 17:378-89.
    Sarah Coakley’s God, Sexuality, and the Self constitutes a major intervention in the debate over the role of religion in the modern world. Coakley criticizes Christians who reject modernity altogether, arguing that Christian thought should remain in conversation with secular sources. At the same time, she claims that only theology can solve difficulties of widespread concern - for instance, concerning gender and sexuality. Where this suggests that theology is still superior, I argue that the strict distinction Coakley draws (...)
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  30. Kant's Political Religion: The Transparency of Perpetual Peace and the Highest Good.Robert S. Taylor - 2010 - Review of Politics 72 (1):1-24.
    Scholars have long debated the relationship between Kant’s doctrine of right and his doctrine of virtue (including his moral religion or ethico-theology), which are the two branches of his moral philosophy. This article will examine the intimate connection in his practical philosophy between perpetual peace and the highest good, between political and ethico-religious communities, and between the types of transparency peculiar to each. It will show how domestic and international right provides a framework for the development of ethical (...)
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  31.  38
    The Politics of Nothing: On Sovereignty.Clare Monagle & Dimitris Vardoulakis (eds.) - 2012 - Routledge.
    This book questions what sovereignty looks like when it is de-ontologised; when the nothingness at the heart of claims to sovereignty is unmasked and laid bare. Drawing on critical thinkers in political theology, such as Schmitt, Agamben, Nancy, Blanchot, Paulhan, The Politics of Nothing asks what happens to the political when considered in the frame of the productive potential of the nothing? The answers are framed in terms of the deep intellectual histories at our disposal for considering (...)
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  32.  55
    Towards Affirmative Economic Theologies: Responses to the Problem of Evil in Contemporary Italian Thought.Tim Christiaens - 2021 - Political Theology 7 (21):934-949.
    The burgeoning field of economic theology constitutes primarily a critical device against the Nachleben of medieval providential theology in modern economic governance. Especially Agamben has highlighted the role of the notion of oikonomia in providential and modern economic thought to promote humble acceptance in light of the problem of evil. I show how economic theology can also be a vantage point for affirmative critique. I discuss Negri’s interpretation of the Book of Job and the Italian feminist appreciation (...)
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  33.  61
    Introduction to Politics of Religion/Religions of Politics.Alistair Welchman - 2014 - In Politics of Religion/Religions of Politics. Dordrecht, Netherlands: pp. 1-10.
    The liberal enlightenment as well as the more radical left have both traditionally opposed religion as a reactionary force in politics, a view culminating in an identification of the politics of religion as fundamentalist theocracy. But recently a number of thinkers—Agamben, Badiou, Tabues and in particular Simon Critchley—have begun to explore a more productive engagement of the religious and the political in which religion features as a possible or even necessary form of human emancipation. The papers in this collection, (...)
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  34. Geoffrey Holsclaw. Transcending Subjects: Augustine, Hegel, and Theology. Challenges in Contemporary Theology. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2016. ISBN 978-1-119-16300-8 . ISBN 978-1-119-16308-4 . Pp. Xii+256. Hardcover £65.00, €81.30. Ebook £24.99, €30.99. [REVIEW]Ryan Haecker - 2017 - Hegel Bulletin 40 (2):334 - 338.
    One of the most frequently asked question is whether Hegel’s idea of God is immanent or transcendent. In Transcending Subjects: Augustine, Hegel, and Theology, Geoffrey Holsclaw attempts to solve this puzzle by contrasting the political theologies of Hegel and Augustine. He argues that Hegel produces a political theology of ‘self-transcending immanence’ while Augustine produces a political theology of ‘self-immanentizing transcendence’. The primary problem with Holsclaw’s dialectical procedure results from its uncritical appeal to a transcendent (...)
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  35. Spectres of Duty: The Politics of Silence in Ibsen’s Ghosts.Dimitris Vardoulakis - 2009 - Orbis Litterarum 64 (1):50–74.
    The article examines the concept of duty with reference to Ibsen's play "Ghosts." It offers a brief genealogy of duty while linking the concept of duty to a deconstructive approach.
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  36. Kant's Political Thought in the Prussian Enlightenment.Ian Hunter - 2012 - In Elisabeth Ellis (ed.), Kant's Political Theory: Interpretations and Applications. Pennsylvania State University Press.
    This article provides an historical account of Kant's political, legal, and religious thought in the context of the Prussian Enlightenment.
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  37. An Observation of the Political in Husserl’s Phenomenological Critique and Subjectivity:A Schmittian Investigation.Yusuk Lee - 2018 - Research in Philosophy and Phenomenology 78:105-145.
    The concept and the logic of the political, the most notable Schmittian ideas, based on the friend/enemy distinction and his thought on political theology have been widely and critically discussed and actively appropriated with various interpretations. On the other hand, we find that there is certain definite momentum piercing through the theoretical structure of Husserl’s phenomenology in general both as a form of metaphysics and as a philosophical movement, which can also be called the political. In (...)
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  38. Enrique Dussel and Liberation Theology: Violence or Dialogue?Miguel Ángel Quintana Paz - 2014 - Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies 26:135-146.
    For centuries, several disciplines have tried to tackle the topic of how legitimate it is to use violence in order to solve social problems. One of the most recent interdisciplinary approaches (and one of the most successful in present-day Latin America) is the so-called “Ethics of Liberation,” designed by Enrique Dussel. Based on the Theology of Liberation, this theory goes beyond the limits of theology as a discipline and pleads for three ethical criteria that every political revolution (...)
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  39.  19
    Enrique Dussel and Liberation Theology.Miguel Ángel Quintana-Paz - 2014 - Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies 26 (1-2):135-146.
    For centuries, various disciplines have tried to tackle the topic of how legitimate it is to use violence in order to solve social problems. One of the most recent interdisciplinary approaches, most successful in present-day Latin America, is the so-called "Ethics of Liberation," designed by Enrique Dussel. Based on the Theology of Liberation, this theory goes beyond the limits of theology as a discipline and pleads for three ethical criteria that every political revolution must fulfill to use (...)
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  40. Философская теология до и после Плантинги (Philosophical Theology before and after Plantinga).Pavel Butakov - 2018 - Tomsk State University Journal of Philosophy, Sociology and Political Science 46:183–192.
    Alvin Plantinga has played a pivotal role in bringing theological questions and ideas into the broad philosophical, predominantly non-theistic community. His “Advice to Christian Philosophers” (1983) was the turning point in the history of philosophical theology. In his “Advice” Plantinga talks about how best to be a Christian in philosophy. He suggests that Christian intellectuals should become more autonomous from the rest of philosophical world, display more unity, and express greater Christian self-confidence. These advices, however, are addressed not to (...)
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  41. Spinoza's Political Treatise: A Critical Guide.Yitzhak Y. Melamed & Hasana Sharp (eds.) - 2017 - Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Spinoza's Political Treatise constitutes the very last stage in the development of his thought, as he left the manuscript incomplete at the time of his death in 1677. On several crucial issues - for example, the new conception of the 'free multitude' - the work goes well beyond his Theological Political Treatise, and arguably presents ideas that were not fully developed even in his Ethics. This volume of newly commissioned essays on the Political Treatise is the first (...)
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  42. The Natural Kingdom of God in Hobbes’s Political Thought.Ben Jones - 2019 - History of European Ideas 45 (3):436-453.
    ABSTRACTIn Leviathan, Hobbes outlines the concept of the ‘Kingdome of God by Nature’ or ‘Naturall Kingdome of God’, terms rarely found in English texts at the time. This article traces the concept back to the Catechism of the Council of Trent, which sets forth a threefold understanding of God’s kingdom – the kingdoms of nature, grace, and glory – none of which refer to civil commonwealths on earth. Hobbes abandons this Catholic typology and transforms the concept of the natural kingdom (...)
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  43. God and Politics in Secular India.Domenic Marbaniang - forthcoming - Journal of the Contemporary Christian.
    The church is separate from the state. Thus, historically, it is seen that even though a government wasn’t secular, God was secular. He didn’t drag religion into politics, but silently did intervene to administer temporal justice and order in the world (i.e. temporal justice in relation to temporal authority). With regard to the church, it doesn’t seem that God is interested in an organized religion at all. Christianity had nothing to do with an external temple. Each Christian is the temple (...)
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  44. Who Counts as a Muslim? Identity, Multiplicity and Politics.Saba Fatima - 2011 - Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs 31 (3):339-353.
    My aim in this paper is to carve out a political understanding of the Muslim identity. The Muslim identity is shaped within a religious mold. Inseparable from this religious understanding is a political one that is valuable in its own right in order to secure any sustainable possibility of participating politically as Muslims within a democratic liberal democracy, such as the United States. Here I explore not the historical or theological formation of the Muslim identity, rather a metaphysical (...)
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  45. To Each According to Their Needs: Anarchist Praxis as a Resource for Byzantine Theological Ethics.Emma Brown Dewhurst - 2018 - In M. Christoyannopoulos & A. Adams (eds.), Essays in Anarchism and Religion: Volume II. Stockholm, Sweden: pp. 58-93.
    I argue that anarchist ideas for organising human communities could be a useful practical resource for Christian ethics. I demonstrate this firstly by introducing the main theological ideas underlying Maximus the Confessor’s ethics, a theologian respected and important in a number of Christian denominations. I compare practical similarities in the way in which ‘love’ and ‘well-being’ are interpreted as the telos of Maximus and Peter Kropotkin’s ethics respectively. I further highlight these similarities by demonstrating them in action when it comes (...)
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  46. “I Dare Not Mutter a Word”: Speech and Political Violence in Spinoza.Hasana Sharp - 2021 - Crisis and Critique 1 (8):365-386.
    This paper examines the relationship between violence and the domination of speech in Spinoza’s political thought. Spinoza describes the cost of such violence to the State, to the collective epistemic resources, and to the members of the polity that domination aims to script and silence. Spinoza shows how obedience to a dominating power requires pretense and deception. The pressure to pretend is the linchpin of an account of how oppression severely degrades the conditions for meaningful communication, and thus the (...)
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  47. Dante's Understanding of the Two Ends of Human Desire and the Relationship Between Philosophy and Theology.Jason Aleksander - 2011 - Journal of Religion 91 (2):158-187.
    I discuss Dante’s understanding that human existence is “ordered by two final goals” and how this understanding defines philosophy’s and theology’s respective scopes of authority in guiding human conduct. I show that, while Dante devalues the philosophical authority associated with the traditional Aristotelian emphasis on the significance of contemplative activity, he does so in order to highlight philosophy’s ethico-political authority to guide human conduct toward its “earthly beatitude.” Moreover, I argue that, although Dante subordinates earthly beatitude to spiritual (...)
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  48.  39
    Kant’s Doctrine of the Highest Good: A Theologico-Political Interpretation.Étienne Brown - 2020 - Kantian Review 25 (2):193 - 217.
    Kant’s discussion of the highest good is subject to continuous disagreement between the proponents of two interpretations of this concept. According to the secular interpretation, Kant conceived of the highest good as a political ideal which can be realized through human agency alone, albeit only from the Critique of the Power of Judgement onwards. By way of contrast, proponents of the theological interpretation find Kant’s treatment of the highest good in his later works to be wholly coherent with the (...)
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  49. Physical Order Vs. Divine Designer: Celestial Mechanics and Natural Theology Struggling for the System of the World.Massimiliano Badino - manuscript
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  50. Connecting Economics to Theology.Garrick Small - 2011 - Solidarity: The Journal of Catholic Social Thought and Secular Ethics 1 (1):Article 2.
    Economics claims to be an independent empirical social science but empirical evidence of the last century challenges this claim. By contrast Caritas in Veritate contains a set of linkages that demonstrate that economics is related to morals, anthropology and theology. Economics is practiced in a cultural setting with a moral dimension related to the human person, which is ultimately grounded in the nature of God. Pope Benedict has focused on love and gift as human qualities reflecting the Divine nature. (...)
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