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Depiction

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2017)

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  1. A Double Content Theory of Artistic Representation.John Dilworth - 2005 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 63 (3):249–260.
    The representational content or subject matter of a picture is normally distinguished from various non-representational components of meaning involved in artworks, such as expressive, stylistic or intentional factors. However, I show how such non subject matter components may themselves be analyzed in content terms, if two different categories of representation are recognized--aspect indication for stylistic etc. factors, and normal representation for subject matter content. On the account given, the relevant kinds of content are hierarchically structured, with relatively unconceptualized lower level (...)
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  • On Outlining the Shape of Depiction.Catharine Abell - 2005 - Ratio 18 (1):27–38.
    In this paper, I discuss the account of depiction proposed by Robert Hopkins in his book Picture, Image and Experience. I first briefly summarise Hopkins’s account, according to which we experience depictions as resembling their objects in respect of outline shape. I then ask whether Hopkins’s account can perform the explanatory tasks required of an adequate account of depiction. I argue that there are at least two reasons for which Hopkins’s account of depiction is inadequate. Firstly, the notion of outline (...)
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  • Depiction, Perception, and Imagination: Responses to Richard Wollheim.Kendall Walton - 2002 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 60 (1):27–35.
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  • Taking Twofoldness Seriously: Walton on Imagination and Depiction.Bence Nanay - 2004 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 62 (3):285–289.
    This paper analyzes Kendall Walton's theory of depiction and, more specifically, his notion of twofoldness. I argue that (1) Walton’s notion of twofoldness is, in spite of what Walton claims, very different from Richard Wollheim’s and (2) Walton’s notion of twofoldness is inconsistent with the rest of his theory of depiction.
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  • What Makes Representational Painting Truly Visual?Robert Hopkins - 2003 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 77 (1):149–167.
    I offer two, complementary, accounts of the visual nature of representational picturing. One, in terms of six features of depiction, sets an explanatory task. The other, in terms of the experience to which depiction gives rise, promises to meet that need. Elsewhere I have offered an account of this experience that allows this promise to be fulfilled. I sketch that view, and defend it against Wollheim's claim that it cannot meet certain demands on a satisfactory account. I then turn to (...)
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  • Canny Resemblance.Catharine Abell - 2009 - Philosophical Review 118 (2):183-223.
    Depiction is the form of representation distinctive of figurative paintings, drawings, and photographs. Accounts of depiction attempt to specify the relation something must bear to an object in order to depict it. Resemblance accounts hold that the notion of resemblance is necessary to the specification of this relation. Several difficulties with such analyses have led many philosophers to reject the possibility of an adequate resemblance account of depiction. This essay outlines these difficulties and argues that current resemblance accounts succumb to (...)
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  • The Role of Imagining in Seeing-In.Kathleen Stock - 2008 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 66 (4):365-380.
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  • Heavenly Sight and the Nature of Seeing-In.John Kulvicki - 2009 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 67 (4):387-397.
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  • Something That is Nothing but Can Be Anything: The Image and Our Consciousness of It.John Brough - 2012 - In Dan Zahavi (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Contemporary Phenomenology. Oxford University Press.
    This chapter concentrates on the nature of the image as it presents itself in experience, with its remarkable capacity to represent within itself people, events, emotions, and many other things, and with its place in art. The Husserlian perspective has many affinities with more recent investigations of images. The physical dimension of image plays an important role in imaging and has been largely neglected by philosophers, though not by artists. The uniqueness of image consciousness rests in its ability to see (...)
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  • Seeing, Doing, and Knowing: A Philosophical Theory of Sense Perception.Mohan Matthen - 2005 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Seeing, Doing, and Knowing is an original and comprehensive philosophical treatment of sense perception as it is currently investigated by cognitive neuroscientists. Its central theme is the task-oriented specialization of sensory systems across the biological domain. Sensory systems are automatic sorting machines; they engage in a process of classification. Human vision sorts and orders external objects in terms of a specialized, proprietary scheme of categories - colours, shapes, speeds and directions of movement, etc. This 'Sensory Classification Thesis' implies that sensation (...)
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  • The Standard of Correctness and the Ontology of Depiction.Enrico Terrone - 2021 - American Philosophical Quarterly 58 (4):399-412.
    This paper develops Richard Wollheim’s claim that the proper appreciation of a picture involves not only enjoying a seeing-in experience but also abiding by a standard of correctness. While scholars have so far focused on what fixes the standard, thereby discussing the alternative between intentions and causal mechanisms, the paper focuses on what the standard does, that is, establishing which kinds, individuals, features and standpoints are relevant to the understanding of pictures. It is argued that, while standards concerning kinds, individuals (...)
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  • Representation Without Background? A Critical Reading of Wollheim and Greenberg on the Representational Character of Abstract Pictures.Elisa Caldarola - 2012 - Aisthesis: Pratiche, Linguaggi E Saperi Dell’Estetico 5 (2).
    Focussing on some claims by Richard Wollheim and Clement Greenberg, I investigate how the concepts of depicted figure, background of a pictorial scene and ground of a picture are relevant for an understanding of the relation between figurative and abstract pictures, especially when it comes to considering whether abstract pictures can be said to represent pictorially.
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  • A Syncretistic Theory of Depiction.Alberto Voltolini - 2015 - Palgrave-Macmillan.
    What is depiction? This is a venerable question that has received many different answers throughout the whole history of philosophy, especially in contemporary times. A Syncretistic Theory of Depiction elaborates a new account on this matter by providing a theory of depiction that tries to combine the merits of the previous theories while dropping their defects. It is argued that a picture is a representation in a pictorial or figurative mode, and its 'figurativity' is given by a special perception, perceiving-in, (...)
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  • Analog and Analog.John Haugeland - 1981 - Philosophical Topics 12 (1):213-226.
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  • Wollheim, Wittgenstein, and Pictorial Representation: Seeing-as and Seeing-In.Gary Kemp & Gabriele M. Mras (eds.) - 2016 - Routledge.
    Pictorial representation is one of the core questions in aesthetics and philosophy of art. What is a picture? How do pictures represent things? This collection of specially commissioned chapters examines the influential thesis that the core of pictorial representation is not resemblance but 'seeing-in', in particular as found in the work of Richard Wollheim. We can see a passing cloud _as_ a rabbit, but we also see a rabbit _in_ the clouds. 'Seeing-in' is an imaginative act of the kind employed (...)
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  • Philosophy in a New Key.Susanne Katherina Knauth Langer - 1943 - Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
    This book presents a study of human intelligence beginning with a semantic theory and leading into a critique of music.
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  • Reference Without Referents.R. M. Sainsbury (ed.) - 2005 - Oxford, England and New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press UK.
    Reference is a central topic in philosophy of language, and has been the main focus of discussion about how language relates to the world. R. M. Sainsbury sets out a new approach to the concept, which promises to bring to an end some long-standing debates in semantic theory.There is a single category of referring expressions, all of which deserve essentially the same kind of semantic treatment. Included in this category are both singular and plural referring expressions, complex and non-complex referring (...)
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  • The Varieties of Reference.Gareth Evans - 1982 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Covering the work of Frege, Russell, and more recent work on singular reference, this important book examines the concepts of perceptually-based demonstrative identification, thought about oneself, and recognition-based demonstrative identification.
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  • Meaning.H. Paul Grice - 1957 - Philosophical Review 66 (3):377-388.
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  • Twofold Pictorial Experience.René Jagnow - 2019 - Erkenntnis:1-22.
    Richard Wollheim famously argued that figurative pictures depict their scenes, in part, in virtue of their ability to elicit a unique type of visual experience in their viewers, which he called seeing-in. According to Wollheim, experiences of seeing-in are necessarily twofold, that is, they involve two aspects of visual awareness: when a viewer sees a scene in a picture, she is simultaneously aware of certain visible features of the picture surface, the picture’s design, and the scene depicted by the picture. (...)
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  • Realism.Linda Nochlin - 1971 - Cup Archive.
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  • Modeling the Meanings of Pictures: Depiction and the Philosophy of Language.John V. Kulvicki - 2020 - Oxford University Press.
    John Kulvicki explores the many ways in which pictures can be meaningful, taking inspiration from the philosophy of language. Pictures are important parts of communicative acts. They express a variety of thoughts, and they are also representations. Kulvicki shows how the meanings of pictures let us put them to a wide range of communicative uses.
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  • Philosophical Writings.René Descartes, G. E. M. Anscombe & P. T. Geach - 1954 - Nelson.
    This book covers a remarkable amount of ground and has become something of a classic. Besides the Discourse and the Meditations, it contains Private Thoughts, the third set of Objections and Replies, most of the Regulae, parts of the Principia and the Dioptrics, together with crrespondence with Elizabeth, Princess Palatine, Mersenne and others.
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  • Painting as an Art.Richard Wollheim - 1987 - Thames & Hudson.
    Explains the difference between pictorial and linguistic meaning, examines the works of Titian, Poussin, Ingres, Manet, Picasso, and de Kooning, and discusses art's psychological impact.
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  • Art and Illusion: A Study in the Psychology of Pictorial Representation.E. H. Gombrich - 1960 - Phaidon.
    The A.W. Mellon lectures in the fine arts 1956, National Gallery of Art, Washington.
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  • Realism and the Riddle of Style.Catharine Abell - 2006 - Contemporary Aesthetics 4.
    My concern in this paper is what, in Art and Illusion, Gombrich calls "the riddle of style". This is the problem of why people at different times and in different cultures have depicted objects in very different ways. An adequate solution to this problem will comprise an explanation of why depiction has a history. The problem seems intractable because of three common assumptions about the history of depiction that, while independently plausible, are inconsistent. First, we assume that this history is (...)
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  • Languages of Art: An Approach to a Theory of Symbols.Nelson Goodman - 1968 - Bobbs-Merrill.
    . . . Unlike Dewey, he has provided detailed incisive argumentation, and has shown just where the dogmas and dualisms break down." -- Richard Rorty, The Yale Review.
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  • Why, as Responsible for Figurativity, Seeing-in Can Only Be Inflected Seeing-In.Alberto Voltolini - 2015 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 14 (3):651-667.
    In this paper, I want to argue for two main and related points. First, I want to defend Richard Wollheim’s well-known thesis that the twofold mental state of seeing-in is the distinctive pictorial experience that marks figurativity. Figurativity is what makes a representation pictorial, a depiction of its subject. Moreover, I want to show that insofar as it is a mark of figurativity, all seeing-in is inflected. That is to say, every mental state of seeing-in is such that the characterisation (...)
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  • Images.John V. Kulvicki - 2013 - Routledge.
    The nature of representation is a central topic in philosophy. This is the first book to connect problems with understanding representational artifacts, like pictures, diagrams, and inscriptions, to the philosophies of science, mind, and art. Can images be a source of knowledge? Are images merely conventional signs, like words? What is the relationship between the observer and the observed? In this clear and stimulating introduction to the problem John V. Kulvicki explores these questions and more. He discusses: the nature of (...)
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  • Contemporary Debates in Aesthetics and Philosophy of Art.Matthew Kieran (ed.) - 2005 - Blackwell.
    The contributions to this volume provide a thorough introduction to the major topics in contemporary aesthetics and the philosophy of art, in the distinctive format of philosophers engaging in head-to-head debate at a level accessible to ...
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  • What is a Picture?: Depiction, Realism, Abstraction.Michael Newall - 2011 - Palgrave-Macmillan.
    Machine generated contents note: -- List of figures -- Acknowledgements -- Introduction -- Convention -- Seeing and the Experience of Pictures -- A Theory of Depiction -- Resemblance -- Transparency and Resemblance -- Realism -- Varieties of Realism -- Abstraction -- Notes -- Index.
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  • Philosophical Perspectives on Depiction.Catharine Abell & Katerina Bantinaki (eds.) - 2010 - Oxford University Press.
    This volume of specially written essays by leading philosophers offers to set the agenda for the philosophy of depiction.
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  • Reference and Existence: The John Locke Lectures.Saul A. Kripke - 2013 - Oxford University Press.
    Reference and Existence, Saul Kripke's John Locke Lectures for 1973, can be read as a sequel to his classic Naming and Necessity. It confronts important issues left open in that work -- among them, the semantics of proper names and natural kind terms as they occur in fiction and in myth; negative existential statements; the ontology of fiction and myth. In treating these questions, he makes a number of methodological observations that go beyond the framework of his earlier book -- (...)
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  • Depictive Structure?Ben Blumson - 2011 - Philosophical Papers 40 (1):1-25.
    This paper argues against definitions of depiction in terms of the syntactic and semantic properties of symbol systems. In particular, it is argued that John Kulvicki's definition of depictive symbol systems in terms of relative repleteness, semantic richness, syntactic sensitivity and transparency is susceptible to similar counterexamples as Nelson Goodman's in terms of syntactic density, semantic density and relative repleteness. The general moral drawn is that defining depiction requires attention not merely to descriptive questions about syntax and semantics, but also (...)
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  • Seeing Things in Pictures.John H. Brown - 2010 - In Catharine Abell Katerina Bantinaki (ed.), Philosophical Perspectives on Depiction. Oxford University Press. pp. 208--36.
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  • Depictive Seeing and Double Content.John Dilworth - 2010 - In Catharine Abell & Katerina Bantinaki (eds.), Philosophical Perspectives on Depiction. Oxford University Press.
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  • Inflected Pictorial Experience: Its Treatment and Significance.Robert Hopkins - 2010 - In Catharine Abell & Katerina Bantinaki (eds.), Philosophical Perspectives on Depiction. Oxford University Press. pp. 151.
    Some (Podro, Lopes) think that sometimes our experience of pictures is ‘inflected’. What we see in these pictures involves, somehow, an awareness of features of their design. I clarify the idea of inflection, arguing that the thought must be that what is seen in the picture is something with properties which themselves need characterising by reference to that picture’s design, conceived as such. I argue that there is at least one case of inflection, so understood. Proponents of inflection have claimed (...)
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  • The Objective Eye: Color, Form, and Reality in the Theory of Art.John Hyman - 2006 - University of Chicago Press.
    “The longer you work, the more the mystery deepens of what appearance is, or how what is called appearance can be made in another medium."—Francis Bacon, painter This, in a nutshell, is the central problem in the theory of art. It has fascinated philosophers from Plato to Wittgenstein. And it fascinates artists and art historians, who have always drawn extensively on philosophical ideas about language and representation, and on ideas about vision and the visible world that have deep philosophical roots. (...)
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  • The Language of Imagination.Alan R. White - 1990 - Cambridge: Blackwell.
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  • Marvelous Images: On Values and the Arts.Kendall Walton - 2008 - Oxford University Press.
    The twelve essays by Kendall Walton in this volume address a broad range of issues concerning the arts. Walton introduces an innovative account of aesthetic value, and explores relations between aesthetic value and values of other kinds. His classic 'Categories of Art' is included, as is 'Transparent Pictures', his controversial account of what is special about photographs. A new essay investigates the fact that still pictures are still, although some of them depict motion. New postscripts have been added to several (...)
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  • Theory and Philosophy of Art: Style, Artist, and Society.Meyer Schapiro - 1977 - George Braziller.
    Adapting critical methods from such wide-ranging fields as anthropology, linguistics, philosophy, biology, and other sciences, Schapiro appraises fundamental semantic terms such as "organic style," "pictorial style", "field and vehicle," and "form and content"; he elucidates eclipsed intent in a well-known text by Freud on Leonardo da Vinci, in another by Heidegger on Vincent van Gogh.
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  • Picture, Image and Experience: A Philosophical Inquiry.Robert Hopkins - 1998 - Cambridge University Press.
    How do pictures represent? In this book Robert Hopkins casts new light on an ancient question by connecting it to issues in the philosophies of mind and perception. He starts by describing several striking features of picturing that demand explanation. These features strongly suggest that our experience of pictures is central to the way they represent, and Hopkins characterizes that experience as one of resemblance in a particular respect. He deals convincingly with the objections traditionally assumed to be fatal to (...)
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  • Problems and Projects.Nelson Goodman (ed.) - 1972 - Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill.
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  • Aesthetic Essays.Malcolm Budd - 2008 - Oxford University Press.
    Introduction -- Aesthetic judgements, aesthetic principles, and aesthetic properties -- Aesthetic essence -- The acquaintance principle -- The intersubjective validity of aesthetic judgements -- The pure judgement of taste as an aesthetic reflective judgement -- Understanding music -- The characterization of aesthetic qualities by essential metaphors and quasi-metaphors -- Musical movement and aesthetic metaphors -- Aesthetic realism and emotional qualities of music -- On looking at a picture -- The look of a picture -- Wollheim on correspondence, projective properties, and (...)
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  • Analog and Digital.David K. Lewis - 1971 - Noûs 5 (3):321-327.
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  • Defining Depiction.Ben Blumson - 2009 - British Journal of Aesthetics 49 (2):143-157.
    It is a platitude that whereas language is mediated by convention, depiction is mediated by resemblance. But this platitude may be attacked on the grounds that resemblance is either insufficient for or incidental to depictive representation. I defend common sense from this attack by using Grice's analysis of meaning to specify the non-incidental role of resemblance in depictive representation.
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  • Three Essays on Style.Erwin Panofsky & Irving Lavin - 1997 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 55 (1):66-68.
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  • Pictures, Titles, Depictive Content.Kendall L. Walton - 2011 - In Publications of the Austrian Ludwig Wittgenstein Society - N.S. 17. De Gruyter. pp. 395-408.
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  • The Speaking Image: Visual Communication and the Nature of Depiction.Robert Hopkins - 2006 - In Matthew Kieran (ed.), Contemporary Debates in Aesthetics and the Philosophy of Art. Blackwell. pp. 135--159.
    This paper summarises the main claims I have made in a series of publications on depiction. Having described six features of depiction that any account should explain, I sketch an account that does this. The account understands depiction in terms of the experience to which it gives rise, and construes that experience as one of resemblance. The property in respect of which resemblance is experienced was identified by Thomas Reid, in his account of ‘visible figure’. I defend the account against (...)
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  • In Defense of Seeing-In.Richard Wollheim - 2003 - In Heiko Hecht, Robert Schwartz & Margaret Atherton (eds.), Looking Into Pictures. MIT Press. pp. 3--16.
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