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  1. Eine Bedrohung für den Sinn? Human Enhancement und das sinnvolle Leben.Markus Rüther - 2021 - Ethik in der Medizin 33 (4):467-483.
    Das allgemeine Thema des Artikels besteht darin, zwei Diskussionskreise miteinander zu verbinden, die in Isolation betrachtet gut erforscht sind, aber selten zusammengebracht werden: die Diskussion um das sogenannte Human Enhancement und die Debatte um das sinnvolle Leben. Hierbei wird insbesondere die Behauptung ins Blickfeld gerückt, dass Techniken des Human Enhancement einen negativen Einfluss auf den Sinn haben könnten. Ist diese These plausibel? In diesem Artikel wird die These verteidigt, dass diese Frage verneint werden muss. Methodisch werden hierfür drei Varianten untersucht, (...)
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  • Neuroprosthetic Speech: The Ethical Significance of Accuracy, Control and Pragmatics.Stephen Rainey, Hannah Maslen, Pierre Mégevand, Luc H. Arnal, Eric Fourneret & Blaise Yvert - 2019 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 28 (4):657-670.
    :Neuroprosthetic speech devices are an emerging technology that can offer the possibility of communication to those who are unable to speak. Patients with ‘locked in syndrome,’ aphasia, or other such pathologies can use covert speech—vividly imagining saying something without actual vocalization—to trigger neural controlled systems capable of synthesizing the speech they would have spoken, but for their impairment.We provide an analysis of the mechanisms and outputs involved in speech mediated by neuroprosthetic devices. This analysis provides a framework for accounting for (...)
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  • The Need for Further Fine-Grained Distinctions in Discussions of Authenticity and Deep Brain Stimulation.Jonathan Pugh, Hannah Maslen & Julian Savulescu - 2017 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 8 (3):W1-W3.
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  • Clarifying the Normative Significance of ‘Personality Changes’ Following Deep Brain Stimulation.Jonathan Pugh - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (3):1655-1680.
    There is evidence to suggest that some patients who undergo Deep Brain Stimulation can experience changes to dispositional, emotional and behavioural states that play a central role in conceptions of personality, identity, autonomy, authenticity, agency and/or self. For example, some patients undergoing DBS for Parkinson’s Disease have developed hypersexuality, and some have reported increased apathy. Moreover, experimental psychiatric applications of DBS may intentionally seek to elicit changes to the patient’s dispositional, emotional and behavioural states, in so far as dysfunctions in (...)
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  • Deep Brain Stimulation, Authenticity and Value—CORRIGENDUM.Jonathan Pugh, Hannah Maslen & Julian Savulescu - 2018 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 27 (1):179-179.
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  • Is the Personal Identity Debate a “Threat” to Neurosurgical Patients? A Reply to Müller Et Al.Sven Nyholm - 2017 - Neuroethics 11 (2):229-235.
    In a recent article, Sabine Müller, Merlin Bittlinger, and Henrik Walter launch a sweeping attack against what they call the "personal identity debate" as it relates to patients treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS). In this critique offered by Müller et al., the so-called personal identity debate is said to: (a) be metaphysical in a problematic way, (b) constitute a threat to patients, and (c) use "vague" and "contradictory" statements from patients and their families as direct evidence for metaphysical theories. (...)
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  • Taking Relational Authenticity Seriously: Neurotechnologies, Narrative Identity, and Co-Authorship of the Self.Emilian Mihailov, Alexandra Zorila & Cristian Iftode - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 12 (1):35-37.
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  • Narrative, Addiction, and Three Aspects of Self-Ambiguity.Doug McConnell & Anna Golova - forthcoming - Philosophical Explorations:1-20.
    ‘Self-ambiguity’, we suggest, is best understood as an uncertainty about how strongly a given feature reflects who one truly is. When this understanding of self-ambiguity is applied to a view of th...
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  • Control and Ownership of Neuroprosthetic Speech.Hannah Maslen & Stephen Rainey - 2021 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (3):425-445.
    Implantable brain-computer interfaces are being developed to restore speech capacity for those who are unable to speak. Patients with locked-in syndrome or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis could be able to use covert speech – vividly imagining saying something without actual vocalisation – to trigger neural controlled systems capable of synthesising speech. User control has been identified as particularly pressing for this type of BCI. The incorporation of machine learning and statistical language models into the decoding process introduces a contribution to the (...)
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  • Memory, Authenticity, and Alienation.Ruel Mannette - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 12 (1):50-52.
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  • What is the Point of Being Your True Self? A Genealogy of Essentialist Authenticity.Muriel Leuenberger - 2021 - Philosophy 96 (377):409-431.
    This paper presents a functional genealogy of essentialist authenticity. The essentialist account maintains that authenticity is the result of discovering and realizing one’s ‘true self’. The genealogy shows that essentialist authenticity can serve the function of supporting continuity in one’s individual characteristics. A genealogy of essentialist authenticity is not only methodologically interesting as the first functional genealogy of a contingent concept. It can also deepen the functional understanding of authenticity used in neuroethics, provide a possible explanation for the prevalence of (...)
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  • Why Authenticity Hinges on Narrative Identity.Muriel Leuenberger - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 12 (1):43-45.
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  • Losing Meaning: Philosophical Reflections on Neural Interventions and their Influence on Narrative Identity.Muriel Leuenberger - 2021 - Neuroethics (3):491-505.
    The profound changes in personality, mood, and other features of the self that neural interventions can induce can be disconcerting to patients, their families, and caregivers. In the neuroethical debate, these concerns are often addressed in the context of possible threats to the narrative self. In this paper, I argue that it is necessary to consider a dimension of impacts on the narrative self which has so far been neglected: neural interventions can lead to a loss of meaning of actions, (...)
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  • Memory Modification and Authenticity: A Narrative Approach.Muriel Leuenberger - 2022 - Neuroethics 15 (1):1-19.
    The potential of memory modification techniques has raised concerns and sparked a debate in neuroethics, particularly in the context of identity and authenticity. This paper addresses the question whether and how MMTs influence authenticity. I proceed by drawing two distinctions within the received views on authenticity. From this, I conclude that an analysis of MMTs based on a dual-basis, process view of authenticity is warranted, which implies that the influence of MMTs on authenticity crucially depends on the specifics of how (...)
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  • In Defense of Narrative Authenticity.Muriel Leuenberger - 2020 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 29 (4):656-667.
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  • Of Meatballs, Autonomy, and Human Dignity: Neuroethics and the Boundaries of Decision Making Among Persons with Dementia.Andrea Lavazza & Massimo Reichlin - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 9 (2):88-95.
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  • Assessing Enhancement Technologies: Authenticity as a Social Virtue and Experiment.Cristian Iftode - 2019 - The New Bioethics 25 (1):24-38.
    This paper argues for a revised concept of authenticity entailing two demands that must be balanced. The first demand moves authenticity from the position of a strictly self-regarding virtue towards the position of a fully social virtue, acknowledging the crucial feature of steadiness, i.e. self-consistency, as being precisely what we ‘naturally’ lack. Nevertheless, the value of personal authenticity in a modern, open society comes from the fact that it brings about not only steadiness, but also the public development of a (...)
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  • Experimental and Relational Authenticity: How Neurotechnologies Impact Narrative Identities.Cristian Iftode, Alexandra Zorilă, Constantin Vică & Emilian Mihailov - forthcoming - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences:1-18.
    The debate about how neurotechnologies impact authenticity has focused on two inter-related dimensions: self-discovery and self-creation. In this paper, we develop a broader framework that includes the experimental and relational dimensions of authenticity, both understood as decisive for shaping one’s narrative identity. In our view, neurointerventions that alter someone’s personality traits will also impact her very own self-understanding across time. We argue that experimental authenticity only needs a minimum conception of narrative coherence of the self and that reversibility should remain (...)
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  • Memory Deletion Threatens Authenticity by Destabilizing Values.Colton G. W. Hayse & Adina L. Roskies - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 12 (1):52-54.
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  • Cognitive Enhancement and Authenticity: Moving Beyond the Impasse.Emma C. Gordon - 2022 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 25 (2):281-288.
    In work on the ethics of cognitive enhancement use, there is a pervasive concern that such enhancement will—in some way—make us less authentic. Attempts to clarify what this concern amounts to and how to respond to it often lead to debates on the nature of the “true self” and what constitutes “genuine human activity”. This paper shows that a new and effective way to make progress on whether certain cases of cognitive enhancement problematically undermine authenticity is to make use of (...)
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  • Recommendations for Responsible Development and Application of Neurotechnologies.Sara Goering, Eran Klein, Laura Specker Sullivan, Anna Wexler, Blaise Agüera Y. Arcas, Guoqiang Bi, Jose M. Carmena, Joseph J. Fins, Phoebe Friesen, Jack Gallant, Jane E. Huggins, Philipp Kellmeyer, Adam Marblestone, Christine Mitchell, Erik Parens, Michelle Pham, Alan Rubel, Norihiro Sadato, Mina Teicher, David Wasserman, Meredith Whittaker, Jonathan Wolpaw & Rafael Yuste - 2021 - Neuroethics 14 (3):365-386.
    Advancements in novel neurotechnologies, such as brain computer interfaces and neuromodulatory devices such as deep brain stimulators, will have profound implications for society and human rights. While these technologies are improving the diagnosis and treatment of mental and neurological diseases, they can also alter individual agency and estrange those using neurotechnologies from their sense of self, challenging basic notions of what it means to be human. As an international coalition of interdisciplinary scholars and practitioners, we examine these challenges and make (...)
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  • Optogenetic Memory Modification and the Many Facets of Authenticity.Alexandre Erler - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 12 (1):40-42.
    Open Peer Commentary on P. Zawadzki and A. K. Adamczyk's target article in AJOB Neuroscience on the potential of optogenetics for memory modification. I argue for a radically pluralistic understanding of the notion of authenticity, and highlight the need to further clarify the specific nature of the authors' concern about authenticity, as well as its policy implications.
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  • ‘Woe Betides Anybody Who Tries to Turn me Down.’ A Qualitative Analysis of Neuropsychiatric Symptoms Following Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson’s Disease.Philip E. Mosley, Katherine Robinson, Terry Coyne, Peter Silburn, Michael Breakspear & Adrian Carter - 2019 - Neuroethics 14 (1):47-63.
    Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease can lead to the development of neuropsychiatric symptoms. These can include harmful changes in mood and behaviour that alienate family members and raise ethical questions about personal responsibility for actions committed under stimulation-dependent mental states. Qualitative interviews were conducted with twenty participants following subthalamic DBS at a movement disorders centre, in order to explore the meaning and significance of stimulation-related neuropsychiatric symptoms amongst a purposive sample of persons (...)
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  • What’s Special About ‘Not Feeling Like Oneself’? A Deflationary Account of Self(-Illness) Ambiguity.Roy Dings & Leon C. de Bruin - 2022 - Philosophical Explorations 25 (3):269-289.
    The article provides a conceptualization of self(-illness) ambiguity and investigates to what extent self(-illness) ambiguity is ‘special’. First, we draw on empirical findings to argue that self-ambiguity is a ubiquitous phenomenon. We suggest that these findings are best explained by a multidimensional account, according to which selves consist of various dimensions that mutually affect each other. On such an account, any change to any particular self-aspect may change other self-aspects and thereby alter the overall structural pattern of self-aspects, potentially leading (...)
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  • The Memory-Modifying Potential of Optogenetics and the Need for Neuroethics.Agnieszka K. Adamczyk & Przemysław Zawadzki - 2020 - NanoEthics 14 (3):207-225.
    Optogenetics is an invasive neuromodulation technology involving the use of light to control the activity of individual neurons. Even though optogenetics is a relatively new neuromodulation tool whose various implications have not yet been scrutinized, it has already been approved for its first clinical trials in humans. As optogenetics is being intensively investigated in animal models with the aim of developing novel brain stimulation treatments for various neurological and psychiatric disorders, it appears crucial to consider both the opportunities and dangers (...)
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  • Personality and Authenticity in Light of the Memory-Modifying Potential of Optogenetics.Przemysław Zawadzki & Agnieszka K. Adamczyk - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 12 (1):3-21.
    There has been a growing interest in research concerning memory modification technologies (MMTs) in recent years. Neuroscientists and psychologists are beginning to explore the prospect of controllable and intentional modification of human memory. One of the technologies with the greatest potential to this end is optogenetics—an invasive neuromodulation technique involving the use of light to control the activity of individual brain cells. It has recently shown the potential to modify specific long-term memories in animal models in ways not yet possible (...)
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  • Pattern Theory of Self and Situating Moral Aspects: The Need to Include Authenticity, Autonomy and Responsibility in Understanding the Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation.Przemysław Zawadzki - 2022 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 21 (3):559-582.
    The aims of this paper are to: (1) identify the best framework for comprehending multidimensional impact of deep brain stimulation on the self; (2) identify weaknesses of this framework; (3) propose refinements to it; (4) in pursuing (3), show why and how this framework should be extended with additional moral aspects and demonstrate their interrelations; (5) define how moral aspects relate to the framework; (6) show the potential consequences of including moral aspects on evaluating DBS’s impact on patients’ selves. Regarding (...)
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  • Dimensions of the Threat to the Self Posed by Deep Brain Stimulation: Personal Identity, Authenticity, and Autonomy.Przemysław Zawadzki - 2020 - Diametros 18 (69):71-98.
    Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is an invasive therapeutic method involving the implantation of electrodes and the electrical stimulation of specific areas of the brain to modulate their activity. DBS brings therapeutic benefits, but can also have adverse side effects. Recently, neuroethicists have recognized that DBS poses a threat to the very fabric of human existence, namely, to the selves of patients. This article provides a review of the neuroethical literature examining this issue, and identifies the crucial dimensions related to the (...)
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  • Mapping the Dimensions of Agency.Andreas Schönau, Ishan Dasgupta, Timothy Brown, Erika Versalovic, Eran Klein & Sara Goering - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 12 (2-3):172-186.
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  • Asking Questions That Matter – Question Prompt Lists as Tools for Improving the Consent Process for Neurotechnology Clinical Trials.Andreas Schönau, Sara Goering, Erika Versalovic, Natalia Montes, Tim Brown, Ishan Dasgupta & Eran Klein - 2022 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 16.
    Implantable neurotechnology devices such as Brain Computer Interfaces and Deep Brain Stimulators are an increasing part of treating or exploring potential treatments for neurological and psychiatric disorders. While only a few devices are approved, many promising prospects for future devices are under investigation. The decision to participate in a clinical trial can be challenging, given a variety of risks to be taken into consideration. During the consent process, prospective participants might lack the language to consider those risks, feel unprepared, or (...)
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  • Ethics of Digital Well-Being: A Multidisciplinary Approach.Christopher Burr & Luciano Floridi (eds.) - 2020 - Springer.
    This chapter serves as an introduction to the edited collection of the same name, which includes chapters that explore digital well-being from a range of disciplinary perspectives, including philosophy, psychology, economics, health care, and education. The purpose of this introductory chapter is to provide a short primer on the different disciplinary approaches to the study of well-being. To supplement this primer, we also invited key experts from several disciplines—philosophy, psychology, public policy, and health care—to share their thoughts on what they (...)
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  • Neuroethics.Adina Roskies - 2016 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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