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What is logic?

Journal of Philosophy 76 (6):285-319 (1979)

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  1. Pragmatics and the Logic of Questions and Assertions.Ruth Manor - 1982 - Philosophica 29:45-96.
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  • Variations on Intra-Theoretical Logical Pluralism: Internal Versus External Consequence.Bogdan Dicher - 2020 - Philosophical Studies 177 (3):667-686.
    Intra-theoretical logical pluralism is a form of meaning-invariant pluralism about logic, articulated recently by Hjortland :355–373, 2013). This version of pluralism relies on it being possible to define several distinct notions of provability relative to the same logical calculus. The present paper picks up and explores this theme: How can a single logical calculus express several different consequence relations? The main hypothesis articulated here is that the divide between the internal and external consequence relations in Gentzen systems generates a form (...)
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  • Philosophical Accounts of First-Order Logical Truths.Constantin C. Brîncuş - 2019 - Acta Analytica 34 (3):369-383.
    Starting from certain metalogical results, I argue that first-order logical truths of classical logic are a priori and necessary. Afterwards, I formulate two arguments for the idea that first-order logical truths are also analytic, namely, I first argue that there is a conceptual connection between aprioricity, necessity, and analyticity, such that aprioricity together with necessity entails analyticity; then, I argue that the structure of natural deduction systems for FOL displays the analyticity of its truths. Consequently, each philosophical approach to these (...)
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  • Hypersequent and Display Calculi – a Unified Perspective.Agata Ciabattoni, Revantha Ramanayake & Heinrich Wansing - 2014 - Studia Logica 102 (6):1245-1294.
    This paper presents an overview of the methods of hypersequents and display sequents in the proof theory of non-classical logics. In contrast with existing surveys dedicated to hypersequent calculi or to display calculi, our aim is to provide a unified perspective on these two formalisms highlighting their differences and similarities and discussing applications and recent results connecting and comparing them.
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  • Framework for Formal Ontology.Barry Smith & Kevin Mulligan - 1983 - Topoi 2 (1):73-85.
    The discussions which follow rest on a distinction, first expounded by Husserl, between formal logic and formal ontology. The former concerns itself with (formal) meaning-structures; the latter with formal structures amongst objects and their parts. The paper attempts to show how, when formal ontological considerations are brought into play, contemporary extensionalist theories of part and whole, and above all the mereology of Leniewski, can be generalised to embrace not only relations between concrete objects and object-pieces, but also relations between what (...)
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  • Busting a Myth About Leśniewski and Definitions.Rafal Urbaniak & K. Severi Hämäri - 2012 - History and Philosophy of Logic 33 (2):159 - 189.
    A theory of definitions which places the eliminability and conservativeness requirements on definitions is usually called the standard theory. We examine a persistent myth which credits this theory to Le?niewski, a Polish logician. After a brief survey of its origins, we show that the myth is highly dubious. First, no place in Le?niewski's published or unpublished work is known where the standard conditions are discussed. Second, Le?niewski's own logical theories allow for creative definitions. Third, Le?niewski's celebrated ?rules of definition? lay (...)
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  • What is Wrong with Classical Negation?Nils Kurbis - 2015 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 92 (1):51-86.
    The focus of this paper are Dummett's meaning-theoretical arguments against classical logic based on consideration about the meaning of negation. Using Dummettian principles, I shall outline three such arguments, of increasing strength, and show that they are unsuccessful by giving responses to each argument on behalf of the classical logician. What is crucial is that in responding to these arguments a classicist need not challenge any of the basic assumptions of Dummett's outlook on the theory of meaning. In particular, I (...)
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  • John Cook Wilson.Mathieu Marion - 2010 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    John Cook Wilson (1849–1915) was Wykeham Professor of Logic at New College, Oxford and the founder of ‘Oxford Realism’, a philosophical movement that flourished at Oxford during the first decades of the 20th century. Although trained as a classicist and a mathematician, his most important contribution was to the theory of knowledge, where he argued that knowledge is factive and not definable in terms of belief, and he criticized ‘hybrid’ and ‘externalist’ accounts. He also argued for direct realism in perception, (...)
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  • Disjunctive and Conjunctive Multiple-Conclusion Consequence Relations.Marek Nowak - forthcoming - Studia Logica:1-19.
    Two different kinds of multiple-conclusion consequence relations taken from Shoesmith and Smiley and Galatos and Tsinakis or Nowak, called here disjunctive and conjunctive, respectively, defined on a formal language, are considered. They are transferred into a bounded lattice and a complete lattice, respectively. The properties of such abstract consequence relations are presented.
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  • Beyond Logical Pluralism and Logical Monism.Pavel Arazim - 2020 - Logica Universalis 14 (2):151-174.
    Logical pluralism as a thesis that more than one logic is correct seems very plausible for two basic reasons. First, there are so many logical systems on the market today. And it is unclear how we should decide which of them gets the logical rules right. On the other hand, logical monism as the opposite thesis still seems plausible, as well, because of normativity of logic. An approach which would manage to bring a synthesis of both logical pluralism and logical (...)
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  • On the Logical Philosophy of Assertive Graphs.Daniele Chiffi & Ahti-Veikko Pietarinen - forthcoming - Journal of Logic, Language and Information:1-23.
    The logic of assertive graphs is a modification of Peirce’s logic of existential graphs, which is intuitionistic and which takes assertions as its explicit object of study. In this paper we extend AGs into a classical graphical logic of assertions whose internal logic is classical. The characteristic feature is that both AGs and ClAG retain deep-inference rules of transformation. Unlike classical EGs, both AGs and ClAG can do so without explicitly introducing polarities of areas in their language. We then compare (...)
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  • Could Evolution Explain Our Reliability About Logic?Joshua Schechter - 2013 - In Tamar Szabo Gendler & John Hawthorne (eds.), Oxford Studies in Epistemology 4. pp. 214.
    We are reliable about logic in the sense that we by-and-large believe logical truths and disbelieve logical falsehoods. Given that logic is an objective subject matter, it is difficult to provide a satisfying explanation of our reliability. This generates a significant epistemological challenge, analogous to the well-known Benacerraf-Field problem for mathematical Platonism. One initially plausible way to answer the challenge is to appeal to evolution by natural selection. The central idea is that being able to correctly deductively reason conferred a (...)
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  • Inferentialism.Florian Steinberger & Julien Murzi - 2017 - In Blackwell Companion to Philosophy of Language. Wiley Blackwell. pp. 197-224.
    This article offers an overview of inferential role semantics. We aim to provide a map of the terrain as well as challenging some of the inferentialist’s standard commitments. We begin by introducing inferentialism and placing it into the wider context of contemporary philosophy of language. §2 focuses on what is standardly considered both the most important test case for and the most natural application of inferential role semantics: the case of the logical constants. We discuss some of the (alleged) benefits (...)
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  • A Verisimilitudinarian Analysis of the Linda Paradox.Gustavo Cevolani, Vincenzo Crupi & Roberto Festa - 2012 - VII Conference of the Spanish Society for Logic, Methodology and Philosphy of Science.
    The Linda paradox is a key topic in current debates on the rationality of human reasoning and its limitations. We present a novel analysis of this paradox, based on the notion of verisimilitude as studied in the philosophy of science. The comparison with an alternative analysis based on probabilistic confirmation suggests how to overcome some problems of our account by introducing an adequately defined notion of verisimilitudinarian confirmation.
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  • The Categoricity Problem and Truth-Value Gaps.I. Rumfitt - 1997 - Analysis 57 (4):223-235.
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  • The Grounds for the Model-Theoretic Account of the Logical Properties.Manuel García-Carpintero Sánchez-Miguel - 1992 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 34 (1):107-131.
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  • Anti-Realist Classical Logic and Realist Mathematics.Greg Restall - unknown
    I sketch an application of a semantically anti-realist understanding of the classical sequent calculus to the topic of mathematics. The result is a semantically anti-realist defence of a kind of mathematical realism. In the paper, I begin the development of the view and compare it to orthodox positions in the philosophy of mathematics.
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  • Philosophical Problems of Foundations of Logic.Alexander S. Karpenko - 2014 - Studia Humana 3 (1):13-26.
    In the paper the following questions are discussed: What is logical consequence? What are logical constants? What is a logical system? What is logical pluralism? What is logic? In the conclusion, the main tendencies of development of modern logic are pointed out.
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  • What Hamblin's Book Fallacies Was About.Jim Mackenzie - 2011 - Informal Logic 31 (4):262-278.
    I finished my undergraduate degree at Monash University and joined Charles Hamblin’s seminar at the University of NSW in March, 1968. Phil Staines from the University of Newcastle joined at the same time, and Vic Dudman was an established member. Hamblin’s book Fallacies would be published in 1970, but the seminar discussions rarely concerned fallacies. This may have been because Hamblin had been working for so long and so closely with those ideas that he was now ready to turn elsewhere. (...)
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  • Logical Consequence.J. C. Beall, Greg Restall & Gil Sagi - 2019 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    A good argument is one whose conclusions follow from its premises; its conclusions are consequences of its premises. But in what sense do conclusions follow from premises? What is it for a conclusion to be a consequence of premises? Those questions, in many respects, are at the heart of logic (as a philosophical discipline). Consider the following argument: 1. If we charge high fees for university, only the rich will enroll. We charge high fees for university. Therefore, only the rich (...)
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  • Reference, Truth, and Biological Kinds.Marcel Weber - 2014 - In: J. Dutant, D. Fassio and A. Meylan (Eds.) Liber Amicorum Pascal Engel.
    This paper examines causal theories of reference with respect to how plausible an account they give of non-physical natural kind terms such as ‘gene’ as well as of the truth of the associated theoretical claims. I first show that reference fixism for ‘gene’ fails. By this, I mean the claim that the reference of ‘gene’ was stable over longer historical periods, for example, since the classical period of transmission genetics. Second, I show that the theory of partial reference does not (...)
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  • Encuneral Noun Phrases.Thomas Hofweber & Jeff Pelletier - manuscript
    The semantics of noun phrases (NPs) is of crucial importance for both philosophy and linguistics. Throughout much of the history of the debate about the semantics of noun phrases there has been an implicit assumption about how they are to be understood. Basically, it is the assumption that NPs come only in two kinds. In this paper we would like to make that assumption explicit and discuss it and its status in the semantics of natural language. We will have a (...)
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  • Classical Harmony and Separability.Julien Murzi - 2020 - Erkenntnis 85 (2):391-415.
    According to logical inferentialists, the meanings of logical expressions are fully determined by the rules for their correct use. Two key proof-theoretic requirements on admissible logical rules, harmony and separability, directly stem from this thesis—requirements, however, that standard single-conclusion and assertion-based formalizations of classical logic provably fail to satisfy :1035–1051, 2011). On the plausible assumption that our logical practice is both single-conclusion and assertion-based, it seemingly follows that classical logic, unlike intuitionistic logic, can’t be accounted for in inferentialist terms. In (...)
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  • Al-Ghazālī and Quantum Physics : A Comparative Analysis of the Seventeenth Discussion of Tahāfut Al-Falāsifa and Quantum Theory.Ümit Yoksuloglu Devji - unknown
    This thesis compares the concepts presented in the Seventeenth Discussion of al-Ghazali's Tahafut al-Falasifa with concepts currently being discussed in the field of quantum physics. Written as an attack on the neo-Platonic and Aristotelian thinking which challenged the orthodox theology of Medieval Islam, Tahafut al-Falasifa questions the understanding of physical reality forwarded by the philosophers of al-Ghazali's times. The Seventeenth Discussion in particular, with its aim of proving the possibility of miracles, questions the acceptance of notions such as necessary causality (...)
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  • The Value of Genetic Fallacies.Andrew C. Ward - 2010 - Informal Logic 30 (1):1-33.
    Since at least the 1938 publication of Hans Reichenbach’s Experience and Predication , there has been widespread agreement that, when discussing the beliefs that people have, it is important to distinguish contexts of discovery and contexts of justification. Traditionally, when one conflates the two contexts, the result is a “genetic fallacy”. This paper examines genealogical critiques and addresses the question of whether such critiques are fallacious and, if so, whether this vitiates their usefulness. The paper concludes that while there may (...)
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  • Logical Constants.John MacFarlane - 2008 - Mind.
    Logic is usually thought to concern itself only with features that sentences and arguments possess in virtue of their logical structures or forms. The logical form of a sentence or argument is determined by its syntactic or semantic structure and by the placement of certain expressions called “logical constants.”[1] Thus, for example, the sentences Every boy loves some girl. and Some boy loves every girl. are thought to differ in logical form, even though they share a common syntactic and semantic (...)
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  • What is Inferentialism?Jaroslav Peregrin - unknown
    Inferentialism is the conviction that to be meaningful in the distinctively human way, or to have a 'conceptual content', is to be governed by a certain kind of inferential rules. The term was coined by Robert Brandom as a label for his theory of language; however, it is also naturally applicable (and is growing increasingly common) within the philosophy of logic.
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  • Which Quantifiers Are Logical?Solomon Feferman - unknown
    ✤ It is the characterization of those forms of reasoning that lead invariably from true sentences to true sentences, independently of the subject matter.
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  • The Logic of Indexicals.Alexandru Radulescu - 2015 - Synthese 192 (6):1839-1860.
    Since Kaplan : 81–98, 1979) first provided a logic for context-sensitive expressions, it has been thought that the only way to construct a logic for indexicals is to restrict it to arguments which take place in a single context— that is, instantaneous arguments, uttered by a single speaker, in a single place, etc. In this paper, I propose a logic which does away with these restrictions, and thus places arguments where they belong, in real world conversations. The central innovation is (...)
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  • Acerca del ámbito de investigación de la lógica informal.Cristina Helena Behnisch - 2010 - Páginas de Filosofía (Universidad Nacional del Comahue) 11 (13):145-161.
    En los trabajos publicados bajo el título general de ‘Lógica informal’ a lo largo de las últimas décadas es admitida la ausencia de una teoría con un grado generalizado de aceptación; lo mismo ocurre con respecto a la metodología. Bajo la hipótesis de que bajo estas circunstancias sería oportuno contar con alguna precisión en lo que se refiere al objetivo principal de la investigación, examinaré algunas caracterizaciones de la lógica informal que aparecen en artículos especializados recientes. Me orienta el propósito (...)
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  • ‘Fregean’ Logic and ‘Russellian’ Logic.Jaroslav Peregrin - 2000 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 78 (4):557 – 574.
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  • Logic, Form and Matter.Barry Smith & David Murray - 1981 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 55 (1):47 - 74.
    It is argued, on the basis of ideas derived from Wittgenstein's Tractatus and Husserl's Logical Investigations, that the formal comprehends more than the logical. More specifically: that there exist certain formal-ontological constants (part, whole, overlapping, etc.) which do not fall within the province of logic. A two-dimensional directly depicting language is developed for the representation of the constants of formal ontology, and means are provided for the extension of this language to enable the representation of certain materially necessary relations. The (...)
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  • Metalogical Properties, Being Logical and Being Formal.Jan Woleński - 2002 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 10:211.
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  • Criterios parciales de logicidad.Janusz Maciaszek - 2005 - Anales Del Seminario de Historia de la Filosofía 22:139-156.
    The aim of this paper is show a global strategy for defining and connecting logical criteria. Three partial criteria are distinguished: transparency for expressions, topic neutrality for consequence relation, and universality for theories. A global criterion is suggested, and proved to be fulfilled by classical and intuionistic logic.
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  • Proof Theory and Meaning.B. G. Sundholm - unknown
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  • Logic, Logics, and Logicism.Solomon Feferman - 1999 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 40 (1):31-54.
    The paper starts with an examination and critique of Tarski’s wellknown proposed explication of the notion of logical operation in the type structure over a given domain of individuals as one which is invariant with respect to arbitrary permutations of the domain. The class of such operations has been characterized by McGee as exactly those definable in the language L∞,∞. Also characterized similarly is a natural generalization of Tarski’s thesis, due to Sher, in terms of bijections between domains. My main (...)
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  • The Problem of Logical Constants.Mario Gómez-Torrente - 2002 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 8 (1):1-37.
    There have been several different and even opposed conceptions of the problem of logical constants, i.e. of the requirements that a good theory of logical constants ought to satisfy. This paper is in the first place a survey of these conceptions and a critique of the theories they have given rise to. A second aim of the paper is to sketch some ideas about what a good theory would look like. A third aim is to draw from these ideas and (...)
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  • Double-Line Harmony in a Sequent Setting.Gratzl Norbert & Orlandelli Eugenio - 2017 - In Pavel Arazim & Tomáš Lávička (eds.), The Logica Yearbook 2016.
    This paper concentrates on how to capture harmony in sequent calculi. It starts by considering a proposal made by Tennant and some objections to it which have been presented by Steinberger. Then it proposes a different analysis which makes use of a double-line presentation of sequent calculi in the style of Dosen and it shows that this proposal is able to dismiss disharmonious operators without thereby adopting any global criterion.
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  • Meaning and Justification: The Case of Modus Ponens.Joshua Schechter & David Enoch - 2006 - Noûs 40 (4):687 - 715.
    In virtue of what are we justified in employing the rule of inference Modus Ponens? One tempting approach to answering this question is to claim that we are justified in employing Modus Ponens purely in virtue of facts concerning meaning or concept-possession. In this paper, we argue that such meaning-based accounts cannot be accepted as the fundamental account of our justification.
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  • El Significado de la Negación Paraconsistente.Gladys Palau & Cecilia Duran - 2009 - Principia: An International Journal of Epistemology 13 (3):357-370.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1808-1711.2009v13n3p357 Neste trabalho concorda-se com a tese de I. Hacking segundo a qual o significado das constantes lógicas é dado pelas Regras de Introdução e Eliminação do cálculo de sequentes de Gentzen que caracterizam a concepção da noção de consequência lógica abstrata. Perguntamos quais são as regras mínimas que um conectivo deve satisfazer para que seja considerado uma negação genuína. Tomaremos como referência para tratar dessa questão os C-sistemas de Newton da Costa e o sistema LP de Graham Priest. Finalmente, (...)
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  • Logical Consequence and Logical Expressions.Mario Gómez-Torrente - 2003 - Theoria 18 (2):131-144.
    The pretheoretical notions of logical consequence and of a logical expression are linked in vague and complex ways to modal and pragmatic intuitions. I offer an introduction to the difficulties that these intuitions create when one attempts to give precise characterizations of those notions. Special attention is given to Tarski’s theories of logical consequence and logical constancy. I note that the Tarskian theory of logical consequence has fared better in the face of the difficulties than the Tarskian theory of logical (...)
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  • Proof-Theoretic Semantics.Peter Schroeder-Heister - forthcoming - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  • A Natureza Dos Sincategoremas Segundo Pedro Hispano.Guilherme Wyllie - 2019 - Trans/Form/Ação 42 (SPE):333-352.
    Resumo: Pedro Hispano define os sincategoremas como expressões que revelam de que maneira os sujeitos e os predicados estão de fato relacionados nas proposições, contribuindo assim para o estabelecer o que elas significam e fixar as condições de verdade e as formas lógicas correspondentes. Entre as expressões que ele julga serem sincategoremáticas, ‘não’, ‘e’, ‘ou’, ‘se’, ‘todo’ e ‘necessário’ se destacam atualmente como constantes lógicas. Todavia, opondo-se a grande parte dos lógicos contemporâneos para quem tais expressões possuem um significado fixo (...)
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  • On the Sense and Reference of a Logical Constant.Harold Hodes - 2004 - Philosophical Quarterly 54 (214):134–165.
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  • Implicational Paradoxes and the Meaning of Logical Constants.Francesco Paoli - 2007 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 85 (4):553 – 579.
    I discuss paradoxes of implication in the setting of a proof-conditional theory of meaning for logical constants. I argue that a proper logic of implication should be not only relevant, but also constructive and nonmonotonic. This leads me to select as a plausible candidate LL, a fragment of linear logic that differs from R in that it rejects both contraction and distribution.
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  • On The Sense and Reference of A Logical Constant.Harold Hodes - 2004 - Philosophical Quarterly 54 (214):134-165.
    Logicism is, roughly speaking, the doctrine that mathematics is fancy logic. So getting clear about the nature of logic is a necessary step in an assessment of logicism. Logic is the study of logical concepts, how they are expressed in languages, their semantic values, and the relationships between these things and the rest of our concepts, linguistic expressions, and their semantic values. A logical concept is what can be expressed by a logical constant in a language. So the question “What (...)
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  • The Work of John Corcoran: An Appreciation.Stewart Shapiro & Michael Scanlan - 1999 - History and Philosophy of Logic 20 (3-4):149-158.
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  • Logical Consequence for Nominalists.Marcus Rossberg & Daniel Cohnitz - 2009 - Theoria : An International Journal for Theory, History and Fundations of Science 24 (2):147-168.
    It is often claimed that nominalistic programmes to reconstruct mathematics fail, since they will at some point involve the notion of logical consequence which is unavailable to the nominalist. In this paper we use an idea of Goodman and Quine to develop a nominalistically acceptable explication of logical consequence.
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  • On the Reality of Existence and Identity.Ian Hacking - 1978 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 8 (4):613 - 632.
    “The confusion of a logical with a real predicate,” according to the Critique of Pure Reason, “is almost beyond correction”. Kant did not assert that existence is no predicate, but that it is only a “logical” one, and not a “real” one. Much the same thing has been said about identity, although Kant himself thought it is real and not logical. We have long lacked a rigorous criterion to distinguish real from logical predicates, and hence have not been able to (...)
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  • On the Reality of Existence and Identity.Allen Hazen - 1985 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 15 (1):25 - 35.
    Ian Hacking's [6] is a spirited romp though a broad field of metaphysics, touching on a variety of important questions, and appealing to deep results in mathematical logic while remaining free of logical pedantry. Philosophical journals might be more fun to read if others could write in his style. It is an essay in applying the theory of logic expounded in more detail in his very interesting [7]. Unfortunately, despite my sympathy for his project, I have a number of criticisms (...)
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