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  1. Validity of the Salience Asymmetry Interpretation of the Implicit Association Test: Comment on Rothermund and Wentura.Anthony G. Greenwald, Brian A. Nosek, Mahzarin R. Banaji & K. Christoph Klauer - 2005 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 134 (3):420-425.
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  • Mortality Salience and the Spreading Activation of Worldview-Relevant Constructs: Exploring the Cognitive Architecture of Terror Management.Jamie Arndt, Jeff Greenberg & Alison Cook - 2002 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 131 (3):307-324.
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  • Verbal Slips and the Intentionality of Skills.John M. Monteleone - 2020 - Synthese 199 (1-2):1521-1537.
    Many have thought that exercises of skill are intentional. The argument of the paper is that this thesis fails to account for important types of mistakes and errors. In what psychologists and linguists call “verbal slips with semantic bias”, a speaker mistakenly switches, reverses, or blends certain conceptual contents. Nevertheless, the speaker has successfully exercised an intellectual skill, insofar as her slip uses concepts in conformity to semantic and logical rules. To flesh out how one might successfully exercise skills without (...)
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  • Implicit Association Test: Validity Debates.Anthony Greenwald - manuscript
    Note posted 9 Jun 08 : Modifications made today include a new section on predictive validity, and addition of recently published article and in in-press article, both by Nosek & Hansen, under the "CULTURE VS. PERSON" heading, which replaces a previously listed unpublished ms. of theirs. I continue to encourage all interested to send material that they are willing to be included on this page. Please also to let me know about errors, including faulty links.
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  • Précis of Semantic Cognition: A Parallel Distributed Processing Approach.Timothy T. Rogers & James L. McClelland - 2008 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (6):689-714.
    In this prcis we focus on phenomena central to the reaction against similarity-based theories that arose in the 1980s and that subsequently motivated the approach to semantic knowledge. Specifically, we consider (1) how concepts differentiate in early development, (2) why some groupings of items seem to form or coherent categories while others do not, (3) why different properties seem central or important to different concepts, (4) why children and adults sometimes attest to beliefs that seem to contradict their direct experience, (...)
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  • Levels of Processing During Non-Conscious Perception: A Critical Review of Visual Masking.Sid Kouider & Stanislas Dehaene - 2007 - Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, B 362 (1481):857-875.
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  • A Critique of Information Processing Theories of Consciousness.Valerie Gray Hardcastle - 1995 - Minds and Machines 5 (1):89-107.
    Information processing theories in psychology give rise to executive theories of consciousness. Roughly speaking, these theories maintain that consciousness is a centralized processor that we use when processing novel or complex stimuli. The computational assumptions driving the executive theories are closely tied to the computer metaphor. However, those who take the metaphor serious — as I believe psychologists who advocate the executive theories do — end up accepting too particular a notion of a computing device. In this essay, I examine (...)
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  • Cognition Does Not Affect Perception: Evaluating the Evidence for “Top-Down” Effects.Chaz Firestone & Brian J. Scholl - 2016 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 39:1-72.
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  • What About the Unconscious?Chris Mortensen - 1999 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (1):162-162.
    O'Brien & Opie do not address the question of the psychotherapeutic role of unconscious representational states such as beliefs. A dilemma is proposed: if they accept the legitimacy of such states then they should modify what they say about dissociation, and if they do not, they owe us an account of why.
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  • The Scope and Generality of Automatic Affective Biases in Political Thinking: Reply to the Symposium.Charles S. Taber & Milton Lodge - 2012 - Critical Review: A Journal of Politics and Society 24 (2):247-268.
    Our response to this symposium on our 2006 paper centers on three questions. First, what motivations exist in the political wild, and do our experimental manipulations realistically capture them? We agree that strong accuracy motivations are likely (but not certain) to reduce biases, but we are not at all confident that the real world supplies stronger accuracy motivations than our subjects received. Second, how can we square our findings of stubbornly persistent beliefs and attitudes with the well-established literatures on framing (...)
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  • Using Structural Priming to Test Links Between Constructions: English Caused-Motion and Resultative Sentences Inhibit Each Other.Tobias Ungerer - 2021 - Cognitive Linguistics 32 (3):389-420.
    Cognitive-linguistic theories commonly model speakers’ grammatical knowledge as a network of constructions related by a variety of associative links. The present study proposes that structural priming can provide psycholinguistic evidence of such links, and crucially, that the method can be extended to non-alternating constructions. In a comprehension priming experiment using the “maze” variant of self-paced reading, English caused-motion sentences were found to have an inhibitory effect by slowing down participants’ subsequent processing of resultatives, and vice versa, providing evidence that speakers (...)
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  • Explaining Imagination.Peter Langland-Hassan - 2020 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    ​Imagination will remain a mystery—we will not be able to explain imagination—until we can break it into parts we already understand. Explaining Imagination is a guidebook for doing just that, where the parts are other ordinary mental states like beliefs, desires, judgments, and decisions. In different combinations and contexts, these states constitute cases of imagining. This reductive approach to imagination is at direct odds with the current orthodoxy, according to which imagination is a sui generis mental state or process—one with (...)
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  • Creativity.Peter Langland-Hassan - 2020 - In Explaining Imagination. Oxford: pp. 262-296.
    Comparatively easy questions we might ask about creativity are distinguished from the hard question of explaining transformative creativity. Many have focused on the easy questions, offering no reason to think that the imagining relied upon in creative cognition cannot be reduced to more basic folk psychological states. The relevance of associative thought processes to songwriting is then explored as a means for understanding the nature of transformative creativity. Productive artificial neural networks—known as generative antagonistic networks (GANs)—are a recent example of (...)
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  • A Dynamic Network Approach to the Study of Syntax.Holger Diessel - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    Usage-based linguists and psychologists have produced a large body of empirical results suggesting that linguistic structure is derived from language use. However, while researchers agree that these results characterize grammar as an emergent phenomenon, there is no consensus among usage-based scholars as to how the various results can be explained and integrated into an explicit theory or model. Building on network theory, the current paper outlines a structured network approach to the study of grammar in which the core concepts of (...)
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  • Extrapolating Human Probability Judgment.Daniel Osherson, Edward E. Smith, Tracy S. Myers, Eldar Shafir & Michael Stob - 1994 - Theory and Decision 36 (2):103-129.
    We advance a model of human probability judgment and apply it to the design of an extrapolation algorithm. Such an algorithm examines a person's judgment about the likelihood of various statements and is then able to predict the same person's judgments about new statements. The algorithm is tested against judgments produced by thirty undergraduates asked to assign probabilities to statements about mammals.
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  • In Defense of Contextual Vocabulary Acquisition: How to Do Things with Words in Context.William J. Rapaport - 2005 - In Anind Dey, Boicho Kokinov, David Leake & Roy Turner (eds.), Proceedings of the 5th International and Interdisciplinary Conference on Modeling and Using Context. Springer-Verlag Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence 3554. pp. 396--409.
    Contextual vocabulary acquisition (CVA) is the deliberate acquisition of a meaning for a word in a text by reasoning from context, where “context” includes: (1) the reader’s “internalization” of the surrounding text, i.e., the reader’s “mental model” of the word’s “textual context” (hereafter, “co-text” [3]) integrated with (2) the reader’s prior knowledge (PK), but it excludes (3) external sources such as dictionaries or people. CVA is what you do when you come across an unfamiliar word in your reading, realize that (...)
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  • Simplicity and the Meaning of Mental Association.Mike Dacey - 2019 - Erkenntnis 84 (6):1207-1228.
    Some thoughts just come to mind together. This is usually thought to happen because they are connected by associations, which the mind follows. Such an explanation assumes that there is a particular kind of simple psychological process responsible. This view has encountered criticism recently. In response, this paper aims to characterize a general understanding of associative simplicity, which might support the distinction between associative processing and alternatives. I argue that there are two kinds of simplicity that are treated as characteristic (...)
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  • Semantic Boost on Episodic Associations: An Empirically‐Based Computational Model.Yaron Silberman, Shlomo Bentin & Risto Miikkulainen - 2007 - Cognitive Science 31 (4):645-671.
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  • Iconic Gestures Prime Words.De-Fu Yap, Wing-Chee So, Ju-Min Melvin Yap, Ying-Quan Tan & Ruo-Li Serene Teoh - 2011 - Cognitive Science 35 (1):171-183.
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  • Iconic Gestures Prime Words.De-Fu Yap, Wing-Chee So, Ju-Min Melvin Yap, Ying-Quan Tan & Ruo-Li Serene Teoh - 2011 - Cognitive Science 35 (1):171-183.
    Using a cross-modal semantic priming paradigm, both experiments of the present study investigated the link between the mental representations of iconic gestures and words. Two groups of the participants performed a primed lexical decision task where they had to discriminate between visually presented words and nonwords (e.g., flirp). Word targets (e.g., bird) were preceded by video clips depicting either semantically related (e.g., pair of hands flapping) or semantically unrelated (e.g., drawing a square with both hands) gestures. The duration of gestures (...)
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  • Do We Really Gesture More When It Is More Difficult?Uta Sassenberg & Elke Van Der Meer - 2010 - Cognitive Science 34 (4):643-664.
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  • Conceptual Hierarchies in a Flat Attractor Network: Dynamics of Learning and Computations.Christopher M. O’Connor, George S. Cree & Ken McRae - 2009 - Cognitive Science 33 (4):665-708.
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  • Naming is Framing: The Public Understanding of Scientific Names.Reginald Boersma - 2018 - Dissertation, Wageningen University
    Genomics, Climate Change, Nanotechnology, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance… For the uninitiated, scientific names created by experts can be difficult to understand. Yet, people have to make decisions about the related scientific concepts. Experts reach understanding with theory and expect non-experts to do the same. However, my research shows that people can satisfy their need to make sense of what they are dealing with by just using associations triggered by a name. For example, people often unfairly presume that genomics and the controversial (...)
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  • Developing Concepts of Consciousness.Aaron Sloman - 1991 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (4):694-695.
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  • Unconscious Representations 2: Towards an Integrated Cognitive Architecture.Luis M. Augusto - 2014 - Axiomathes 24 (1):19-43.
    The representational nature of human cognition and thought in general has been a source of controversies. This is particularly so in the context of studies of unconscious cognition, in which representations tend to be ontologically and structurally segregated with regard to their conscious status. However, it appears evolutionarily and developmentally unwarranted to posit such segregations, as,otherwise, artifact structures and ontologies must be concocted to explain them from the viewpoint of the human cognitive architecture. Here, from a by-and-large Classical cognitivist viewpoint, (...)
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  • There Are No I-Beliefs or I-Desires at Work in Fiction Consumption and This is Why.Peter Langland-Hassan - 2020 - In Explaining Imagination. Oxford: pp. 210-233.
    Currie’s (2010) argument that “i-desires” must be posited to explain our responses to fiction is critically discussed. It is argued that beliefs and desires featuring ‘in the fiction’ operators—and not sui generis imaginings (or "i-beliefs" or "i-desires")—are the crucial states involved in generating fiction-directed affect. A defense of the “Operator Claim” is mounted, according to which ‘in the fiction’ operators would be also be required within fiction-directed sui generis imaginings (or "i-beliefs" and "i-desires"), were there such. Once we appreciate that (...)
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  • Cognitive Technology and the Pragmatics of Impossible Plans — A Study in Cognitive Prosthetics.Roger Lindsay - 1996 - AI and Society 10 (3-4):273-288.
    Do AI programs just make it quicker and easier for humans to do what they can do already, or can the range of do-able things be extended? This paper suggests that cognitively-oriented technology can make it possible for humans to construct and carry out mental operations, which were previously impossible. Probable constraints upon possible human mental operations are identified and the impact of cognitive technology upon them is evaluated. It is argued that information technology functions as a cognitive prosthetic enhancing (...)
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  • Cognitive Principles for Information Management: The Principles of Mnemonic Associative Knowledge (P-MAK). [REVIEW]Michael Huggett, Holger Hoos & Ron Rensink - 2007 - Minds and Machines 17 (4):445-485.
    Information management systems improve the retention of information in large collections. As such they act as memory prostheses, implying an ideal basis in human memory models. Since humans process information by association, and situate it in the context of space and time, systems should maximize their effectiveness by mimicking these functions. Since human attentional capacity is limited, systems should scaffold cognitive efforts in a comprehensible manner. We propose the Principles of Mnemonic Associative Knowledge (P-MAK), which describes a framework for semantically (...)
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  • Consciousness From a First-Person Perspective.Max Velmans - 1991 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (4):702-726.
    This paper replies to the first 36 commentaries on my target article on “Is human information processing conscious?” (Behavioral and Brain Sciences,1991, pp.651-669). The target article focused largely on experimental studies of how consciousness relates to human information processing, tracing their relation from input through to output, while discussion of the implications of the findings both for cognitive psychology and philosophy of mind was relatively brief. The commentaries reversed this emphasis, and so, correspondingly, did the reply. The sequence of topics (...)
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  • The Effect of Similarity on Evaluative Priming: Higher Similarity Predicts Stronger Congruency Effects.Juliane Burghardt - unknown
    The evaluative priming paradigm aims to uncover the processes underlying evaluations. For this purpose, this paradigm presents a sequence of two or more stimuli varying on the valence dimension to which participants must provide a response. The “standard” evaluative priming effect is a relative facilitation of the required responses in congruent trials compared to incongruent trials. The following thesis argues that this evaluative priming effect depends on prime-target similarity, with higher similarity between prime and target leading to larger priming effects. (...)
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  • The Publicity of Meaning and the Perceptual Approach to Speech Comprehension.Berit Brogaard - 2017 - ProtoSociology 34:144-162.
    The paper presents a number of empirical arguments for the perceptual view of speech comprehension. It then argues that a particular version of phenomenal dogmatism can confer immediate justification upon belief. In combination, these two views can bypass Davidsonian skepticism toward knowledge of meanings. The perceptual view alone, however, can bypass a variation on the Davidsonian argument. One reason Davidson thought meanings were not truly graspable was that he believed meanings were private. But if the perceptual view of speech comprehension (...)
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  • Manipulations of List Type in the DRM Paradigm: A Review of How Structural and Conceptual Similarity Affect False Memory. [REVIEW]Jennifer H. Coane, Dawn M. McBride, Mark J. Huff, Kai Chang, Elizabeth M. Marsh & Kendal A. Smith - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    The use of list-learning paradigms to explore false memory has revealed several critical findings about the contributions of similarity and relatedness in memory phenomena more broadly. Characterizing the nature of “similarity and relatedness” can inform researchers about factors contributing to memory distortions and about the underlying associative and semantic networks that support veridical memory. Similarity can be defined in terms of semantic properties, lexical/associative properties, or structural properties. By manipulating the type of list and its relationship to a non-studied critical (...)
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  • Thalamic but Not Subthalamic Neuromodulation Simplifies Word Use in Spontaneous Language.Hannes Ole Tiedt, Felicitas Ehlen, Michelle Wyrobnik & Fabian Klostermann - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Several investigations have shown language impairments following electrode implantation surgery for Deep Brain Stimulation in movement disorders. The impact of the actual stimulation, however, differs between DBS targets with further deterioration in formal language tests induced by thalamic DBS in contrast to subtle improvement observed in subthalamic DBS. Here, we studied speech samples from interviews with participants treated with DBS of the thalamic ventral intermediate nucleus for essential tremor, or the subthalamic nucleus for Parkinson’s disease, and healthy volunteers. We analyzed (...)
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  • Effects of Dispositional Affect on the N400: Language Processing and Socially Situated Context.Veena D. Dwivedi & Janahan Selvanayagam - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    We examined whether the N400 Event-Related Potential component would be modulated by dispositional affect during sentence processing. In this study, 33 participants read sentences manipulated by direct object type and object determiner type. We were particularly interested in sentences of the form: The connoisseur tasted thewineon the tour vs. The connoisseur tasted the #roof… We expected that processing incongruent direct objects vs. congruent objects would elicit N400 effects. Previous ERP language experiments have shown that participants in positive and negative moods (...)
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  • The Differential Effects of Related and Unrelated Emotions on Judgments About Media Messages.Werner Wirth, Claudia Poggiolini & Rinaldo Kühne - 2021 - Communications 46 (1):127-149.
    The present study investigated the influence of related and unrelated emotions on judgments about a news article. An experimental study was designed to manipulate both the relatedness of an elicited emotion to the news article and processing depth. Following mood and emotion effects theory, related anger was expected to have a stronger effect on judgments about the media message than unrelated anger. Processing depth was expected to moderate this effect. The results showed a main effect of relatedness and a main (...)
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  • Is the Implicit Association Test a Valid and Valuable Measure of Implicit Consumer Social Cognition?Brian C. Tietje - unknown
    This article discusses the need for more satisfactory implicit measures in consumer psychology and assesses the theoretical foundations, validity, and value of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) as a measure of implicit consumer social cognition. Study 1 demonstrates the IAT’s sensitivity to explicit individual differences in brand attitudes, ownership, and usage frequency, and shows their correlations with IAT-based measures of implicit brand attitudes and brand relationship strength. In Study 2, the contrast between explicit and implicit measures of attitude toward the (...)
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  • Simple Co‐Occurrence Statistics Reproducibly Predict Association Ratings.Markus J. Hofmann, Chris Biemann, Chris Westbury, Mariam Murusidze, Markus Conrad & Arthur M. Jacobs - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (7):2287-2312.
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  • The Relation Between Semantic Memory Structure, Associative Abilities, and Verbal and Figural Creativity.Li He, Yoed N. Kenett, Kaixiang Zhuang, Cheng Liu, Rongcan Zeng, Tingrui Yan, Tengbin Huo & Jiang Qiu - 2020 - Thinking and Reasoning 27 (2):268-293.
    Research has independently highlighted the roles of semantic memory and associative abilities in creative thinking. However, it remains unclear how these two capacities relate to each other, nor ho...
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  • Methodological Considerations for Incorporating Clinical Data Into a Network Model of Retrieval Failures.Nichol Castro - forthcoming - Topics in Cognitive Science.
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  • Can We Really Dissociate the Computational and Algorithm-Level Theories of Human Memory?Guy Tiberghien - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):680-681.
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  • Claims, Counterclaims, and Components: A Countercritique of Componential Analysis.Robert J. Sternberg - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (4):599-614.
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  • L’acquisition du Present Perfect chez un enfant anglophone : méthodologie, codage et premiers résultats.Laurent David - 2013 - Corela. Cognition, Représentation, Langage 13 (HS).
    Le Present Perfect est une combinaison grammaticale qui regroupe des propriétés temporelles, sémantiques et pragmatiques, ce qui paraît particulièrement complexe dans l’acquisition du langage. Suite aux nombreux travaux sur l’acquisition du groupe verbal, l’étude de l’émergence et du développement du Present Perfect peut nous permettre de mieux comprendre la nature de cette construction et de savoir comment elle apparaît et se complexifie dans l’esprit de l’enfant. Dans cet article, diverses approches théoriques sont présentées et mises en rapport avec l’analyse d’un (...)
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  • Is Working Memory Working Against Suggestion Susceptibility? Results From Extended Version of DRM Paradigm.Patrycja Maciaszek - 2016 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 47 (1):62-72.
    The paper investigates relationship between working memory efficiency, defined as the result of its’ processing & storage capacity and the tendency to create assosiative memory distortions ; yield under the influence of external, suggesting factors. Both issues were examined using extended version of Deese-Roediger-McDermott procedure, modified in order to meet the study demands. Suggestion was contained in an ostentatious feedback information the participants received during the DRM procedure. Working memory was measured by standardized tasks. Study included 3 conditions, differing in (...)
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  • Metaphor Between Embodiment and Imaginative Processes.Tiziana Giudice - 2008 - Anthropology and Philosophy 9 (1-2):42-57.
    In this paper I will analyse the relationship between metaphor and imagination. This issue has been recently studied by cognitive linguists who appreciate its importance, while other semantic perspectives neglect it. I will analyse the thesis which affirms that metaphors are based on cognitive components which are not logical-propositional but imaginative: the “image schemata” are recurrent models of corporeal experiences, centres of knowledge organization which structure – in a non-propositional form – an amount of salient information. This information emerges from (...)
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  • Object Concepts and Mental Images.Anna Borghi & Claudia Scorolli - 2006 - Anthropology and Philosophy 7 (1-2):64-74.
    The paper focuses on mental imagery and concepts. First we discuss the possible reasons why the propositional view of representation was so successful among cognitive scientists interested in concepts. Then a novel perspective, the embodied view, is presented. Differently from the classic cognitivist view, this perspective acknowledges the importance of perceptual and motor imagery for concepts. According to the embodied perspective concepts are not given by propositional, abstract and amodal symbols but are grounded in sensorimotor processes. Neural and behavioral evidence (...)
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  • Reading: How Readers Beget Imagining.Sarah Bro Trasmundi & Stephen J. Cowley - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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  • The Impact of Analogies on Creative Concept Generation: Lessons From an In Vivo Study in Engineering Design.Joel Chan & Christian Schunn - 2015 - Cognitive Science 39 (1):126-155.
    Research on innovation often highlights analogies from sources outside the current problem domain as a major source of novel concepts; however, the mechanisms underlying this relationship are not well understood. We analyzed the temporal interplay between far analogy use and creative concept generation in a professional design team's brainstorming conversations, investigating the hypothesis that far analogies lead directly to very novel concepts via large steps in conceptual spaces . Surprisingly, we found that concepts were more similar to their preceding concepts (...)
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  • A Model of Scientists' Creative Potential: The Matching of Cognitive Structure and Domain Structure.Giovanni B. Moneta - 1993 - Philosophical Psychology 6 (1):23 – 37.
    Findlay and Lumsden have proposed a model of creative potential which accounts for divergent thinking but not for convergent thinking. This limitation impedes the applicability of the model to scientific creativity, where competence and thus convergent thinking play a fundamental role since the early stages of creation. This limitation is a natural consequence of the fact that Findlay and Lumsden's model is purely intrapsychic. This paper proposes a model of scientists' creative potential which accounts for both divergent and convergent processes. (...)
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  • Computation and Cognition: Issues in the Foundation of Cognitive Science.Zenon W. Pylyshyn - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (1):111-32.
    The computational view of mind rests on certain intuitions regarding the fundamental similarity between computation and cognition. We examine some of these intuitions and suggest that they derive from the fact that computers and human organisms are both physical systems whose behavior is correctly described as being governed by rules acting on symbolic representations. Some of the implications of this view are discussed. It is suggested that a fundamental hypothesis of this approach is that there is a natural domain of (...)
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  • Mood Effects on Cooperation in Small Groups: Does Positive Mood Simply Lead to More Cooperation?Guido Hertel, Jochen Neuhof, Thomas Theuer & Norbert L. Kerr - 2000 - Cognition and Emotion 14 (4):441-472.
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