Incarnation

Edited by Daniel von Wachter (International Academy of Philosophy In The Principality of Liechtenstein)
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Siblings:See also:History/traditions: Incarnation

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  1. Living Info: Notes on the Exegesis.Paul Bali - manuscript
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  2. Why the Incarnation Is Incompatible With An Atemporal Concept of God.Alin C. Cucu - manuscript
    In this essay, I argue that the Incarnation of the Son of God, understood in a traditionally orthodox way, is incompatible with an atemporalist concept of God. First, I explain what I mean by atemporalism, namely the idea that God exists outside time. I also show the main corollaries of that doctrine, most notably that all of God’s life occurs eternally simultaneously. Second, based on New Testament teaching and widely accepted creeds, I spell out philosophically what I mean by the (...)
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  3. Свети Августин: admirabile commercium и обожење (St. Augustine: Admirabile commercium and Deification).Aleksandar Djakovac - 2019 - Bogoslovlje 78 (2):64-85.
    The teaching of deification has long been emphasized as a peculiarity of Eastern Orthodox theology, which is unmatched by Latin fathers. Protestanttheologians reduced this teaching to the influence of paganism and explained it asone of the indicators of the unhealthy Hellenization of Gospel science. Accordingto the general agreement of contemporary scholars, St. Augustine not only speaksof deification but deification occupies a significant place in his theological system.We will try to analyze the most significant aspects of Augustine’s teaching on dei-fication in (...)
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  4. Oneness Pentecostalism, the Two-Minds View, and the Problem of Jesus's Prayers.Skylar D. McManus - 2019 - TheoLogica: An International Journal for Philosophy of Religion and Philosophical Theology 3 (1):60-87.
    Even thirty years after Thomas Morris wrote The Logic of God Incarnate, there are some claims that Morris makes that require examination in analytic Christology. One of those claims is a concession that Morris gives to modalists near the end of the book, where he says that the two-minds view he has defended can be used to provide a consistent modalistic understanding of Jesus’s prayer life. This view, he says, blocks the inference from the fact that Jesus prays to the (...)
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  5. Spoken and Unspeakable: Discursivennes of Asmatic Ontology in the Aporetics of St. Maximus the Confessor (in Serbian).Aleksandar Djakovac - 2018 - Belgrade: Faculty of Orthodox Theology.
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  6. Matter Without Form: The Ontological Status of Christ's Dead Body.Andrew J. Jaeger & Jeremy Sienkiewicz - 2018 - Journal of Analytic Theology 6:131-145.
    In this paper, we provide an account of the ontological status of Christ’s dead body, which remained in the tomb during the three days after his crucifixion. Our account holds that Christ’s dead body – during the time between his death and resurrection – was prime matter without a substantial form. We defend this account by showing how it is metaphysically possible for prime matter to exist in actuality without substantial forms. Our argument turns on the truth of two theses: (...)
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  7. Timothy Pawl. In Defense of Conciliar Christology[REVIEW]Joseph Jedwab - 2018 - Journal of Analytic Theology 6:743-747.
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  8. Conciliar Christology and the Consistency of Divine Immutability with a Mutable, Incarnate God.Timothy Pawl - 2018 - Nova et Vetera 16 (3):913-937.
    [paragraph 3 of the article] The goal of this article is to flesh out that initial understanding of incarnational immutability. The method I employ to attain this goal is to consider cases of predications from the texts of conciliar Christology. I show potential ontological truth conditions for those predications being true that do not require the truth conditions I propose for immutability to be unsatisfied. Put otherwise, I show ontological truth conditions for predications that imply Christ’s mutability and Incarnation that (...)
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  9. Τρόπος ὑπάρξεως bei den Kappadokischen Vätern und bei St. Maximus Confessor.Aleksandar Djakovac - 2017 - In Bogoljub Sijakovic (ed.), Durch den Denken glauben:Aufsätze aus der serbischen Teologie heute. Belgrade: Orthodox-Teologische Fakultät. pp. 119-127.
    Τρόπος ὑπάρξεως bei den Kappadokischen Vätern und bei St. Maximus Confessor In dieser Arbeit werden wir versuchen, zu erörtern, was der Begriff τρόπος ὑπάρξεως bei den Kappadokischen Vätern im Kontext ihrer Triadologie bedeutet. Unserer Meinung zufolge ist die Reduktion der Bedeutung des Begriffs τρόπος ὑπάρξεως auf individuelles Wesen mit Charakteristika kein entsprechendes Abbild der Absicht der Väter. Ganz im Gegensatz, der Begriff τρόπος ὑπάρξεως dient bei ihnen als Unterstützung für die Konstituierung des Begriffs der Hypostase, welcher neben der Bedeutung eines (...)
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  10. Iconic Ontology of St. Maximus the Confessor.Aleksandar Djakovac - 2017 - In Ars Liturgica, From the Image of Glory to the Imagess of the Idols of Modernity. Alba Iulia: Reinregirea. pp. 57-68.
    St. Maximus the Confessor claims that the logos of created beings represents their essence as an icon. This claim gives us the opportunity to understand the term essence as an dynamic reality and not as a static given. Essence is not something that the being is, but what it is supposed to be. The idea of icon is herein present as ultimately ontological. The icon is no mirror of reality, but rather its eschatological realization. That which will be uncovers the (...)
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  11. Review of Giorgio Agamben's Pilate and Jesus. [REVIEW]Subhasis Chattopadhyay - 2016 - Prabuddha Bharata or Awakened India 121 (4):431-33.
    This review shows Agamben as reading Dante and misunderstanding the Jesus event.
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  12. Apocatastasis and Predestination Ontological Assumptions of Origen’s and Augustine’s Soteriologies.Aleksandar Djakovac - 2016 - Bogoslovska Smotra 86 (4):813-826.
    As Augustine himself testifies, he did not know Origen’s work so well. However, this does not mean that he was not acquainted with his key soteriological hypotheses, especially his teachings on apocatastasis. Although Augustine’s doctrine of predestination has completely opposite consequences in comparison to Origen’s teaching about apocatastasis, we believe that these teachings share the common ontological basis, which is the subject of this study. While Origen’s Christology is often called into question, Augustine’s Christology is considered correct. However, with both (...)
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  13. Person and Nature, Hypostasis and Substance: Philosophical Basis of the Theology of John Philoponus.Aleksandar Djakovac - 2016 - Philotheos 16 (1):73-84.
    The theological teachings of John Philoponus are important for several reasons: a) to see the real achievements and influences of Aristotelian logic in regard to theology, b) to see the real consequences of not accepting hypostasis as relational and ontologically based and c) to assess the real consequences of such teachings for Triadology and Christology.
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  14. Temporary Intrinsics and Christological Predication.Timothy Pawl - 2016 - In Jon Kvanvig (ed.), Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion, VII. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 157-189.
    In this paper I show that the problem of temporary intrinsics and a fundamental philosophical problem concerning the doctrine of the incarnation are isomorphic. To do so, I present the problem of temporary intrinsics, along with five responses to the problem. I then present the fundamental problem for Christology, which I call the problem of natural intrinsics. I present six responses to that problem, all but the last analogous to a response to the problem of temporary intrinsics. My goal is (...)
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  15. The usage and the development of the term prohairesis from Aristotle to Maximus the Confessor.Aleksandar Djakovac - 2015 - Theoria 58 (3):69-86.
    The term prohairesis has a long history; its usage is crucial for the development and understanding of basic ethical and anthropological assumptions in ancient Hellenic philosophy. In this article the author analyses the most important moments for the semantic transformation of this term, with particular reference to the implications of its usage in Byzantine theological and philosophical heritage, with the ultimate expression in work of St Maximus the Confessor and his christological synthesis. The equation between the terms prohairesis and gnome (...)
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  16. Личност И/Или Природа: Осврт На Ларшеову Критику Митрополита Јована Зизијуласа (Person and/or Nature: Review of the Larche’s Criticism of Metropolitan John Zizioulas).Aleksandar Djakovac - 2015 - Sabornost 9:57-81.
    Larche equals person and individual, and there comes his misunderstanding of Zizioulas. He does not understand that person is a word for relation,and that way staying among the borders of classic scholastic thought. In the other hand, he understands the nature to be a realistic different entity in whichpersons participate. Because, the Fathers that Larche mentions in many places are directly opposite to Larches thought, he is forced to stretch his interpreta-tion, and is forced to come up with contradictory statements, (...)
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  17. Flint's 'Molinism and the Incarnation' is Too Radical.R. T. Mullins - 2015 - Journal of Analytic Theology 3:109-123.
    In a series of papers, Thomas P. Flint has posited that God the Son could become incarnate in any human person as long as certain conditions are met (Flint 2001a, 2001b). In a recent paper, he has argued that all saved human persons will one day become incarnated by the Son (Flint 2011). Flint claims that this is motivated by a combination of Molinism and orthodox Christology. I shall argue that this is unmotivated because it is condemned by orthodox Christology. (...)
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  18. Conciliar Christology and the Problem of Incompatible Predications.Timothy Pawl - 2015 - Scientia et Fides 3 (2):85-106.
    In this article I canvas the options available to a proponent of the traditional doctrine of the incarnation against a charge of incoherence. In particular, I consider the charge of incoherence due to incompatible predications both being true of the same one person, the God-man Jesus Christ. For instance, one might think that any- thing divine has to have certain attributes – perhaps omnipotence, or impassibility. But, the charge continues, nothing human can be omnipotent or impassible. And so nothing can (...)
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  19. Negative Natural Theology and the Sinlessness, Incarnation, and Resurrection of Jesus.Robert Greg Cavin & Carlos A. Colombetti - 2014 - Philosophia Christi 16 (2):409-418.
    We respond to Swinburne’s reply to our critique of his argument for the Resurrection by defending the relevance of our counterexamples to his claim that God does not permit grand deception. We reaffirm and clarify our charge that Swinburne ignores two crucial items of Negative Natural Theology (NNT)—that God has an exceptionally weak tendency to raise the dead and that even people with exemplary public records sometimes sin. We show, accordingly, that our total evidence makes it highly probable that Jesus (...)
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  20. A Solution to the Fundamental Philosophical Problem of Christology.Timothy Pawl - 2014 - Journal of Analytic Theology 2:61-85.
    I consider the fundamental philosophical problem for Christology: how can one and the same person, the Second Person of the Trinity, be both God and man. For being God implies having certain attributes, perhaps immutability, or impassibility, whereas being human implies having apparently inconsistent attributes. This problem is especially vexing for the proponent of Conciliar Christology – the Christology taught in the Ecumenical Councils – since those councils affirm that Christ is both mutable and immutable, both passible and impassible, etc. (...)
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  21. The Real Presence.H. E. Baber - 2013 - Religious Studies 49 (1):19-33.
    The doctrine that Christ is really present in the Eucharist appears to entail that Christ's body is not only multiply located but present in different ways at different locations. Moreover, the doctrine poses an even more difficult meta-question: what makes a theological explanation of the Eucharist a ‘real presence’ account? Aquinas's defence of transubstantiation, perhaps the paradigmatic account, invokes Aristotelian metaphysics and the machinery of Scholastic philosophy. My aim is not to produce a ‘rational reconstruction’ of his analysis but rather (...)
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  22. Omniscience, the Incarnation, and Knowledge de Se.Andrei A. Buckareff - 2012 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 4 (4):59--71.
    A knowledge argument is offered that presents unique difficulties for Christians who wish to assert that God is essentially omniscient. The difficulties arise from the doctrine of the incarnation. Assuming that God the Son did not necessarily have to become incarnate, then God cannot necessarily have knowledge de se of the content of a non-divine mind. If this is right, then God’s epistemic powers are not fixed across possible worlds and God is not essentially omniscient. Some options for Christian theists (...)
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  23. “’Christus Secundum Spiritum’: Spinoza, Jesus, and the Infinite Intellect”.Yitzhak Y. Melamed - 2012 - In Neta Stahl (ed.), The Jewish Jesus. Routledge.
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  24. Incarnation.Michael Gorman - 2011 - In Brian Davies & Eleonore Stump (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Aquinas. Oxford University Press.
    According to Christian belief, Jesus Christ is a divine person who became “incarnate,” i.e., who became human. A key event in the second act of the drama of creation and redemption, the incarnation could not have failed to interest Aquinas, and he discusses it in a number of places. A proper understanding of what he thought about it is thus part of any complete understanding of his work. It is, furthermore, a window into his ideas on a variety of other (...)
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  25. Questions Concerning the Existences of Christ.Michael Gorman - 2011 - In Friedman Emery (ed.), Philosophy and Theology in the Long Middle Ages: A Tribute to Stephen F. Brown. Brill.
    According to Christian doctrine as formulated by the Council of Chalcedon (451), Christ is one person (one supposit, one hypostasis) existing in two natures (two essences), human and divine. The human and divine natures are not merged into a third nature, nor are they separated from one another in such a way that the divine nature goes with one person, namely, the Word of God, and the human nature with another person, namely, Jesus of Nazareth. The two natures belong to (...)
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  26. Drawing on Many Traditions: An Ecumenical Kenotic Christology.Thomas Senor - 2011 - In Anna Marmodoro & Jonathan Hill (eds.), The Metaphysics of the Incarnation. Oxford University Press.
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  27. Composition Models of the Incarnation: Unity and Unifying Relations: Anna Marmodoro & Jonathan Hill.Anna Marmodoro - 2010 - Religious Studies 46 (4):469-488.
    In this paper we investigate composition models of incarnation, according to which Christ is a compound of qualitatively and numerically different constituents. We focus on three-part models, according to which Christ is composed of a divine mind, a human mind, and a human body. We consider four possible relational structures that the three components could form. We argue that a ‘hierarchy of natures’ model, in which the human mind and body are united to each other in the normal way, and (...)
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  28. On a Thomistic Worry About Scotus's Doctrine of the Esse Christi.Michael Gorman - 2009 - Antonianum 84:719-733.
    According to authoritative Christian teaching, Jesus Christ is a single person existing in two natures, divinity and humanity. In attempting to understand this claim, the high-scholastic theologians often asked whether there was more than one existence in Christ. John Duns Scotus answers the question with a clear and strongly-formulated yes, and Thomists have sometimes suspected that his answer leads in a heretical direction. But before we can ask whether Scotus‘s answer is acceptable or not, we have to come to a (...)
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  29. The Compositional Account of the Incarnation.Thomas D. Senor - 2007 - Faith and Philosophy 24 (1):52-71.
    In a pair of recent articles, Brian Leftow and Eleonore Stump offer independent, although similar, accounts of the metaphysics of the Incarnation. Both believe that their Aquinas-inspired theories can offer solutions to the kind of Leibniz’s Law problems that can seem to threaten the logical possibility of this traditional Christian doctrine. In this paper, I’ll have a look at their compositional account of the nature of God incarnate. In the end, I believe their position can be seen to have unacceptable (...)
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  30. The Incarnation.Thomas D. Senor - 2007 - In Chad Meister & Paul Copan (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Religion. Routledge Press.
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  31. Christology and Anthropology in Friedrich Schleiermacher.Jacqueline Mariña - 2005 - In The Cambridge Companion to Friedrich Schleiermacher.
    In my chapter "Christology and Anthropology in Friedrich Schleiermacher,” I discuss Schleiermacher's understanding of both the person and work of Christ. Schleiermacher's dialogue with the orthodox Christological tradition preceding him, as well as his understanding of the work of Christ, is founded on a critical analysis of the fundamental person-forming experience of being in relation to Christ and the community founded by him. I provide an analysis of Schleiermacher's discussion of the difficulties surrounding the use of the word "nature" in (...)
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  32. Incarnation, Timelessness, and Leibniz's Law Problems.Thomas D. Senor - 2002 - In Gregory E. Ganssle & David M. Woodruff (eds.), God and Time: Essays on the Divine Nature. Oxford University Press.
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  33. Not Done in a Corner': How To Be a Sensible Evidentialist About Jesus.”.Stephen J. Wykstra - 2002 - Philosophical Books 43:81-135.
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  34. The Possibilities of Incarnation: Some Radical Molinist Suggestions.Thomas P. Flint - 2001 - Religious Studies 37 (3):307-320.
    The traditional doctrine of the Incarnation maintains that God became man. But was it necessary that God become the particular man He in fact became? Could some man or woman other than the man born in Bethlehem roughly two thousand years ago have been assumed by the Son to effect our salvation? This essay addresses such questions from the perspective of one embracing Molina's picture of divine providence. After showing how Molina thought his theory of middle knowledge helps alleviate a (...)
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  35. Christ as Composite According to Aquinas.Michael Gorman - 2000 - Traditio 55:143-157.
    In this paper I explain Thomas Aquinas's view that Christ is a composite person, and then I explain the role of Christ's compositeness in Thomas‘s solutions to a range of Christological problems. On the topics I will be discussing, Thomas‘s views did not change significantly over the course of his career; for the sake of simplicity, then, I will focus on texts from the Summa theologiae, citing parallels in the notes.
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  36. The Incarnation and the Trinity.Thomas D. Senor - 1999 - In Michael J. Murray (ed.), Reason for the Hope Within. Wm. B. Eerdmans.
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  37. Conscientious Objections Toward a Reconstruction of the Social and Political Philosophy of Jesus of Nazareth.J. Landrum Kelly - 1994
    This study argues for the historical existence of Jesus of Nazareth as a radical Jewish pacifist who angered both the orthodox religious establishment and those who advocated violent insurrection against the Romans. The author asserts that Jesus' views were based on belief in a non-retributive, omnibenevolent God, challenging not only the Mosaic Law but assumptions about eternal punishment and the divine sanction of the state and its retributive institutions of war and punishment. The volume also interprets Paul as being the (...)
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  38. God, Supernatural Kinds, and the Incarnation.Thomas D. Senor - 1991 - Religious Studies 27 (3):353-370.
    Traditionally, the term ’God’ has been understood either as a proper name or as a description. However, according to a new view, the term God’ in a sentence like "Jesus Christ is God" functions as a kind term, much as the term ’tiger’ functions in the sentence "Tigger is a tiger." In this paper I examine the claim that divinity can be construed as a ’supernatural’ kind, developing the outlines of an account of the semantics of God’ along these lines, (...)
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  39. Incarnation and Timeless.Thomas D. Senor - 1990 - Faith and Philosophy 7 (2):149-164.
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  40. On God, Goodness, and Evil: A Theological Dialogue.Richard Oxenberg - manuscript
    In this theological dialogue two characters, the skeptical Simon and the man of faith, Joseph, engage in a wide-ranging conversation touching on the meaning of morality, God, revelation, the Bible, and the viability of faith in a world full of evils.
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  41. The God Who Died on a Cross.Richard Oxenberg - manuscript
    A contemplative prose-poem on the meaning of the Cross of Christ.
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