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  1. Psychological Explanation. [REVIEW]T. C. Chabdack - 1972 - Philosophy of Science 39 (1):95-97.
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  • Making Things Happen: A Theory of Causal Explanation.James Woodward - 2003 - Oxford University Press.
    Woodward's long awaited book is an attempt to construct a comprehensive account of causation explanation that applies to a wide variety of causal and explanatory claims in different areas of science and everyday life. The book engages some of the relevant literature from other disciplines, as Woodward weaves together examples, counterexamples, criticisms, defenses, objections, and replies into a convincing defense of the core of his theory, which is that we can analyze causation by appeal to the notion of manipulation.
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  • Tracking Truth: Knowledge, Evidence, and Science.Sherrilyn Roush - 2005 - Oxford University Press.
    Sherrilyn Roush defends a new theory of knowledge and evidence, based on the idea of "tracking" the truth, as the best approach to a wide range of questions about knowledge-related phenomena. The theory explains, for example, why scepticism is frustrating, why knowledge is power, and why better evidence makes you more likely to have knowledge. Tracking Truth provides a unification of the concepts of knowledge and evidence, and argues against traditional epistemological realist and anti-realist positions about scientific theories and for (...)
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  • The Aim and Structure of Physical Theory.Pierre Duhem - 1954 - Princeton: Princeton University Press.
    This classic work in the philosophy of physical science is an incisive and readable account of the scientific method. Pierre Duhem was one of the great figures in French science, a devoted teacher, and a distinguished scholar of the history and philosophy of science. This book represents his most mature thought on a wide range of topics.
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  • Experimental Localism and External Validity.Francesco Guala - 2003 - Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1195-1205.
    Experimental “localism” stresses the importance of context‐specific knowledge, and the limitations of universal theories in science. I illustrate Latour's radical approach to localism and show that it has some unpalatable consequences, in particular the suggestion that problems of external validity (or how to generalize experimental results to nonlaboratory circumstances) cannot be solved. In the last part of the paper I try to sketch a solution to the problem of external validity by extending Mayo's error‐probabilistic approach.
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  • Representing and Intervening: Introductory Topics in the Philosophy of Natural Science.Jarrett Leplin - 1985 - Philosophy of Science 52 (2):314-315.
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  • Man on His Nature.Harry T. Costello - 1941 - Journal of Philosophy 38 (13):359-362.
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  • The Explanation of Behavior.W. D. Joske - 1966 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 27 (1):135-137.
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  • Discovering Complexity Decomposition and Localization as Strategies in Scientific Research.William Bechtel & Robert C. Richardson - 1993 - Princeton.
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  • How the Laws of Physics Lie.Nancy Cartwright - 1983 - Oxford University Press.
    In this sequence of philosophical essays about natural science, the author argues that fundamental explanatory laws, the deepest and most admired successes of modern physics, do not in fact describe regularities that exist in nature. Cartwright draws from many real-life examples to propound a novel distinction: that theoretical entities, and the complex and localized laws that describe them, can be interpreted realistically, but the simple unifying laws of basic theory cannot.
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  • Experimental Practice and an Error Statistical Account of Evidence.Deborah G. Mayo - 2000 - Philosophy of Science 67 (3):207.
    In seeking general accounts of evidence, confirmation, or inference, philosophers have looked to logical relationships between evidence and hypotheses. Such logics of evidential relationship, whether hypothetico-deductive, Bayesian, or instantiationist fail to capture or be relevant to scientific practice. They require information that scientists do not generally have (e.g., an exhaustive set of hypotheses), while lacking slots within which to include considerations to which scientists regularly appeal (e.g., error probabilities). Building on my co-symposiasts contributions, I suggest some directions in which a (...)
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  • The Foundations of Scientific Inference.T. Greenwood - 1969 - Philosophical Quarterly 19 (74):88-89.
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  • From Behaviorism to Neobehaviorism.Patrick Suppes - 1975 - Theory and Decision 6 (3):269-285.
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  • Explaining the Brain: Mechanisms and the Mosaic Unity of Neuroscience.Carl F. Craver - 2007 - Oxford University Press, Clarendon Press.
    Carl Craver investigates what we are doing when we sue neuroscience to explain what's going on in the brain.
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  • Discovering Cell Mechanisms: The Creation of Modern Cell Biology.William Bechtel - 2005 - Cambridge University Press.
    Between 1940 and 1970 pioneers in the new field of cell biology discovered the operative parts of cells and their contributions to cell life. They offered mechanistic accounts that explained cellular phenomena by identifying the relevant parts of cells, the biochemical operations they performed, and the way in which these parts and operations were organised to accomplish important functions. Cell biology was a revolutionary science but in this book it also provides fuel for yet another revolution, one that focuses on (...)
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  • The Book of Evidence.Peter Achinstein - 2001 - Oxford University Press.
    What is required for something to be evidence for a hypothesis? In this fascinating, elegantly written work, distinguished philosopher of science Peter Achinstein explores this question, rejecting typical philosophical and statistical theories of evidence. He claims these theories are much too weak to give scientists what they want--a good reason to believe--and, in some cases, they furnish concepts that mistakenly make all evidential claims a priori. Achinstein introduces four concepts of evidence, defines three of them by reference to "potential" evidence, (...)
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  • The Structure of Scientific Revolutions.Thomas S. Kuhn - 1962 - University of Chicago Press.
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  • What is Justified Belief.Alvin Goldman - 1979 - In George Pappas (ed.), Justification and Knowledge. Boston: D. Reidel. pp. 1-25.
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  • Making Things Happen. A Theory of Causal Explanation.Michael Strevens - 2007 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 74 (1):233-249.
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  • Error and the Growth of Experimental Knowledge.Deborah Mayo - 1997 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 48 (3):455-459.
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  • Theory and Evidence.Clark Glymour - 1981 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 32 (3):314-318.
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  • Philosophy of Experimental Biology.Jacob Stegenga - 2009 - Erkenntnis 71 (3):431-436.
    Philosophers have committed sins while studying science, it is said – philosophy of science focused on physics to the detriment of biology, reconstructed idealizations of scientific episodes rather than attending to historical details, and focused on theories and concepts to the detriment of experiments. Recent generations of philosophers of science have tried to atone for these sins, and by the 1980s the exculpation was in full swing. Marcel Weber’s Philosophy of Experimental Biology is a zenith mea culpa for philosophy of (...)
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  • Selectivity and Discord: Two Problems of Experiment.Thomas Nickles - 2004 - Mind 113 (450):344-347.
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  • Theory and Method in the Neurosciences.Gualtiero Piccinini - 2001 - Philosophy of Science 68 (4):584-588.
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  • How the Laws of Physics Lie.Malcolm R. Forster - 1985 - Philosophy of Science 52 (3):478-480.
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  • The Aim and Structure of Physical Theory. Pierre Duhem, P. P. Wiener.Martin J. Klein - 1954 - Philosophy of Science 21 (4):354-355.
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  • The Concept of evidence.[author unknown] - 1985 - Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 175 (3):358-359.
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  • The Dappled World: A Study of the Boundaries of Science.Nancy Cartwright - 2001 - Erkenntnis 54 (3):411-415.
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  • Data and Phenomena.Jim Woodward - 1989 - Synthese 79 (3):393 - 472.
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  • Philosophical Foundations of Neuroscience.Max R. Bennett & P. M. S. Hacker - 2006 - Behavior and Philosophy 34:71-87.
    The book "Philosophical Foundations of Neuroscience" is an engaging criticism of cognitive neuroscience from the perspective of a Wittgensteinian philosophy of ordinary language. The authors' main claim is that assertions like "the brain sees" and "the left hemisphere thinks" are integral to cognitive neuroscience but that they are meaningless because they commit the mereological fallacy—ascribing to parts of humans, properties that make sense to predicate only of whole humans. The authors claim that this fallacy is at the heart of Cartesian (...)
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  • Error and the Growth of Experimental Knowledge.D. G. Mayo - 1996 - University of Chicago.
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  • The Dappled World: A Study of the Boundaries of Science.Nancy Cartwright - 1999 - Philosophy 75 (294):613-616.
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  • Theory and Evidence.Clark Glymour - 1980 - Ethics 93 (3):613-615.
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  • Constructing the Subject: Historical Origins of Psychological Research.Neil Bolton & Kurt Danziger - 1991 - British Journal of Educational Studies 39 (3):345.
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  • Philosophical Criticism of Behaviorism: An Analysis.Brenda Munsey Mapel - 1977 - Behavior and Philosophy 5 (1):17.
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  • `Two as Good as a Hundred': Poorly Replicated Evidence in Some Nineteenth-Century Neuroscientific Research.James Bogen - 2001 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 32 (3):491-533.
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  • Animal Intelligence: Experimental Studies.Edward L. Thorndike - 1912 - Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 9 (7):193-194.
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  • Memory From a to Z: Keywords, Concepts, and Beyond.Yadin Dudai - 2004 - Oxford University Press.
    Now available as a low priced paperback, Memory from A to Z provides a unique, highly valuable introduction to the field of memory for students and researchers approaching the subject for the first time, while at the same time serving and stimulating the more experienced.
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  • Conditioned Reflexes.I. P. Pavlov - 1927 - Les Etudes Philosophiques 17 (4):560-560.
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  • Skinner Skinned.Daniel C. Dennett - 1978 - In Daniel C. Dennet (ed.), Brainstorms: Philosophical Essays on Mind and Psychology. Bradford Books. pp. 53--70.
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  • Pavlovian Conditioning and its Proper Control Procedures.Robert A. Rescorla - 1967 - Psychological Review 74 (1):71-80.
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  • Thinking About Mechanisms.Peter K. Machamer, Lindley Darden & Carl F. Craver - 2000 - Philosophy of Science 67 (1):1-25.
    The concept of mechanism is analyzed in terms of entities and activities, organized such that they are productive of regular changes. Examples show how mechanisms work in neurobiology and molecular biology. Thinking in terms of mechanisms provides a new framework for addressing many traditional philosophical issues: causality, laws, explanation, reduction, and scientific change.
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  • Fashioning Descriptive Models in Biology: Of Worms and Wiring Diagrams.Rachel A. Ankeny - 2000 - Philosophy of Science 67 (3):272.
    The biological sciences have become increasingly reliant on so-called 'model organisms'. I argue that in this domain, the concept of a descriptive model is essential for understanding scientific practice. Using a case study, I show how such a model was formulated in a preexplanatory context for subsequent use as a prototype from which explanations ultimately may be generated both within the immediate domain of the original model and in additional, related domains. To develop this concept of a descriptive model, I (...)
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  • Organismic Achievement and Environmental Probability.E. Brunswik - 1943 - Psychological Review 50 (3):255-272.
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  • Data, Phenomena, and Reliability.Jim Woodward - 2000 - Philosophy of Science 67 (3):179.
    This paper explores how data serve as evidence for phenomena. In contrast to standard philosophical models which invite us to think of evidential relationships as logical relationships, I argue that evidential relationships in the context of data-to-phenomena reasoning are empirical relationships that depend on holding the right sort of pattern of counterfactual dependence between the data and the conclusions investigators reach on the phenomena themselves.
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  • Recovering the Experiment.Rom Harré - 1998 - Philosophy 73 (3):353-377.
    One of the roots of anti-science is an implausible account of experiments which opens up a seemingly unbridgeable gap between what it would be rational to believe on the basis of an empirical research programme and what scientists do believe. Post-modernists and others of a similar persuasion, for example Goodman, Rorty, Latour and Gergen, have marched into this alleged gap, insisting that experiments do not probe an independent reality, but create worlds to which they are perfectly tailored. In response I (...)
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  • Defining the 'Field at a Given Time.'.K. Lewin - 1943 - Psychological Review 50 (3):292-310.
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  • On the Generality of the Laws of Learning.Martin E. Seligman - 1970 - Psychological Review 77 (5):406-418.
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  • Novel Evidence and Severe Tests.Deborah G. Mayo - 1991 - Philosophy of Science 58 (4):523-552.
    While many philosophers of science have accorded special evidential significance to tests whose results are "novel facts", there continues to be disagreement over both the definition of novelty and why it should matter. The view of novelty favored by Giere, Lakatos, Worrall and many others is that of use-novelty: An accordance between evidence e and hypothesis h provides a genuine test of h only if e is not used in h's construction. I argue that what lies behind the intuition that (...)
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  • Epistemological Custard Pies From Functional Brain Imaging.James Bogen - 2002 - Philosophy of Science 69 (3):S59-S71.
    This paper discusses features of an epistemically valuable form of evidence that raise troubles for received and new epistemological treatments of experimental evidence.
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