Results for 'soul'

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  1. Do Souls Exist?David Kyle Johnson - 2013 - Think 12 (35):61-75.
    ‘The soul hypothesis’ enjoys near unanimous support in the general population. Among philosophers and scientists, however, belief in the soul is far less common. The purpose of this essay to explain why many philosophers and scientists reject the soul hypothesis and to consider what the non-existence of the soul would entail.
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  2. Tyrannized Souls: Plato's Depiction of the ‘Tyrannical Man’.Mark A. Johnstone - 2015 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 23 (3):423-437.
    In book 9 of Plato's Republic, Socrates describes the nature and origins of the ‘tyrannical man’, whose soul is said to be ‘like’ a tyrannical city. In this paper, I examine the nature of the ‘government’ that exists within the tyrannical man's soul. I begin by demonstrating the inadequacy of three potentially attractive views sometimes found in the literature on Plato: the view that the tyrannical man's soul is ruled by his ‘lawless’ unnecessary appetites, the view that (...)
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  3. Anarchic Souls: Plato’s Depiction of the ‘Democratic Man’.Mark Johnstone - 2013 - Phronesis 58 (2):139-59.
    In books 8 and 9 of Plato’s Republic, Socrates provides a detailed account of the nature and origins of four main kinds of vice found in political constitutions and in the kinds of people that correspond to them. The third of the four corrupt kinds of person he describes is the ‘democratic man’. In this paper, I ask what ‘rules’ in the democratic man’s soul. It is commonly thought that his soul is ruled in some way by its (...)
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  4.  43
    The Soul-Turning Metaphor in Plato’s Republic Book 7.Damien Storey - 2022 - Classical Philology 177 (3):525-542.
    This paper examines the soul-turning metaphor in Book 7 of Plato’s Republic. It argues that the failure to find a consistent reading of how the metaphor is used has contributed to a number of long-standing disagreements, especially concerning the more famous metaphor with which it is intertwined, the Cave allegory. A full reading of the metaphor, as it occurs throughout Book 7, is offered, with particularly close attention to what is one of the most difficult and stubbornly divisive passages (...)
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  5.  78
    Soul's Tools.Jessica Gelber - forthcoming - In Heat, pneuma and soul in ancient philosophy and science,.
    This paper explores the various ways Aristotle refers to and employs “heat and cold” in his embryology. In my view, scholars are too quick to assume that references to heat and cold are references to matter or an animal’s material nature. More commonly, I argue, Aristotle refers to heat and cold as the “tools” of soul. As I understand it, Aristotle is thinking of heat and cold in many contexts as auxiliary causes by which soul activities (primarily “concoction”) (...)
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  6. Soul‐Switching and the Immateriality of Human Nature: On an Argument Reported by Razi.Pirooz Fatoorchi - 2021 - Theoria 87 (5):1067-1082.
    This article deals with an argument reported by Razi (d. 1210) that attempted to undermine the immaterialist position about human nature. After some introductory remarks and explanation of the conceptual background, the article analyses the structure of the argument, with special attention to the idea of soul-switching.’ Some comparisons are made between the argument reported by Razi and a number of arguments from modern and contemporary eras of philosophy. One section is devoted to the critique of the argument and (...)
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  7. Departed Souls? Tripartition at the Close of Plato’s Republic.Nathan Bauer - 2017 - History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis 20 (1):139-157.
    Plato’s tripartite soul plays a central role in his account of justice in the Republic. It thus comes as a surprise to find him apparently abandoning this model at the end of the work, when he suggests that the soul, as immortal, must be simple. I propose a way of reconciling these claims, appealing to neglected features of the city-soul analogy and the argument for the soul’s division. The original true soul, I argue, is partitioned, (...)
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  8. From Soul to Self.M. James C. Crabbe (ed.) - 1999 - Routledge.
    From Soul to Self takes us on a fascinating journey through philosophy, theology, religious studies and physiological sciences. The contributors explore the relationship between a variety of ideas that have arisen in philosophy, religion and science, each idea seeking to explain why we think we are somehow unique and distinct.
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  9. Changing Rulers in the Soul: Psychological Transitions in Republic 8-9.Mark A. Johnstone - 2011 - Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 41:139-67.
    In this paper, I consider how each of the four main kinds of corrupt person described in Plato's Republic, Books 8-9, first comes to be. Certain passages in these books can give the impression that each person is able to determine, by a kind of rational choice, the overall government of his/her soul. However, I argue, this impression is mistaken. Upon careful examination, the text of books 8 and 9 overwhelmingly supports an alternative interpretation. According to this view, the (...)
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  10. Souled Out of Rights? – Predicaments in Protecting the Human Spirit in the Age of Neuromarketing.Alexander Sieber - 2019 - Life Sciences, Society and Policy 15 (6):1-11.
    Modern neurotechnologies are rapidly infringing on conventional notions of human dignity and they are challenging what it means to be human. This article is a survey analysis of the future of the digital age, reflecting primarily on the effects of neurotechnology that violate universal human rights to dignity, self-determination, and privacy. In particular, this article focuses on neuromarketing to critically assess potentially negative social ramifications of under-regulated neurotechnological application. Possible solutions are critically evaluated, including the human rights claim to the (...)
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  11.  48
    Soul and its Implication in Philosophy, Medicine and Religion.Shamima Parvin Lasker - 2021 - Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics 12 (3):1-10.
    The reality is that soul and death are the integral part of human life. The soul is the essence of life as fuel is the energy that runs the automobile or the light that makes the eye see. We all see the human body when the soul leaves and the human body is left senseless and ultimately dissolves into the earth. Why we do not have knowledge about soul where this element is the integral part of (...)
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  12. Soul & Consciousness.Contzen Pereira - 2015 - Scientific GOD Journal 6 (7):311 - 315.
    It is my view that my soul is my consciousness and my consciousness is my soul. It appears that energy renders my consciousness to surge within me and my soul is a sphere of energy that encases me. Further, it appears that my soul dwell within me until my bodily death and my soul makes me conscious of my existence and all that exist around me. I feel my consciousness for it is my soul. (...)
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  13.  25
    Material Souls and Imagination in Late Aristotelian Embryology.Andreas Blank - 2010 - Annals of Science 67 (2):187-204.
    This article explores some continuities between Late Aristotelian and Cartesian embryology. In particular, it argues that there is an interesting consilience between some accounts of the role of imagination in trait acquisition in Late Aristotelian and Cartesian embryology. Evidence for this thesis is presented using the extensive biological writings of the Padua-based philosopher and physician, Fortunio Liceti . Like the Cartesian physiologists, Liceti believed that animal souls are material beings and that acts of imagination result in material images that can (...)
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  14. The Soul-Making Theodicy: A Response to Dore.Leslie Allan - manuscript
    The soul-making theodicy seeks to explain how belief in the existence of God is compatible with the evil, pain and suffering we experience in our world. It purports to meet the problem of evil posed by non-theists by articulating a divine plan in which the occurrence of evil is necessary for enabling the greater good of character building of free moral agents. Many philosophers of religion have levelled strong objections against this theodicy. In this essay, Leslie Allan considers the (...)
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  15. Soul and Body.John Sutton - 2013 - In Peter Anstey (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of British Philosophy in the Seventeenth Century. Oxford University Press. pp. 285-307.
    Ideas about soul and body – about thinking or remembering, mind and life, brain and self – remain both diverse and controversial in our neurocentric age. The history of these ideas is significant both in its own right and to aid our understanding of the complex sources and nature of our concepts of mind, cognition, and psychology, which are all terms with puzzling, difficult histories. These topics are not the domain of specialists alone, and studies of emotion, perception, or (...)
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  16. Soul-Making and Social Progress.Michael Hemmingsen - 2020 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 88 (1):81-96.
    I argue that John Hick’s soul-making theodicy is committed to opposing social progress. By focusing on justifying the current amount and distribution of suffering and evil, Hick’s theodicy ends up having to condemn even positive change as undesirable. First, I give a brief outline of Hick’s theodicy, with a particular emphasis on the role of earned virtue in justifying the existence of evil. Then I consider two understandings of social progress: progress as the elimination of suffering and evil; and (...)
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  17. Psychology Without a Soul, Philosophy Without an I: Nietzsche and 19th Century Psychophysics.Pietro Gori - 2015 - In Bartholomew Ryan, Maria Joao Mayer Branco & João Constancio (eds.), Nietzsche and the Problem of Subjectivity. De Gruyter. pp. 166-195.
    Friedrich Nietzsche’s criticism towards the substance-concept „I“ plays an important role in his late thought, and can be properly understood by making reference to the 19th century debate on the scientific psychology. Friedrich Lange and Ernst Mach gave an important contribution to that debate. Both of them developed the ideas of Gustav Fechner, and thought about a „psychology without soul“, i.e. an investigation that gives up with the old metaphysics of substance in dealing with the mind-body problem. In this (...)
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  18.  45
    Acceptations of the Soul in Various Systems of Philosophical and Religious Thinking.Tudor Cosmin Ciocan - 2020 - Dialogo 6 (2):233-244.
    The Soul is considered, both for religions and philosophy, to be the immaterial aspect or essence of a human being, conferring individuality and humanity, often considered to be synonymous with the mind or the self. For most theologies, the Soul is further defined as that part of the individual, which partakes of divinity and transcends the body in different explanations. But, regardless of the philosophical background in which a specific theology gives the transcendence of the soul as (...)
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  19.  44
    Soul Division and Mimesis in Republic X.Rachel Singpurwalla - 2011 - In Pierre Destrée & Fritz Gregor Herrmann (eds.), Plato and the Poets. pp. 283-298.
    It is well known that in the Republic, Socrates presents a view of the soul or the psyche according to which it has three distinct parts or aspects, which he calls the reasoning, spirited, and appetitive parts. Socrates’ clearest characterization of these parts of the soul occurs in Republic IX, where he suggests that they should be understood in terms of the various goals or ends that give rise to the particular desires that motivate our actions. In Republic (...)
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  20. The Soul (An Inaugural Lecture Given at University College London on May 13th, 2004).Tim Crane - manuscript
    Michael Dummett says in the preface to his book on Frege that he is always disappointed when a book lacks a preface. ‘it is like arriving at someone’s house for dinner’ Dummett says ‘and being conducted straight into the dining room’. I feel the same way about inaugural lectures. To give an inaugural lecture is in part an acknowledgement of a professional honour, and in part an opportunity to pay a personal tribute to the institution which has honoured you in (...)
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  21. The Soul and Its Parts: A Study in Aristotle and Brentano.Barry Smith - 1988 - Brentano Studien 1:75–88.
    The piece of wax takes on the form of the seal; but this occurs in a way that is largely indifferent to the particular constitution of the seal. Similarly, Aristotle says, ‘the sense is affected by what is coloured or flavoured or sounding, but it is indifferent as to what in each case the substance is’. We show that Brentano takes this Aristotelian account of the relation between sense and its objects as the basis for his theory of mind in (...)
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  22. Theurgy and the Soul: The Neoplatonism of Iamblichus.Gregory Shaw - 1971 - Pennsylvania State University Press.
    _Theurgy and the Soul_ is a study of Iamblichus of Syria, whose teachings set the final form of pagan spirituality prior to the Christianization of the Roman Empire. Gregory Shaw focuses on the theory and practice of theurgy, the most controversial and significant aspect of Iamblichus's Platonism. Theurgy literally means "divine action." Unlike previous Platonists who stressed the elevated status of the human soul, Iamblichus taught that the soul descended completely into the body and thereby required the performance (...)
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  23. Soul-Leading: The Unity of the Phaedrus, Again.Jessica Moss - 2012 - In Brad Inwood (ed.), Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy. Oxford University Press. pp. 43--1.
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  24. Solitude Without Souls: Why Peter Unger Hasn’T Established Substance Dualism.Will Bynoe & Nicholas K. Jones - 2013 - Philosophia 41 (1):109-125.
    Unger has recently argued that if you are the only thinking and experiencing subject in your chair, then you are not a material object. This leads Unger to endorse a version of Substance Dualism according to which we are immaterial souls. This paper argues that this is an overreaction. We argue that the specifically Dualist elements of Unger’s view play no role in his response to the problem; only the view’s structure is required, and that is available to Unger’s opponents. (...)
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  25. Souls and the Location of Time in Physics IV 14, 223a16–223a29.Tim Loughlin - 2011 - Apeiron 44 (4):307-325.
    In Physics IV 14, 223a16-223a29 Aristotle raises two questions: (Q1) How is time related to the soul? (Q2) Why is time thought to be in everything? Aristotle's juxtaposition of these questions indicates some relation between them. I argue that Aristotle is committed to the claim that time only exists where change is countable. Aristotle must answer (Q2) in a way that doesn't conflict with this commitment. Aristotle's answer to (Q1) offers him such a way. Since time is change qua (...)
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  26. Does the Soul Weave? Reconsidering De Anima 1.4, 408a29-B18.Jason W. Carter - 2018 - Phronesis 63 (1):25-63.
    In De Anima 1.4, Aristotle asks whether the soul can be moved by its own affections. His conclusion—that to say the soul grows angry is like saying that it weaves and builds—has traditionally been read on the assumption that it is false to credit the soul with weaving and building; I argue that Aristotle’s analysis of psychological motions implies his belief that the soul does in fact weave and build.
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  27. The Unity of the Soul in Plato's Republic.Eric Brown - 2012 - In Rachel Barney, Tad Brennan & Charles Brittain (eds.), Plato and the Divided Self. Cambridge, UK: pp. 53-73.
    This essay argues that Plato in the Republic needs an account of why and how the three distinct parts of the soul are parts of one soul, and it draws on the Phaedrus and Gorgias to develop an account of compositional unity that fits what is said in the Republic.
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  28. The Soul and Its Parts: Varieties of Inexistence.Barry Smith - 1992 - Brentano-Studien 4:35–51.
    From the point of view of Brentano’s philosophy, contemporary philosophy of mind presupposes an over-crude theory of the internal structures of mental acts and states and of the corresponding types of parts, unity and dependence. We here describe Brentano’s own account of the part-whole structures obtaining in the mental sphere, and show how it opens up new possibilities for mereological investigation. One feature of Brentano’s view is that the objects of experience are themselves parts of mind, so that there is (...)
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  29. Modern Greatness of Soul in Hume and Smith.Andrew J. Corsa - 2015 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 2.
    I contend that Adam Smith and David Hume offer re-interpretations of Aristotle’s notion of greatness of soul, focusing on the kind of magnanimity Aristotle attributes to Socrates. Someone with Socratic magnanimity is worthy of honor, responds moderately to fortune, and is virtuous—just and benevolent. Recent theorists err in claiming that magnanimity is less important to Hume’s account of human excellence than benevolence. In fact, benevolence is a necessary ingredient for the best sort of greatness. Smith’s “Letter to Strahan” attributes (...)
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  30.  51
    What Soul for Europe? Unity, Diversity and Identity in the EU.Pablo Cristóbal Jiménez Lobeira - 2010 - ANUCES Working Paper Series.
    Political integration has been part of the European project from its very beginnings. As far back as the early seventies there was concern in Brussels that an ingredient was missing in the political integration process. ‘Output legitimacy’ – the permissive consensus citizens grant to a government that is ‘delivering’, even if they do not participate in setting its goals – could not sustain unification indefinitely. Such a lacking ingredient – or ‘soul’ – has been labelled ‘European identity’ (EI) in (...)
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  31. Soul Substance (Jīva Dravya) – As Expounded In Dravyasamgraha.Vijay K. Jain - manuscript
    Soul substance (jīva dravya) is ubiquitous but unseen. Driving force within each one of us, it has been, since time immemorial, a subject matter of research by philosophers, religious leaders and laity. Still, ambiguity and misconceptions prevail as regard its real nature. Some negate the existence of soul and attribute consciousness to the union of four basic substances – earth (prthvī), water (jala), fire (agni), and air (vāyu); death leads to its annihilation. Some believe it to be momentary, (...)
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  32. Soul, Rational Soul and Person in Thomism.Harry La Plante - 1993 - Modern Schoolman 70 (3):209-216.
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  33. The Soul of Sophistry: Plato’s “Sophist” 226a9–231b9 Revisited.Jens Kristian Larsen - 2007 - Filosofiske Studier 102 (102):1-14.
    This paper argues that the so-called 6th definition of the sophist found in the outer part of Plato's "Sophist" is a methodological passage meant to point out how the sophist is to be pursued properly if he is to be distinguished from the philosopher.
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  34.  52
    Living Without a Soul: Why God and the Heavenly Movers Fall Outside of Aristotle’s Psychology.Caleb Cohoe - 2020 - Phronesis 65 (3):281-323.
    I argue that the science of the soul only covers sublunary living things. Aristotle cannot properly ascribe ψυχή to unmoved movers since they do not have any capacities that are distinct from their activities or any matter to be structured. Heavenly bodies do not have souls in the way that mortal living things do, because their matter is not subject to alteration or generation. These beings do not fit into the hierarchy of soul powers that Aristotle relies on (...)
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  35. A Dilemma for the Soul Theory of Personal Identity.Jacob Berger - 2018 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 83 (1):41-55.
    The problem of diachronic personal identity is this: what explains why a person P1 at time T1 is numerically identical with a person P2 at a later time T2, even if they are not at those times qualitatively identical? One traditional explanation is the soul theory, according to which persons persist in virtue of their nonphysical souls. I argue here that this view faces a new and arguably insuperable dilemma: either souls, like physical bodies, change over time, in which (...)
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  36. « The Form Of Soul In The Phaedo ».Brian Prince - 2012 - Plato 11 11.
    Although the Phaedo never mentions a Form of Soul explicitly, the dialogue implies this Form’s existence. First, a number of passages in which Socrates describes his views about Forms imply that there are very many Forms; thus, Socrates’ general description of his theory gives no ground for denying that there is a Form of Soul. Second, the final argument for immortality positively requires a Form of Soul.
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  37. Soul, Body and Survival: The Renaissance of Christian Materialism.Godehard Brüntrup - 2009 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 65 (1):1137 - 1155.
    Article on recent metaphysical accounts of bodily resurrection.
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  38. "Soul-Searching" by Nicholas Humphrey. [REVIEW]Tim Crane - 2011 - The Times Literary Supplement 6567:685.
    In 1991, Darwin College Cambridge was given a substantial bequest to fund a research post in parapsychology. The event became something of a cause célebre. Various Cambridge University academics objected to accepting this money: the professor of philosophy, D.H. Mellor, said on BBC radio that funding such a position would be like funding a research post to determine whether the earth is round. Other members of Darwin College were (understandably, perhaps) reluctant to turn down any offer of money for research. (...)
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  39.  80
    The Self-Seeing Soul in the Alcibiades I.Daniel Werner - 2013 - Ancient Philosophy 33 (2):307-331.
    The Alcibiades I concludes with an arresting image of an eye that sees itself by looking into another eye. Using the dialogue as a whole, I offer a detailed interpretation of this image and I discuss its implications for the question of self-knowledge. The Alcibiades I reveals both what self-knowledge is (knowledge of soul in its particularity and its universality) and how we are to seek it (by way of philosophical dialogue). This makes the pursuit of self-knowledge an inescapably (...)
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  40. "Soul Dust: The Magic of Consciousness" by Nicholas Humphrey. [REVIEW]Tim Crane - 2011 - The Times Literary Supplement 1.
    Nicholas Humphrey thinks that consciousness is a kind of illusion. He claims that when we have conscious sensory experiences, it seems to us that we are aware of certain “phenomenal” properties like colours, smells, sounds, when in reality there are no such things. In fact, there cannot be any such things, since phenomenal properties are impossible. Something in our brains causes us to have experiences which represent “extraordinary otherworldly properties”. The whole of conscious experience seems to us like something “magical”; (...)
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  41. Responding to N.T. Wright's Rejection of the Soul.Brandon L. Rickabaugh - 2018 - Heythrop Journal 59 (2):201-220.
    At a 2011 meeting of the Society of Christian Philosophers, N. T. Wright offered four reasons for rejecting the existence of soul. This was surprising, as many Christian philosophers had previously taken Wright's defense of a disembodied intermediate state as a defense of a substance dualist view of the soul. In this paper, I offer responses to each of Wright's objections, demonstrating that Wright's arguments fail to undermine substance dualism. In so doing, I expose how popular arguments against (...)
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  42. The Failure of Soul-Making Theodicy.G. Stanley Kane - 1975 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 6 (1):1 - 22.
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  43. Hegel's Naturalism, or Soul and Body in the Encyclopedia.Italo Testa - 2012 - In David Stern (ed.), Essays on Hegel’s Philosophy of Subjective Spirit, SUNY Press Albany, New York (pp. 19-35). SUNY Press.
    Paper given at the 20th Biennial Meeting of the Hegel Society of America, University of South Carolina, October 24-26, 2008 -/- The local problem of the soul-body relation can be grasped only against the global background of the relation between Nature and Spirit. This relates to Hegel's naturalism: the idea that there is one single reality - living reality - and different levels of description of it. This implies, moreover, that it is possible to ascribe some form of naturality (...)
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  44. Happiness is From the Soul: The Nature and Origins of Our Happiness Concept.Fan Yang - 2021 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 150 (2):276-288.
    What is happiness? Is happiness about feeling good or about being good? Across five studies, we explored the nature and origins of our happiness concept developmentally and crosslinguistically. We found that surprisingly, children as young as age 4 viewed morally bad people as less happy than morally good people, even if the characters all have positive subjective states (Study 1). Moral character did not affect attributions of physical traits (Study 2), and was more powerfully weighted than subjective states in attributions (...)
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  45. The Soul of Classical American Philosophy: The Ethical and Spiritual Insights of William James, Josiah Royce, and Charles Sanders Peirce. [REVIEW]Alexander V. Stehn - 2008 - Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 44 (2):pp. 367-371.
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  46. I See Dead People: Disembodied Souls and Aquinas’s ‘Two-Person’ Problem.Christina Van Dyke - 2014 - In Oxford Studies in Medieval Philosophy. pp. 25-45.
    Aquinas’s account of the human soul is the key to his theory of human nature. The soul’s nature as the substantial form of the human body appears at times to be in tension with its nature as immaterial intellect, however, and nowhere is this tension more evident than in Aquinas’s discussion of the ‘separated’ soul. In this paper I use the Biblical story of the rich man and Lazarus (which Aquinas took to involve actual separated souls) to (...)
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  47. “The ‘Physiology of the Understanding’ and the ‘Mechanics of the Soul’: Reflections on Some Phantom Philosophical Projects”.Charles T. Wolfe - 2016 - Quaestio 16:3-25.
    In reflecting on the relation between early empiricist conceptions of the mind and more experimentally motivated materialist philosophies of mind in the mid-eighteenth century, I suggest that we take seriously the existence of what I shall call ‘phantom philosophical projects’. A canonical empiricist like Locke goes out of his way to state that their project to investigate and articulate the ‘logic of ideas’ is not a scientific project: “I shall not at present meddle with the Physical consideration of the Mind” (...)
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  48. The First City and First Soul in Plato’s Republic.Jerry Green - 2021 - Rhizomata 9 (1):50-83.
    One puzzling feature of Plato’s Republic is the First City or ‘city of pigs’. Socrates praises the First City as a “true”, “healthy” city, yet Plato abandons it with little explanation. I argue that the problem is not a political failing, as most previous readings have proposed: the First City is a viable political arrangement, where one can live a deeply Socratic lifestyle. But the First City has a psychological corollary, that the soul is simple rather than tripartite. Plato (...)
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  49. By What is the Soul Nourished? - On the Art of the Physician of Souls in Plato’s Protagoras.Jens Kristian Larsen - 2017 - In Olof Pettersson & Vigdis Songe-Møller (eds.), Plato’s Protagoras: Essays on the Confrontation of Philosophy and Sophistry. Springer. pp. 79-97.
    This article explores the motif of psychic nourishment in Plato’s Protagoras. It does so by analyzing what consequences Socrates’ claim that only a physician of souls will be able adequately to assess the quality of such nourishment has for the argument of the dialogue. To this purpose, the first section of the article offers a detailed analysis of Socrates’ initial conversation with Hippocrates, highlighting and interpreting the various uses of medical metaphors. Building on this, this section argues that the warning (...)
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  50. Form, Essence, Soul: Distinguishing Principles of Thomistic Metaphysics.Joshua Hochschild - 2013 - In Nikolaj Zunic (ed.), Distinctions of Being: Philosophical Approaches to Reality. Washington, DC, USA: American Maritain Association. pp. 21-35.
    In a living body, the substantial form, the essence, and the soul play very similar, but non-identical, metaphysical roles. This article explores the similarities and differences to clarify basic points of Thomistic metaphysics.
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