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  1. Du Châtelet, Induction, and Newton’s Rules for Reasoning.Aaron Wells - forthcoming - European Journal of Philosophy.
    I examine Du Châtelet’s methodology for physics and metaphysics through the lens of her engagement with Newton’s Rules for Reasoning in Natural Philosophy. I first show that her early manuscript writings discuss and endorse these Rules. Then, I argue that her famous published account of hypotheses continues to invoke close analogues of Rules 3 and 4, despite various developments in her position. Once relevant experimental evidence and some basic constraints are met, it is legitimate to inductively generalize from observations; general (...)
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  2. Cosmic Horror and the Philosophical Origins of Science Fiction.Helen De Cruz - 2023 - Think 22 (63):23-30.
    This piece explores the origins of science fiction in philosophical speculation about the size of the universe, the existence of other solar systems and other galaxies, and the possibility of alien life. Science fiction helps us to grapple with the dizzying possibilities that a vast universe affords, by allowing our imagination to fill in the details.
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  3. Kant's Organicism: A Précis and Response to Two Critics.Jennifer Mensch - 2014 - Critique: A Philosophical Review Bulletin 3:12-18.
    When I began to think about a book on Kant and the life sciences, the idea that Kant would ever have been influenced by the ideas coming out of this field seemed impossible to believe. In fact, I spent an entire Summer determined to prove that my thesis was wrong. The problem was, I kept finding evidence in support of it (fully one third of Kant’s Organicism is devoted to a glut of historical research filling up the endnotes, research stemming, (...)
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  4. From Knowing the Mechanism to the Mechanism of Knowing: Eurasian Cultural Transfer and Hybrid Theologies of (Neo)Liberalism.Goran Kauzlarić - 2023 - In Slobodan G. Markovich (ed.), Cultural Transfer Europe-Serbia: Methodological Issues and Challenges. Belgrade: Faculty of Political Sciences; Dosije Studio. pp. 237-252.
    The founding fathers of neoliberalism are usually imagined as very rational neoclassical economists uninterested in cultural and religious issues. The aim of this paper is to paint a different picture by discussing the ideas of (neo)liberal economists regarding spiritual heritage, with an emphasis on eastern religions. Starting from the existing historiographical debate on the role of Daoist notions in the birth of political economy in 18th-century Europe, as an example of cultural transfer par excellence, argumentation develops into a comparative analysis (...)
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  5. Thomas Reid’s objection to Hume’s theory of personal identity.Vinícius França Freitas - 2019 - Cadernos de Filosofia Alemã: Crítica E Modernidade 24 (2):53-69.
    The paper discusses Thomas Reid's objection to David Hume's theory of personal identity. The hypothesis states that this criticism is not effective because it is based on a misunderstanding of Hume’s theory, namely, that Hume would have admitted a negative ontological thesis - the inexistence of a mind beyond perceptions - and a positive ontological thesis - a mind reduced to a bundle of perceptions. After explaining in what measures Reid’s objection is based upon this misunderstanding, the paper shows why (...)
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  6. The Rise of Religious Skepticism in the Seventeenth Century.Michael W. Hickson & Thomas M. Lennon - 2018 - In Dan Kaufman (ed.), The Routledge Companion to Seventeenth-century Philosophy. New York, NY, USA: pp. 563-582.
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  7. Varieties of Academic Skepticism in Early Modern Philosophy: Pierre-Daniel Huet and Simon Foucher.Michael W. Hickson - 2018 - In Diego Machuca & Baron Reed (eds.), Skepticism: From Antiquity to the Present. London, UK: pp. 320-341.
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  8. Locke and Projects for Naturalizing the Mind in the 18th Century.Charles T. Wolfe - 2021 - In The Lockean Mind. London: Routledge. pp. 152-163.
    How does Locke contribute to the development of 18th-century projects for a science of the mind, even though he seems to reject or at least bracket off such an idea himself? Contrary to later understandings of empiricism, Locke goes out of his way to state that his project to investigate and articulate the ‘logic of ideas’ is not a scientific project: “I shall not at present meddle with the Physical consideration of the Mind” (Essay, I.i.2). Locke further specifies that this (...)
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  9. True Religion and Hume's Practical Atheism.Paul Russell - 2020 - In Sceptical Doubt and Disbelief in Modern European Thought. Dordrecht, Netherlands: pp. 191-225.
    The argument and discussion in this paper begins from the premise that Hume was an atheist who denied the religious or theist hypothesis. However, even if it is agreed that that Hume was an atheist this does not tell us where he stood on the question concerning the value of religion. Some atheists, such as Spinoza, have argued that society needs to maintain and preserve a form of “true religion”, which is required for the support of our ethical life. Others, (...)
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  10. Philosophy of Religion in Modern European Thought 1600-1800.Brendan Kolb & Andrew Chignell - 2021 - The Encyclopedia of the Philosophy of Religion.
    The early modern period (roughly, 1600–1800 ce) in Europe brought tremendous changes in intellectual, political, and cultural life. It was a period in which philosophical debates were inevitably bound up with questions about the nature and sources of religious truth. A chronological examination of some of the period’s major thinkers highlights two issues that were central to the development of philosophy of religion in the period. The first concerns the relations between God, the soul, and the body; the other concerns (...)
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  11. Unsystematic Vitality: From Early Modern Beeswarms to Contemporary Swarm Intelligence.Sylvie Kleiman-Lafon & Charles T. Wolfe - 2021 - In Peter Fratzl, Michael Friedman, Karin Krauthausen & Wolfgang Schäffner (eds.), Active Materials. De Gruyter. pp. 259-298.
    The eighteenth century was the century of self-organization, but also that of materialism, inasmuch as it was then that certain thinkers proclaimed themselves to be materialists (rather than just being labelled as such by enemies of various sorts). If one seeks to read these two features – one hesitates to call them ‘facts’ or ‘events’ – together, one arrives rather quickly at an influential metaphor, the beeswarm. But a metaphor of or for what? Irreducible organic unity, most broadly – spelled (...)
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  12. Les preuves de l’existence de Dieu chez Samuel Formey.Marco Storni - 2018 - Noctua 5 (2):161-199.
    The perpetual secretary of the Berlin Academy Johann Heinrich Samuel Formey is best known as a populariser of Christian Wolff’s doctrines. As of Formey’s activity in the Berlin Academy, scholars have mostly emphasized his role in the controversy over monads with Leonhard Euler, while overlooking other interesting contributions Formey presented in the “speculative philosophy” class of the Academy. In this paper, I analyse two articles Formey published in 1747 on the Mémoires de l’Académie de Berlin, namely the Preuves de l’existence (...)
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  13. Lire le matérialisme.Charles T. Wolfe - 2020 - Lyon, France: ENS Editions.
    Ce livre étudie, à travers une série d'épisodes allant de la philosophie des Lumières à notre époque, le problème du matérialisme dans l'histoire de la philosophie et l’histoire des sciences. Comment comprendre les spécificités de l’histoire du matérialisme, des Lumières à nos jours, au sein de la grande histoire de la philosophie et de l’histoire des sciences ? Quelle est l’actualité de l’opposition classique entre le corps et l’esprit ? Qu’est-ce que le rire ou le rêve peuvent nous apprendre du (...)
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  14. Entretien sur l’histoire du matérialisme.Pierre-François Moreau & Charles T. Wolfe - 2020 - Revue de Synthèse 141 (1-2):107-129.
    Résumé Charles Wolfe vient de publier Lire le matérialisme (ENS Éditions, 2020), où il esquisse une histoire des différentes formes de matérialisme, y compris le matérialisme vitaliste et les versions du XXe et du XXIe siècle. Pierre-François Moreau, auteur de la préface de l’ouvrage, entame ici une discussion sur les problèmes et les ressources d’une telle histoire.
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  15. Theoretical virtues in eighteenth-century debates on animal cognition.Hein van den Berg - 2020 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 42 (3):1-35.
    Within eighteenth-century debates on animal cognition we can distinguish at least three main theoretical positions: (i) Buffon’s mechanism, (ii) Reimarus’ theory of instincts, and (iii) the sensationalism of Condillac and Leroy. In this paper, I adopt a philosophical perspective on this debate and argue that in order to fully understand the justification Buffon, Reimarus, Condillac, and Leroy gave for their respective theories, we must pay special attention to the theoretical virtues these naturalists alluded to while justifying their position. These theoretical (...)
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  16. Foucher/Desgabets: Translations from the Cartesian debate on Ideas and Representation.Walter Ott - manuscript
    Two kinds of people might find this useful: first, those interested in the modern debate over ideas and representation who don’t happen to read French, or who do, but would like to have in one place the relevant excerpts, to see whether looking at the originals is worth their time. Second are teachers of modern philosophy. The back-and-forth among these figures makes for a refreshing change from the massive, often self-contained works that characterize much of the rest of such a (...)
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  17. Systematicity in Hegel’s history of philosophy.Zeyad el Nabolsy - 2019 - Hegel Jahrbuch 2019 (1):538-544.
    In this paper I argue that Hegel thought that systematicity was both a necessary condition for a body of thought to be recognized as philosophy and a normative principle by which progress in the history of philosophy can be evaluated. I argue that Hegel’s idiosyncrasies in the interpretation of thinkers who he considers to be philosophers can be explained by referring to the structure of his own philosophical system. I also argue that Hegel’s conception of philosophy as being essentially systematic (...)
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  18. Mechanical Philosophy: Reductionism and Foundationalism.Tzuchien Tho - 2020 - Encyclopedia of Early Modern Philosophy and the Sciences.
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  19. Seeing with the Hands: Blindness, Vision and Touch after Descartes.Mark Paterson - 2016 - Edinburgh, UK: Edinburgh University Press.
    The ‘man born blind restored to light’ was one of the foundational myths of the Enlightenment, according to Foucault. With ophthalmic surgery in its infancy, the fascination by the sighted with blindness and what the blind might ‘see’ after sight restoration remained largely speculative. Was being blind, as Descartes once remarked, like ‘seeing with the hands’? Did evidence from early cataract operations begin to resolve epistemological debates about the relationship between vision and touch in the newly sighted, such as the (...)
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  20. “Man-Machines and Embodiment: From Cartesian Physiology to Claude Bernard’s ‘Living Machine’”.Charles T. Wolfe & Philippe Huneman - forthcoming - In Justin E. H. Smith (ed.), Embodiment, Oxford Philosophical Concepts. Oxford University Press.
    A common and enduring early modern intuition is that materialists reduce organisms in general and human beings in particular to automata. Wasn’t a famous book of the time entitled L’Homme-Machine? In fact, the machine is employed as an analogy, and there was a specifically materialist form of embodiment, in which the body is not reduced to an inanimate machine, but is conceived as an affective, flesh-and-blood entity. We discuss how mechanist and vitalist models of organism exist in a more complementary (...)
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  21. Madame de Sade and Other Problems.Margaret Crosland - 1994 - Pli 5:95-114.
    Margaret Crosland argues that it was the Marquis de Sade, infamous for dominating women, who was in fact dominated by women. The important people in his life, those with whom he had direct contact, and who gave him friendship and support, were women; he knew the men important to him mostly indirectly, through their books. Crosland makes the case that de Sade's writing is often discounted due to an overly literal reading of his work, and that his writings remain an (...)
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  22. Sade: Critique of Pure Fiction.Catherine Cusset - 1994 - Pli 5:115-131.
    A central passage in Cusset’s essay states: “God, for Sade, is fiction that ‘took hold of the minds of men’. What makes God’s weakness, the impossibility of rationally proving his existence, is precisely what constitutes his strength as fiction. Negated as authority, eliminated as the figure of the almighty father, God is nonetheless everywhere in the Sadean novel: he exists as the fiction principle. Libertines are never done with God because his name represents the power, not of the law, but (...)
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  23. Sade's Itinerary of Transgression.David B. Allison - 1994 - Pli 5.
    "I would like to address the nature of transgression and its logic or itinerary in Sade's work. If this task is somewhat speculative and incomplete, it perhaps mirrors the foundational incompleteness of the more than sixteen extant volumes of Sade's writings. For a more exhaustive, if not definitive, resolution of the very issue of transgression, the analysis would have to continue the debate between Derrida and Foucault over the validity of Bataille's celebrated account of transgression, which in turn draws upon (...)
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  24. Cuerpo y carne en Descartes.Pablo Pavesi - 2014 - Ideas Y Valores 63 (155):219-234.
    Se propone un examen crítico de la última obra de J.-L. Marion titulada, dedicada a la unión de alma y cuerpo, y cuya tesis principal es: los problemas que esta unión suscita confunden dos términos, cuerpo y mi cuerpo. Esta confusión lleva a que se apliquen al primero categorías propias del segundo. Se examinan las “paradojas ónticas” que mi cuerpo inaugura ; se despeja la tesis de dos interpretaciones de las meditaciones primera y sexta ; se discute la “excepción a (...)
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  25. Body and flesh in Descartes.Pablo E. Pavesi - 2014 - Ideas Y Valores 63 (155):219-234.
    Se propone un examen crítico de la última obra de J.-L. Marion titulada, dedicada a la unión de alma y cuerpo, y cuya tesis principal es: los problemas que esta unión suscita confunden dos términos, cuerpo y mi cuerpo. Esta confusión lleva a que se apliquen al primero categorías propias del segundo. Se examinan las "paradojas ónticas" que mi cuerpo (la carne) inaugura (a); se despeja la tesis de dos interpretaciones de las meditaciones primera y sexta (b); se discute la (...)
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  26. Giuseppe De Luca, la ragione erudita e l’afflato dell’amore.Gianluca De Candia - 2010 - Archivio Italiano Per la Storia Della Pietà, (2010).
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  27. Geographie des Wissens und der Wissenschaften: Von der Encyclopédie zur Konstitutionstheorie.Thomas Mormann - 2005 - In Elisabeth Nemeth & Nicolas Roudet (eds.), Paris-Wien: Enzyklopädien im Vergleich. Springer.
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  28. Paul-Henri thiry (baron) d'holbach.Michael LeBuffe - 2014 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Paul Henri Thiry, Baron d'Holbach was a philosopher, translator, and prominent social figure of the French Enlightenment. In his philosophical writings Holbach developed a deterministic and materialistic metaphysics which grounded his polemics against organized religion and his utilitarian ethical and political theory. As a translator, Holbach made significant contributions to the European Enlightenment in science and religion. He translated German works on chemistry and geology into French, summarizing many of the German advances in these areas in his entries in Diderot's (...)
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Antoine Arnauld
  1. DESCRIPTION, ESPACE LOGIQUE ET ENJEU DE L'IMPLICATION DE L'OUVERTURE AU LANGAGE POUR LA CONCEPTION DU JUGEMENT DE LA LOGIQUE DE PORT-ROYAL.Katarina Peixoto - 2020 - Logique Et Analyse 249 (249-250):79-95.
    In this study, I intend to show how and why, in the Port-Royal Logic, a singular term can reveal the nature of the logical judgment in the handbook. As I argue, the treatment given to one of thee singular terms, namely, the defined descriptions, in the terminology introduced by Russell, leads to an opening to langage that sounds unexpected and unjustified. Considering the privilege of thinking over langage and also that judgment is the mental act that defines logic, however, we (...)
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  2. Old and New Fallacies in Port-Royal Logic.Michel Dufour - 2019 - Argumentation 33 (2):241-267.
    The paper discusses the place and the status of fallacies in Arnauld and Nicole’s Port-Royal Logic, which seems to be the first book to introduce a radical change from the traditional Aristotelian account of fallacies. The most striking innovation is not in the definition of a fallacy but in the publication of a new list of fallacies, dropping some Aristotelian ones and adding more than ten new ones. The first part of the paper deals with the context of the book’s (...)
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  3. Locke e la discussione sugli universali.Dino Buzzetti - 1982 - In Dino Buzzetti & Maurizio Ferriani (eds.), La grammatica del pensiero. Logica, linguaggio e conoscenza nell' età dell' Illuminismo. il Mulino. pp. 213-257.
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Pierre Bayle
  1. La théodicée de Pierre Bayle.Jean-Luc Solère - 2023 - In Olivier Boulnois (ed.), Dieu d'Abraham, Dieu des philosophes : Révélation et Rationalité. Paris: Librairie Philosophique J. Vrin. pp. 171-193.
    Contrary to what many interpretations claim, according to Bayle faith does not completely eliminate reason. It intervenes to reveal factual truths that can only be known through revelation (for example, that God allowed Adam and Eve to sin). To these factual truths can be applied a rational principle (an axiomatic and evident one, according to Bayle, which he calls a "common notion"), namely, that "what God does is well done." God allowed sin, so we must think it was justified, even (...)
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  2. Review of "Positive atheism" by Charles Devellennes. [REVIEW]Lloyd Strickland - 2022 - Eighteenth-Century Studies 55:413-415.
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  3. Pierre Bayle y la imposibilidad del debate racional sobre el mal.Marta Garcia-Alonso - 2022 - Daimon: Revista Internacional de Filosofía 86:149-162.
    Pierre Bayle and the impossibility of a rational debate on evil I claim that Bayle engaged with theodicy in order to show how philosophy was misused in religious matters. For Bayle, the debate on evil does not oppose dichotomically reason and religion, it just requires that the participants deal with revealed truths using reason alone. In this regard, Bayle does not only criticize the Calvinist theologians of his time, but also the very source of Christian theology, Augustine of Hippo. En (...)
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  4. The Real Significance of Bayle’s Authorship of the Avis.Michael W. Hickson & Thomas M. Lennon - 2009 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 1 (17):191-205.
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  5. Belief and Invincible Objections: Bayle, Le Clerc, Leibniz.Michael W. Hickson - 2015 - In Christian Leduc, Paul Rateau & Jean-Luc Solère (eds.), Leibniz et Bayle: Confrontation et Dialogue. pp. 69-86.
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  6. Pierre Bayle.Michael W. Hickson - 2016 - In Lawrence Nolan (ed.), The Cambridge Descartes Lexicon. Cambridge, UK: pp. 55-56.
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  7. Bayle on Évidence as a Criterion of Truth.Michael W. Hickson - 2018 - In Antony McKenna (ed.), Libertinage et philosophie à l’époque classique (XVIe-XVIIIe siècle), n° 14, La pensée de Pierre Bayle. Paris, France: pp. 105-125.
    A survey of Bayle's skeptical arguments regarding Descartes' criterion of truth, which Bayle refers to as "evidence." Bayle's arguments for degrees of evidence, as well as for the necessity and sufficiency of possessing a high degree of evidence in order to form virtuous beliefs, are surveyed as well.
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  8. Pierre Bayle: Dialogues of Maximus and Themistius.Pierre Bayle & Michael W. Hickson - 2016 - Leiden, Netherlands: Brill's Texts and Sources in Intellectual History 256/18.
    An English translation of Pierre Bayle's posthumous last book, Entretiens de Maxime et de Themiste (1707), in which Bayle defends his skeptical position on the problem of the evil. This book is often cited and attacked by G.W. Leibniz in his Theodicy (1710). Over one hundred pages of original philosophical and historical material introduce the translation, providing it with context and establishing the work's importance.
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  9. "La tolerancia política en Pierre Bayle: pluralismo confesional, resistencia política y soberanía".Marta García-Alonso - 2021 - Pensamiento 294 ( 77):265-282:.
    For most interpreters of the philosopher from Rotterdam, his doctrine of tolerance is solely a consequence of his religious and moral doctrines. In this article, I intend to show that his doctrine rest on the political doctrine of indivisible sovereignty and on the strictest separation between political obedience and religious membership. Baylean tolerance is a political doctrine that allows the articulation between freedom of conscience (individual), minority confessions (private associations), and public religion (acknowledged as official).
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  10. Bayle et les apories de la raison humaine.Jean-Luc Solere - 2003 - In Isabelle Delpla & Philippe de Robert (eds.), La Raison corrosive. Études sur la pensée critique de Pierre Bayle. Paris, France: pp. 87-137.
    I examine Bayle's infamous statement that Christian mysteries are not only "above" human reason, but are "against" it. I put it back in the context of 16th-17th century Reformed thought. I then discuss the relation between reason and faith according to Bayle.
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  11. Bayle, les théologiens catholiques et la rétorsion stratonicienne.Jean-Luc Solere - 2004 - In Anthony McKenna & Gianni Paganini (eds.), Pierre Bayle et la République des Lettres. Philosophie, religion, critique. Paris, France: pp. 129-170.
    I first explain the scholastic (Scotist) thesis on the independence of essences Bayle alludes to in the passage of the Continuation des Pensée Diverses where he presents the Stratonicians' and the Chinese philosophers' retorsion. Then, I show that this retorsion applies to the argument of the existence of God based on "aseity", but not to the occasionalist argument based on the "quod nescis" principle. I conclude that materialism (the "Stratonician hypothesis") cannot be, for Bayle, a satisfying system.
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  12. Scepticisme, métaphysique et morale : le cas Bayle.Jean-Luc Solere - 2010 - In Hubert Bost & Anthony McKenna (eds.), Les « Éclaircissements » de Bayle. Paris, France: pp. 499-524.
    In this paper, I examine the problem of Bayle's skepticism. I show that he is not a wholesale skeptic. Rather, he thinks that reason is plagued by internal conflicts. But its principles, which clash with each other, can be adopted separately from each other. It is often what we have to do when dealing with metaphysical problems. This also entails that reason is not to be rejected as a whole when it happens to be contradicted by faith; only some of (...)
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  13. Création continuelle, concours divin et théodicée dans le débat Bayle-Jaquelot-Leibniz.Jean-Luc Solere - 2015 - In Chr. Leduc, P. Rateau and J.-L. Solère, eds., Leibniz et Bayle: Confrontation et Dialogue. Hanover, Germany: pp. 395-424.
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  14. Tolerance and religious pluralism in Bayle.Marta García-Alonso - 2019 - History of European Ideas 45 (6):803-816.
    For the philosopher of Rotterdam, religious coercion has two essential sources of illegitimacy: the linking of religious and ecclesiastical belief and the use of politics for religious purposes. Bayle responds to it, with his doctrine of freedom of conscience, on one hand and by means of the essential distinction between voluntary religious affiliation and political obligation, on the other hand. From my perspective, his doctrine of tolerance does not involve an atheist state, nor does it mean the rejection of the (...)
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  15. Hume’s Answer to Bayle on the Vacuum.Jonathan Cottrell - 2019 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 101 (2):205-236.
    Hume’s discussion of space in the Treatise addresses two main topics: divisibility and vacuum. It is widely recognized that his discussion of divisibility contains an answer to Bayle, whose Dictionary article “Zeno of Elea” presents arguments about divisibility as support for fideism. It is not so widely recognized that, elsewhere in the same article, Bayle presents arguments about vacuum as further support for fideism. This paper aims to show that Hume’s discussion of vacuum contains an answer to these vacuum-based fideistic (...)
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  16. Bayle’s political doctrine: a proposal to articulate tolerance and sovereignty.Marta García-Alonso - 2017 - History of European Ideas 43 (4):331-344.
    For most interpreters of the philosopher from Rotterdam, his political doctrine is solely a consequence of his religious and moral doctrines, and so an image of Bayle as a political philosopher is not usually presented. To my mind, however, only by analyzing his political doctrine can the extent of his religious proposal be understood. In this article, I intend to show that both the Baylean criticism of popular sovereignty and his rejection of the right of resistance are analyses that are (...)
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  17. Creencia religiosa y conciencia errónea según Pierre Bayle.Marta García-Alonso - 2015 - Anuario Filosófico 48 (2):259-280.
    Durante siglos, se consideró un deber del buen cristiano obligar, a todos los hombres a entrar en el seno de la Iglesia, puesto que de ello dependía su salvación eterna. Esta doctrina presupone que existe una nítida diferencia entre verdad religiosa y error. Para Bayle, sin embargo, la creencia religiosa solo puede aspirar a convertirse en una verdad putativa, sustentada en la convicción subjetiva del fiel, concepción que le permite desdibujar el propio concepto de herejía y criticar las persecuciones religiosas (...)
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  18. Bayle and Panpsychism.Jean-Luc Solère - 2017 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 99 (1):64-101.
    Pierre Bayle shows that, in order to avoid devastating objections, materialism should postulate that the property of thinking does not emerge from certain material combinations but is present in matter from the start and everywhere—a hypothesis recently revived and labelled “panpsychism”. There are reasons for entertaining the idea that Bayle actually considers this enhanced materialism to be tenable, as it might use the same line of defence that Bayle outlined for Stratonism. However, this would lead to a view similar to (...)
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  19. Reductio ad Malum.Michael W. Hickson - 2011 - Modern Schoolman 88 (3-4):201-221.
    Pierre Bayle is perhaps most well-known for arguing in his Dictionary (1697) that the problem of evil cannot be solved by reason alone. This skepticism about theodicy is usually credited to a religious crisis suffered by Bayle in 1685 following the unjust imprisonment and death of his brother, the death of his father, and the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. But in this paper I argue that Bayle was skeptical about theodicy a decade earlier than these events, from at (...)
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