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Distributive justice: What the people think

Ethics 102 (3):555-593 (1992)

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  1. Global Distributive Justice, Entitlement, and Desert.Gillian Brock - 2005 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 35 (sup1):109-138.
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  • The Methodology of Political Theory.Christian List & Laura Valentini - 2016 - In Herman Cappelen, Tamar Szabó Gendler & John Hawthorne (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Philosophical Methodology. Oxford University Press.
    This article examines the methodology of a core branch of contemporary political theory or philosophy: “analytic” political theory. After distinguishing political theory from related fields, such as political science, moral philosophy, and legal theory, the article discusses the analysis of political concepts. It then turns to the notions of principles and theories, as distinct from concepts, and reviews the methods of assessing such principles and theories, for the purpose of justifying or criticizing them. Finally, it looks at a recent debate (...)
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  • Wages, Talents, and Egalitarianism.Andrew Lister - 2018 - Erasmus Journal for Philosophy and Economics 11 (2):34-56.
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  • Recognitive Arguments for Workplace Democracy.Onni Hirvonen & Keith Breen - 2020 - Constellations 27 (4):716-731.
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  • Egalitarianism, Ideals, and Cosmopolitan Justice.Gillian Brock - 2005 - Philosophical Forum 36 (1):1–30.
    Cosmopolitans believe that all human beings have equal moral worth and that our responsibilities to others do not stop at borders. Various cosmopolitans offer different interpretations of how we should understand what is entailed by that equal moral worth and what responsibilities we have to each other in taking our equality seriously. Two suggestions are that a cosmopolitan should endorse a 'global difference principle' and a 'principle of global equality of opportunity'. In the first part of this paper I examine (...)
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  • Empirical Ethics, Context-Sensitivity, and Contextualism.Albert Musschenga - 2005 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 30 (5):467 – 490.
    In medical ethics, business ethics, and some branches of political philosophy (multi-culturalism, issues of just allocation, and equitable distribution) the literature increasingly combines insights from ethics and the social sciences. Some authors in medical ethics even speak of a new phase in the history of ethics, hailing "empirical ethics" as a logical next step in the development of practical ethics after the turn to "applied ethics." The name empirical ethics is ill-chosen because of its associations with "descriptive ethics." Unlike descriptive (...)
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  • Indirect Cosmopolitan Education: On the Contribution of National Education to Attitudes Towards Foreigners.Pierre-Étienne Vandamme - 2018 - Journal of Global Ethics 14 (1):114-132.
    ABSTRACTMany rich countries are witnessing the rise of xenophobic political parties. The opposition to immigration and global redistributive policies is high. How can we pursue global justice in such non-ideal circumstances? Whatever the way we want to pursue global justice, it seems that a change in the political ethos of citizens from rich countries will be necessary. They must come to internalize some genuine concern for foreigners and relativize national identities. Can education contribute to the promotion of such cosmopolitan ethos? (...)
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  • When to Defer to Supermajority Testimony — and When Not.Christian List - 2014 - In Jennifer Lackey (ed.), Essays in Collective Epistemology. Oxford University Press. pp. 240-249.
    Pettit (2006) argues that deferring to majority testimony is not generally rational: it may lead to inconsistent beliefs. He suggests that “another ... approach will do better”: deferring to supermajority testimony. But this approach may also lead to inconsistencies. In this paper, I describe conditions under which deference to supermajority testimony ensures consistency, and conditions under which it does not. I also introduce the concept of “consistency of degree k”, which is weaker than full consistency by ruling out only “blatant” (...)
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  • Political Egalitarianism.Joseph Heath - 2008 - Social Theory and Practice 34 (4):485-516.
    The term “political” egalitarianism is used here, not to refer to equality within the political sphere, but rather in John Rawls’s sense, to refer to a conception of egalitarian distributive justice that is capable of serving as the object of an overlapping consensus in a pluralistic society.1 Thus “political” egalitarianism is political in the same way that Rawls’s “political” liberalism is political. The central task when it comes to developing such a conception of equality is to determine what constraints a (...)
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  • Two Cheers for Meritocracy.David Miller - 1996 - Journal of Political Philosophy 4 (4):277–301.
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  • Inconsistency in Beliefs About Distributive Justice: A Cautionary Note.Carole Burgoyne, Adam Swift & Gordon Marshall - 1993 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 23 (4):327-342.
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  • The Oxford Handbook of Philosophical Methodology.Herman Cappelen, Tamar Szabó Gendler & John Hawthorne (eds.) - 2016 - Oxford University Press.
    This is the most comprehensive book ever published on philosophical methodology. A team of thirty-eight of the world's leading philosophers present original essays on various aspects of how philosophy should be and is done. The first part is devoted to broad traditions and approaches to philosophical methodology. The entries in the second part address topics in philosophical methodology, such as intuitions, conceptual analysis, and transcendental arguments. The third part of the book is devoted to essays about the interconnections between philosophy (...)
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  • What Do Business Executives Think About Distributive Justice?Susanne Burri, Daniela Lup & Alexander Pepper - 2020 - Journal of Business Ethics 174 (1):15-33.
    While there exist extensive literatures on both distributive justice and senior executive pay, and a number of authors have addressed the implications of high pay for distributive justice, the existing literature fails to address what senior executives themselves think about distributive justice and whether they consider high income inequalities to be morally acceptable. We address this gap by analysing a unique dataset comprising the views of over 1000 senior executives from across the world, which was constructed using a survey instrument (...)
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  • Contributive Justice and Meaningful Work.Andrew Sayer - 2009 - Res Publica 15 (1):1-16.
    The dominant focus of thinking about economic justice is overwhelmingly distributive, that is, concerned with what people get in terms of resources and opportunities. It views work mainly negatively, as a burden or cost, or else is neutral about it, rather than seeing it as a source of meaning and fulfilment—a good in its own right. However, what we do in life has at least as much, if not more, influence on whom we become, as does what we get . (...)
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  • Le retour de la méritocratie: la théorie de la justice sociale de David Miller.Pierre-Yves Bonin - 2002 - Dialogue 41 (4):741-.
    David Miller est un intellectuel de gauche britannique bien connu pour ses nombreuses et importantes publications en philosophie politique et son dernier ouvrage, Principles of Social Justice, était attendu avec impatienceDans cet ouvrage, Miller propose des principes généraux de justice sociale devant guider l’organisation des principales institutions de la société ainsi qu’une justification élaborée de ces principes. C’est ce qu’on peut appeler, à l’instar de Miller, une théorie de la justice sociale. La théorie est ambitieuse, traite des principaux aspects de (...)
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  • Material Heuristics and Attitudes Toward Redistribution.Diogo Ferrari - 2021 - Critical Review: A Journal of Politics and Society 33 (1):25-46.
    ABSTRACT According to the material-heuristics hypothesis, people’s socioeconomic position affects their perceptions about the socioeconomic environment, including how society distributes opportunities and rewards and to what extent people are responsible for their own economic situation. These perceptions, in turn, affect attitudes toward wealth redistribution. In contrast to the material-heuristics hypothesis are the more familiar material self-interest hypothesis, which relates redistributive attitudes to one’s personal interest in gaining or losing from redistribution; and the self-serving reasoning hypothesis, according to which perceptions of (...)
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  • War and Poverty.Kieran Oberman - 2019 - Philosophical Studies 176 (1):197-217.
    Because the poorest people tend to die from easily preventable diseases, addressing poverty is a relatively cheap way to save lives. War, by contrast, is extremely expensive. This article argues that, since states that wage war could alleviate poverty instead, poverty can render war unjust. Two just war theory conditions prove relevant: proportionality and last resort. Proportionality requires that war does not yield excessive costs in relation to the benefits. Standardly, just war theorists count only the direct costs: the death (...)
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  • Research on Fair Trade Consumption—A Review.Veronika A. Andorfer & Ulf Liebe - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 106 (4):415-435.
    An overview and assessment of the current state of research on individual consumption of Fair Trade (FT) products is given on the basis of 51 journal publications. Arranging this field of ethical consumption research according to key research objectives, theoretical approaches, methods, and study population, the review suggests that most studies apply social psychological approaches focusing mainly on consumer attitudes. Fewer studies draw on economic approaches focusing on consumers’ willingness to pay ethical premia for FT products or sociological approaches relying (...)
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  • Equality, Efficiency, and Sufficiency: Responding to Multiple Parameters of Distributive Justice During Charitable Distribution.Colin J. Palmer, Bryan Paton, Linda Barclay & Jakob Hohwy - 2013 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 4 (4):659-674.
    Distributive justice decision making tends to require a trade off between different valued outcomes. The present study tracked computer mouse cursor movements in a forced-choice paradigm to examine for tension between different parameters of distributive justice during the decision-making process. Participants chose between set meal distributions, to third parties, that maximised either equality (the evenness of the distribution) or efficiency (the total number of meals distributed). Across different formulations of these dilemmas, responding was consistent with the notion that individuals tend (...)
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  • The Just Price as the Price Obtainable in an Open Market.Juan M. Elegido - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 130 (3):557-572.
    This article argues that the price obtainable in an open market provides the best standard for determining the justice or injustice of the price of a product. The article argues that this standard, which is closely related to positions which have been held for hundreds of years, is superior to several alternative conceptions of the just price that have been put forward in recent years and is not subject to fundamental criticisms which can be addressed to them. The article also (...)
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  • Desert as a Principle of Distributive Justice: A Reconsideration.Roberto Brigati - 2014 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 40 (7):705-722.
    Can desert be the foundation of justice? Recent attempts to redefine distributive justice in the light of the notions of desert and merit depend largely upon how much independent moral force can be attributed to these notions. This is why a number of theorists, following in Joel Feinberg’s wake, assume desert to be a natural feature, independently of the institutions that may reward it, and of the socio-political background against which it stands out. This article criticizes such a view, trying (...)
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  • Just Wages, Desert, and Pay-What-You-Want Pricing.Teun Dekker - 2018 - Erasmus Journal for Philosophy and Economics 11 (2):144-162.
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  • Value Judgements and Value Neutrality in Economics.Philippe Mongin - 2006 - Economica 73 (290):257-286.
    The paper analyses economic evaluations by distinguishing evaluative statements from actual value judgments. From this basis, it compares four solutions to the value neutrality problem in economics. After rebutting the strong theses about neutrality (normative economics is illegitimate) and non-neutrality (the social sciences are value-impregnated), the paper settles the case between the weak neutrality thesis (common in welfare economics) and a novel, weak non-neutrality thesis that extends the realm of normative economics more widely than the other weak thesis does.
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  • Driven Towards a Moral Crash.Antoni Lorente - 2020 - Rivista Internazionale di Filosofia e Psicologia 11 (2):223-237.
    : Accidents will survive the outbreak of driverless cars, but their moral implications will suffer substantial changes. The decision made today by a human in a fraction of a second will eventually be replaced by an algorithm subject to moral scrutiny. This not only raises the question of how the algorithm should work, or whether alternatives solutions are indeed comparable, but also changes the essence of the problem: from ascertaining liability to defining desired outcomes. In this paper, I first contest (...)
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  • Justice as a Competence. The Normative Relevance of Empirical Research on Judgements of 'Greatness'.Geert Demuijnck - 1994 - Philosophica 53:39-56.
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  • The Difference Principle, Equality of Opportunity, and Cosmopolitan Justice.Gillian Brock - 2005 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 2 (3):333-351.
    What kinds of principles of justice should a cosmopolitan support? In recent years some have argued that a cosmopolitan should endorse a Global Difference Principle. It has also been suggested that a cosmopolitan should support a Principle of Global Equality of Opportunity. In this paper I examine how compelling these two suggestions are. I argue against a Global Difference Principle, but for an alternative Needs-Based Minimum Floor Principle (where these are not co-extensive, as I explain). Though I support a negative (...)
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  • Opiniones individuales y actitudes políticas frente a la redistribución.Caroline Guibet Lafaye - 2008 - Daimon: Revista Internacional de Filosofía 43.
    Varias encuestas constatan un amplio consenso sobre (a) el hecho de que una redistribución justa es una redistribución que permite mejorar las oportunidades y las condiciones de vida de los individuos más desfavorecidos y sobre (b) la idea de que las desigualdades debidas a factores no controlables deben ser corregidas en la medida de lo posible. Sin embargo permanecen conflictos y profundos desacuerdos sobre la importancia del mérito personal así como sobre la importancia de los efectos desmotivadores de la redistribución. (...)
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  • Competing Allocation Principles: Time for Compromise? [REVIEW]Lars Schwettmann - 2012 - Theory and Decision 73 (3):357-380.
    A small set of allocation principles is said to be behind several theories of distributive justice. However, disagreement about the appropriate relationship between these notions remains, so that compromises between principles may generate more agreement. Truncated utilitarianism is a prominent candidate. It demands maximising total wealth subject to a floor level of individual wealth for all people. Based on some well-known distributive notions, we developed a questionnaire setting and confronted student respondents with corresponding allocation problems, where an exogenously given poverty (...)
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  • Application of Distributive Justice Theory to the CEO Pay Problem: Recommendations for Reform. [REVIEW]Paul G. Wilhelm - 1993 - Journal of Business Ethics 12 (6):469 - 482.
    An ethical analysis of chief executive officer (CEO) salaries can be approached via theory on distributive justice and an examination of some corporate codes of ethics. U.S. CEO salaries are compared with their Japanese and European counterparts, and factors behind the high U.S. CEO salaries are reviewed. The negative repercussions of high pay are discussed, including feelings of unfairness, declining morale and greater cynicism found in lower level employees. Reduced research and development budgets, and downsized organizations are related to the (...)
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  • Needs and Global Justice.Gillian Brock - 2005 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 57:51-72.
    In this paper I argue that needs are tremendously salient in developing any plausible account of global justice. I begin by sketching a normative thought experiment that models ideal deliberating conditions. I argue that under such conditions we would choose principles of justice that ensure we are well positioned to be able to meet our needs. Indeed, as the experiment aims to show, any plausible account of distributive justice must make space for the special significance of our needs. I go (...)
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  • Justice as a Competence. The Normative Relevance of Empirical Research on Judgments of 'Greatness'.Geert Demuijnck - 1995 - Philosophica 53 53:39-56.
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  • Rawls' Theory of Justice: A Naturalistic Evaluation.Ho Mun Chan - 2005 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 30 (5):449-465.
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  • Bounded Justice.Volker H. Schmidt - 1994 - Social Science Information 33 (2):305-333.
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  • A Conceptual Structure of Justice - Providing a Tool to Analyse Conceptions of Justice.Klara Helene Stumpf, Christian U. Becker & Stefan Baumgärtner - 2016 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 19 (5):1187-1202.
    Justice is a contested concept. There are many different and competing conceptions, i.e. interpretations of the concept. Different domains of justice deal with different fields of application of justice claims, such as structural justice, distributive justice, participatory justice or recognition. We present a formal conceptual structure of justice applicable to all these domains. We show that conceptions of justice can be described by specifying the following conceptual elements: the judicandum, the community of justice including claim holders and claim addressees, their (...)
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  • The Coherence of Rawls's Plea for Democratic Equality.Percy B. Lehning - 1998 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 1 (4):1-41.
    In 1971, John Rawls published A Theory of Justice, the burden of which was strongly egalitarian. But Rawls eventually came to the conclusion that the project of working out a stable, well?ordered society as argued in A Theory of Justice had failed. In 1993, in Political Liberalism, Rawls sought to establish a sounder theoretical foundation for a stable, well?ordered society. Rawls was widely viewed, however, as having given up egalitarianism in Political Liberalism ? the commitment to a fair distribution, or (...)
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  • Economics and Economic Justice.Marc Fleurbaey - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  • Desert.Owen McLeod - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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