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Paradoxical hypodoxes

Synthese 196 (12):5205-5229 (2019)

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  1. Predicativity.Solomon Feferman - 2005 - In Stewart Shapiro (ed.), Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 590-624.
    What is predicativity? While the term suggests that there is a single idea involved, what the history will show is that there are a number of ideas of predicativity which may lead to different logical analyses, and I shall uncover these only gradually. A central question will then be what, if anything, unifies them. Though early discussions are often muddy on the concepts and their employment, in a number of important respects they set the stage for the further developments, and (...)
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  • Understanding Truth.Scott Soames - 1998 - Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press USA.
    In this book, Scott Soames illuminates the notion of truth and the role it plays in our ordinary thought as well as in our logical, philosophical, and scientific theories. Soames aims to integrate and deepen the most significant insights on truth from a variety of sources. He powerfully brings together the best technical work and the most important philosophical reflection on truth and shows how each can illuminate the other. Investigating such questions as whether we need a truth predicate at (...)
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  • Two Paradoxes of Satisfaction.Peter Eldridge-Smith - 2015 - Mind 124 (493):85-119.
    There are two paradoxes of satisfaction, and they are of different kinds. The classic satisfaction paradox is a version of Grelling’s: does ‘does not satisfy itself’ satisfy itself? The Unsatisfied paradox finds a predicate, P, such that Px if and only if x does not satisfy that predicate: paradox results for any x. The two are intuitively different as their predicates have different paradoxical extensions. Analysis reduces each paradoxical argument to differing rule sets, wherein their respective pathologies lie. Having different (...)
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  • Fibonacci, Yablo, and the Cassationist Approach to Paradox.Laurence Goldstein - 2006 - Mind 115 (460):867-890.
    A syntactically correct number-specification may fail to specify any number due to underspecification. For similar reasons, although each sentence in the Yablo sequence is syntactically perfect, none yields a statement with any truth-value. As is true of all members of the Liar family, the sentences in the Yablo sequence are so constructed that the specification of their truth-conditions is vacuous; the Yablo sentences fail to yield statements. The ‘revenge’ problem is easily defused. The solution to the semantical paradoxes offered here (...)
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  • III A Unified Solution to Some Paradoxes.Laurence Goldstein - 2000 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 100:53-74.
    The Russell class does not exist because the conditions purporting to specify that class are contradictory, and hence fail to specify any class. Equally, the conditions purporting to specify the Liar statement are contradictory and hence, although the Liar sentence is grammatically in order, it fails to yield a statement. Thus the common source of these and related paradoxes is contradictory (or tautologous) specifying conditions-for such conditions fail to specify. This is the diagnosis. The cure consists of seeking and destroying (...)
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  • Vagueness and Contradiction.Roy Sorensen - 2001 - Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
    Roy Sorenson offers a unique exploration of an ancient problem: vagueness. Did Buddha become a fat man in one second? Is there a tallest short giraffe? According to Sorenson's epistemicist approach, the answers are yes! Although vagueness abounds in the way the world is divided, Sorenson argues that the divisions are sharp; yet we often do not know where they are. Written in Sorenson'e usual inventive and amusing style, this book offers original insight on language and logic, the way world (...)
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  • Truth.J. L. Austin - 1950 - Aristotelian Society Supp 24 (1):111--29.
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  • Semantic Pathology and the Open Pair. [REVIEW]James A. Woodbridge & Bradley Armour-Garb - 2005 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 71 (3):695–703.
    In Vagueness and Contradiction (2001), Roy Sorensen defends and extends his epistemic account of vagueness. In the process, he appeals to connections between vagueness and semantic paradox. These appeals come mainly in Chapter 11, where Sorensen offers a solution to what he calls the no-no paradox—a “neglected cousin” of the more famous liar—and attempts to use this solution as a precedent for an epistemic account of the sorites paradox. This strategy is problematic for Sorensen’s project, however, since, as we establish, (...)
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  • Outline of a Theory of Truth.Saul Kripke - 1975 - Journal of Philosophy 72 (19):690-716.
    A formal theory of truth, alternative to tarski's 'orthodox' theory, based on truth-value gaps, is presented. the theory is proposed as a fairly plausible model for natural language and as one which allows rigorous definitions to be given for various intuitive concepts, such as those of 'grounded' and 'paradoxical' sentences.
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  • Paradoxes of Grounding in Semantics.Hans Herzberger - 1970 - Journal of Philosophy 67 (6):145-167.
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  • Semantical Paradox.Tyler Burge - 1979 - Journal of Philosophy 76 (4):169-198.
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  • Replacing Truth.Kevin Scharp - 2013 - Oxford, England: Oxford University Press UK.
    Kevin Scharp proposes an original theory of the nature and logic of truth on which truth is an inconsistent concept that should be replaced for certain theoretical purposes. He argues that truth is best understood as an inconsistent concept, and proposes a detailed theory of inconsistent concepts that can be applied to the case of truth. Truth also happens to be a useful concept, but its inconsistency inhibits its utility; as such, it should be replaced with consistent concepts that can (...)
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  • The Semantic Conception of Truth and the Foundations of Semantics.Alfred Tarski - 1943 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 4 (3):341-376.
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  • Kripke and the Logic of Truth.Michael Kremer - 1988 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 17 (3):225 - 278.
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  • Spandrels of Truth.J. C. Beall - 2009 - Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
    In Spandrels of Truth, Beall concisely presents and defends a modest, so-called dialetheic theory of transparent truth.
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  • The Liar Speaks the Truth: A Defense of the Revision Theory of Truth.Aladdin Mahmūd Yaqūb - 1993 - Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
    In this book, Yaqub describes a simple conception of truth and shows that it yields a semantical theory that accommodates the whole range of our seemingly conflicting intuitions about truth. This conception takes the Tarskian biconditionals as correctly and completely defining the notion of truth. The semantical theory, which is called the revision theory, that emerges from this conception paints a metaphysical picture of truth as a property whose applicability is given by a revision process rather than by a fixed (...)
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  • Introduction to Logic.Patrick Colonel Suppes - 1957 - New York, NY, USA: Dover Publications.
    Coherent, well organized text familiarizes readers with complete theory of logical inference and its applications to math and the empirical sciences. Part I deals with formal principles of inference and definition; Part II explores elementary intuitive set theory, with separate chapters on sets, relations, and functions. Last section introduces numerous examples of axiomatically formulated theories in both discussion and exercises. Ideal for undergraduates; no background in math or philosophy required.
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  • Universality and the Liar: An Essay on Truth and the Diagonal Argument.Keith Simmons - 1993 - Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
    This book is about one of the most baffling of all paradoxes – the famous Liar paradox. Suppose we say: 'We are lying now'. Then if we are lying, we are telling the truth; and if we are telling the truth we are lying. This paradox is more than an intriguing puzzle, since it involves the concept of truth. Thus any coherent theory of truth must deal with the Liar. Keith Simmons discusses the solutions proposed by medieval philosophers and offers (...)
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  • Truth, Probability and Paradox: Studies in Philosophical Logic.John Leslie Mackie - 1905 - New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press UK.
    Classic work by one of the most brilliant figures in post-war analytic philosophy.
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  • More on Putnam and Tarski.Panu Raatikainen - 2003 - Synthese 135 (1):37 - 47.
    Hilary Putnam's famous arguments criticizing Tarski's theory of truth are evaluated. It is argued that they do not succeed to undermine Tarski's approach. One of the arguments is based on the problematic idea of a false instance of T-schema. The other ignores various issues essential for Tarski's setting such as language-relativity of truth definition.
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  • The Revision Theory of Truth.Vann Mcgee - 1996 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 56 (3):727-730.
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  • On Rigorous Definitions.Nuel Belnap - 1993 - Philosophical Studies 72 (2-3):115 - 146.
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  • The Revision Theory of Truth.A. Gupta & N. Belnap - 1993 - MIT Press.
    In this rigorous investigation into the logic of truth Anil Gupta and Nuel Belnap explain how the concept of truth works in both ordinary and pathological..
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  • Spandrels of Truth.Jc Beall - 2010 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 16 (2):284-286.
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  • Les mathématiques et la logique.H. Poincaré - 1905 - Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale 14 (3):294 - 317.
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  • Truth Probability and Paradox: Studies in Philosophical Logic.Paul Teller - 1975 - Philosophical Review 84 (2):276.
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  • Universality and the Liar: An Essay on Truth and the Diagonal Argument.Patrick Grim & Keith Simmons - 1995 - Philosophical Review 104 (3):467.
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  • Replacing Truth.Kevin Scharp - 2007 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 50 (6):606 – 621.
    Of the dozens of purported solutions to the liar paradox published in the past fifty years, the vast majority are "traditional" in the sense that they reject one of the premises or inference rules that are used to derive the paradoxical conclusion. Over the years, however, several philosophers have developed an alternative to the traditional approaches; according to them, our very competence with the concept of truth leads us to accept that the reasoning used to derive the paradox is sound. (...)
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  • Reaching Transparent Truth.Pablo Cobreros, Paul Égré, David Ripley & Robert van Rooij - 2013 - Mind 122 (488):841-866.
    This paper presents and defends a way to add a transparent truth predicate to classical logic, such that and A are everywhere intersubstitutable, where all T-biconditionals hold, and where truth can be made compositional. A key feature of our framework, called STTT (for Strict-Tolerant Transparent Truth), is that it supports a non-transitive relation of consequence. At the same time, it can be seen that the only failures of transitivity STTT allows for arise in paradoxical cases.
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  • The Truth Teller Paradox.Chris Mortensen & Graham Priest - 1981 - Logique Et Analyse 24 (95):381-388.
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  • Introduction to Logic.Roland Hall - 1960 - Philosophical Quarterly 10 (40):287-288.
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  • Hop, Skip and Jump: The Agonistic Conception of Truth.Stephen Yablo - 1993 - Philosophical Perspectives 7:371-396.
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  • Paradoxes and Failures of Cut.David Ripley - 2013 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 91 (1):139 - 164.
    This paper presents and motivates a new philosophical and logical approach to truth and semantic paradox. It begins from an inferentialist, and particularly bilateralist, theory of meaning---one which takes meaning to be constituted by assertibility and deniability conditions---and shows how the usual multiple-conclusion sequent calculus for classical logic can be given an inferentialist motivation, leaving classical model theory as of only derivative importance. The paper then uses this theory of meaning to present and motivate a logical system---ST---that conservatively extends classical (...)
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  • Vagueness and Contradiction.Roy Sorensen - 2005 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 71 (3):695-703.
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  • Truth and Significance.C. Lewy - 1947 - Analysis 8 (2):24-27.
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  • The Tarskian Turn. Deflationism and Axiomatic Truth.Leon Horsten - 2011 - MIT Press.
    The work of mathematician and logician Alfred Tarski (1901--1983) marks the transition from substantial to deflationary views about truth.
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  • Plurivalent Logics.Graham Priest - 2014 - Australasian Journal of Logic 11 (1).
    In this paper, I will describe a technique for generating a novel kind of semantics for a logic, and explore some of its consequences. It would be natural to call the semantics produced by the technique in question ‘many-valued'; but that name is, of course, already taken. I call them, instead, ‘plurivalent'. In standard logical semantics, formulas take exactly one of a bunch of semantic values. I call such semantics ‘univalent'. In a plurivalent semantics, by contrast, formulas may take one (...)
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  • Paradoxes and Hypodoxes of Time Travel.Peter Eldridge-Smith - 2007 - In Jan Lloyd Jones, Paul Campbell & Peter Wylie (eds.), Art and Time. Australian Scholarly Publishing. pp. 172--189.
    I distinguish paradoxes and hypodoxes among the conundrums of time travel. I introduce ‘hypodoxes’ as a term for seemingly consistent conundrums that seem to be related to various paradoxes, as the Truth-teller is related to the Liar. In this article, I briefly compare paradoxes and hypodoxes of time travel with Liar paradoxes and Truth-teller hypodoxes. I also discuss Lewis’ treatment of time travel paradoxes, which I characterise as a Laissez Faire theory of time travel. Time travel paradoxes are impossible according (...)
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  • Liars, Truthtellers and Naysayers: A Broader View of Semantic Pathology I.Bradley Armour-Garb & James A. Woodbridge - 2012 - Language and Communication 32 (4):293-311.
    Semantic pathology is most widely recognized in the liar paradox, where an apparent inconsistency arises in ‘‘liar sentences’’ and their ilk. But the phenomenon of semantic pathology also manifests a sibling symptom—an apparent indeterminacy—which, while not largely discussed (save for the occasional nod to ‘‘truthteller sentences’’), is just as pervasive as, and exactly parallels, the symptom of inconsistency. Moreover, certain ‘‘dual symptom’’ cases, which we call naysayers, exhibit both inconsistency and indeterminacy and also manifest a higher-order indeterminacy between them. In (...)
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  • Notes on the Theory of Reference.John G. Kemeny - 1954 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 19 (2):136-136.
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  • Minimalism.Anil Gupta - 1993 - Philosophical Perspectives 7:359-369.
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  • Truth.J. L. Austin, P. F. Strawson & D. R. Cousin - 1950 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 24 (1):111-172.
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  • The Structure of the Paradoxes of Self-Reference.Graham Priest - 1994 - Mind 103 (409):25-34.
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  • Plurivalent Logics.Graham Priest - 2017 - In Dmitry Zaitsev & Vladimir Markin (eds.), The Logical Legacy of Nikolai Vasiliev and Modern Logic. Springer Verlag.
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  • Naming and Diagonalization, From Cantor to Gödel to Kleene.Haim Gaifman - 2006 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 14 (5):709-728.
    We trace self-reference phenomena to the possibility of naming functions by names that belong to the domain over which the functions are defined. A naming system is a structure of the form ,{ }), where D is a non-empty set; for every a∈ D, which is a name of a k-ary function, {a}: Dk → D is the function named by a, and type is the type of a, which tells us if a is a name and, if it is, (...)
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  • The Easy Way to Gödel's Proof and Related Matters.Haim Gaifman - unknown
    This short sketch of Gödel’s incompleteness proof shows how it arises naturally from Cantor’s diagonalization method [1891]. It renders the proof of the so–called fixed point theorem transparent. We also point out various historical details and make some observations on circularity and some comparisons with natural language. The sketch does not include the messy details of the arithmetization of the language, but the motive for arithmetization and what it should accomplish are made obvious. We suggest this as a way to (...)
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  • Definition and Revision: A Response to McGee and Martin.Anil Gupta - 1997 - Philosophical Issues 8:419-443.
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  • III-A Unified Solution to Some Paradoxes.Laurence Goldstein - 2000 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 100 (1):53-74.
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  • Paradoxes.R. M. Sainsbury - 1991 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 51 (2):455-459.
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  • Exploring Meinong's Jungle and Beyond.Richard Routley - 1984 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 44 (4):539-552.
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