Switch to: Citations

Add references

You must login to add references.
  1. Meanings Are Syntactically Individuated and Found in the Head.James Mcgilvray - 1998 - Mind and Language 13 (2):225-280.
    Expanding on some of Chomsky’s recently expressed views of meaning in a way that is consistent with his long-held rationalist conception of mind, I show how syntax, broadly conceived, could individuate meanings and provide a science of meanings inside the head. Interpretation becomes a pragmatic matter, although a rationalist account of mind shows how internal meanings guide interpretation and, more generally, language use. In this view of meanings, interpretation, and mind, semantics as usually understood disappears.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   19 citations  
  • 3. Concepts in the Brain.Antonio R. Damasio - 1989 - Mind and Language 4 (1-2):24-28.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  • An Overview of the KL‐ONE Knowledge Representation System.Ronald J. Brachman & James G. Schmolze - 1985 - Cognitive Science 9 (2):171-216.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   40 citations  
  • Quasi‐Indexicals and Knowledge Reports.William J. Rapaport, Stuart C. Shapiro & Janyce M. Wiebe - 1997 - Cognitive Science 21 (1):63-107.
    We present a computational analysis of de re, de dicto, and de se belief and knowledge reports. Our analysis solves a problem first observed by Hector-Neri Castañeda, namely, that the simple rule -/- `(A knows that P) implies P' -/- apparently does not hold if P contains a quasi-indexical. We present a single rule, in the context of a knowledge-representation and reasoning system, that holds for all P, including those containing quasi-indexicals. In so doing, we explore the difference between reasoning (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   13 citations  
  • Intensional Concepts in Propositional Semantic Networks.Anthony S. Maida & Stuart C. Shapiro - 1982 - Cognitive Science 6 (4):291-330.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   22 citations  
  • Implementation is Semantic Interpretation.Willam J. Rapaport - 1999 - The Monist 82 (1):109-130.
    What is the computational notion of “implementation”? It is not individuation, instantiation, reduction, or supervenience. It is, I suggest, semantic interpretation.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   23 citations  
  • How to Make the World Fit Our Language: An Essay in Meinongian Semantics.Wüliam J. Rapaport - 1981 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 14:1-21.
    Natural languages differ from most formal languages in having a partial, rather than a total, semantic interpretation function; e.g., some noun phrases don't refer. The usual semantics for handling such noun phrases require syntactic reform. The alternative presented here is semantic expansion, viz., enlarging the range of the interpretaion function to make it total. A specific ontology based on Meinong's Theory of Objects, which can serve as domain on interpretation, is suggested, and related to the work of Castaneda, Frege, Katz (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   14 citations  
  • How to Make the World Fit Our Language: An Essay in Meinongian Semantics.Wüliam J. Rapaport - 1981 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 14:1-21.
    Natural languages differ from most formal languages in having a partial, rather than a total, semantic interpretation function; e.g., some noun phrases don't refer. The usual semantics for handling such noun phrases (e.g., Russell, Quine) require syntactic reform. The alternative presented here is semantic expansion, viz., enlarging the range of the interpretaion function to make it total. A specific ontology based on Meinong's Theory of Objects, which can serve as domain on interpretation, is suggested, and related to the work of (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   16 citations  
  • Non-Existent Objects and Epistemological Ontology.William J. Rapaport - 1985 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 25 (1):61-95.
    This essay examines the role of non-existent objects in "epistemological ontology" — the study of the entities that make thinking possible. An earlier revision of Meinong's Theory of Objects is reviewed, Meinong's notions of Quasisein and Außersein are discussed, and a theory of Meinongian objects as "combinatorially possible" entities is presented.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  • Non-Existent Objects and Epistemological Ontology.William J. Rapaport - 1985 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 25 (1):61-95.
    This essay examines the role of non-existent objects in "epistemological ontology" — the study of the entities that make thinking possible. An earlier revision of Meinong's Theory of Objects is reviewed, Meinong's notions of Quasisein and Außersein are discussed, and a theory of Meinongian objects as "combinatorially possible" entities is presented.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   15 citations  
  • An Overview of the KL-ONE Knowledge Representation System.J. Brachman Ronald & G. Schmolze James - 1985 - Cognitive Science 9 (2):171-216.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   16 citations  
  • Ontological Relativity.W. V. Quine - 1968 - Journal of Philosophy 65 (7):185-212.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   296 citations  
  • Meaning and Necessity: A Study in Semantics and Modal Logic.Rudolf Carnap - 1947 - Chicago, IL, USA: University of Chicago Press.
    "This book is valuable as expounding in full a theory of meaning that has its roots in the work of Frege and has been of the widest influence.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   640 citations  
  • Minds, Brains, and Programs.John R. Searle - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3):417-57.
    What psychological and philosophical significance should we attach to recent efforts at computer simulations of human cognitive capacities? In answering this question, I find it useful to distinguish what I will call "strong" AI from "weak" or "cautious" AI. According to weak AI, the principal value of the computer in the study of the mind is that it gives us a very powerful tool. For example, it enables us to formulate and test hypotheses in a more rigorous and precise fashion. (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1472 citations  
  • Contextual Vocabulary Acquisition: A Computational Theory and Educational Curriculum.William J. Rapaport & Michael W. Kibby - 2002 - In Nagib Callaos, Ana Breda & Ma Yolanda Fernandez J. (eds.), Proceedings of the 6th World Multiconference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics. International Institute of Informatics and Systemics.
    We discuss a research project that develops and applies algorithms for computational contextual vocabulary acquisition (CVA): learning the meaning of unknown words from context. We try to unify a disparate literature on the topic of CVA from psychology, first- and secondlanguage acquisition, and reading science, in order to help develop these algorithms: We use the knowledge gained from the computational CVA system to build an educational curriculum for enhancing students’ abilities to use CVA strategies in their reading of science texts (...)
    Download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  • How to Pass a Turing Test: Syntactic Semantics, Natural-Language Understanding, and First-Person Cognition.William J. Rapaport - 2000 - Journal of Logic, Language, and Information 9 (4):467-490.
    I advocate a theory of syntactic semantics as a way of understanding how computers can think (and how the Chinese-Room-Argument objection to the Turing Test can be overcome): (1) Semantics, considered as the study of relations between symbols and meanings, can be turned into syntax – a study of relations among symbols (including meanings) – and hence syntax (i.e., symbol manipulation) can suffice for the semantical enterprise (contra Searle). (2) Semantics, considered as the process of understanding one domain (by modeling (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   18 citations  
  • The Philosophy of Logical Atomism.Bertrand Russell - 1940 - Open Court.
    THE PHILOSOPHY which I advocate is generally regarded as a species of realism, and accused of inconsistency because of the elements in it which seem contrary to that doctrine. For my part, I do not regard the issue between realists and their opponents as a funda- mental one; I could alter my view on this issue without changing my mind as to any of the doctrines upon which I wish to lay stress. I hold that logic is what is fundamental (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   284 citations  
  • The Philosophy of Logical Atomism.Bertrand Russell (ed.) - 1940 - Routledge.
    Logical Atomism is a philosophy that sought to account for the world in all its various aspects by relating it to the structure of the language in which we articulate information. In _The Philosophy of Logical Atomism,_ Bertrand Russell, with input from his young student Ludwig Wittgenstein, developed the concept and argues for a reformed language based on pure logic. Despite Russell’s own future doubts surrounding the concept, this founding and definitive work in analytical philosophy by one of the world’s (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   239 citations  
  • Holism: A Shopper's Guide.Jerry A. Fodor & Ernest Lepore - 1992 - Blackwell.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   282 citations  
  • Holism, Conceptual-Role Semantics, and Syntactic Semantics.William J. Rapaport - 2002 - Minds and Machines 12 (1):3-59.
    This essay continues my investigation of `syntactic semantics': the theory that, pace Searle's Chinese-Room Argument, syntax does suffice for semantics (in particular, for the semantics needed for a computational cognitive theory of natural-language understanding). Here, I argue that syntactic semantics (which is internal and first-person) is what has been called a conceptual-role semantics: The meaning of any expression is the role that it plays in the complete system of expressions. Such a `narrow', conceptual-role semantics is the appropriate sort of semantics (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   24 citations  
  • The Emergence of Meaning.Peter Gärdenfors - 1993 - Linguistics and Philosophy 16 (3):285 - 309.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   9 citations  
  • Minds, Brains, and Programs.John Searle - 1980 - In John Heil (ed.), Philosophy of Mind: A Guide and Anthology. Oxford University Press.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   475 citations  
  • Diachronic Prototype Semantics: A Contribution to Historical Lexicology.Dirk Geeraerts - 1997 - Oxford University Press.
    Prototype theory makes a crucial distinction between central and peripheral sense of words. Geeraerts explores the implications of this model for a theory of semantic change, in the first full-scale treatment of the impact of the most recent developments in lexicological theory on the study of meaning change. He identifies structural features of the development of word meanings which follow from a prototype-theoretical model of semantic structure, and incorporates these diachronic prototypicality effects into a theory of meaning change.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   8 citations  
  • How Minds Can Be Computational Systems.William J. Rapaport - 1998 - Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence 10 (4):403-419.
    The proper treatment of computationalism, as the thesis that cognition is computable, is presented and defended. Some arguments of James H. Fetzer against computationalism are examined and found wanting, and his positive theory of minds as semiotic systems is shown to be consistent with computationalism. An objection is raised to an argument of Selmer Bringsjord against one strand of computationalism, namely, that Turing-Test± passing artifacts are persons, it is argued that, whether or not this objection holds, such artifacts will inevitably (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   23 citations  
  • Translation, Interpretation and Understanding.Richard C. Jennings - 1988 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 18 (3):343-353.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  • Meanings as Conceptual Structures.Peter Gardenfors - 1997 - In Martin Carrier & Peter K. Machamer (eds.), Mindscapes: Philosophy, Science, and the Mind. Pittsburgh University Press.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  • The Origins of Syntax in Visually Grounded Robotic Agents.Luc Steels - 1998 - Artificial Intelligence 103 (1-2):133-156.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   8 citations  
  • Artificial Intelligence.Stuart C. Shapiro - 1976 - Artificial Intelligence 7 (2):199-201.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   8 citations  
  • Maintaining Mental Models of Agents Who Have Existential Misconceptions.Anthony S. Maida - 1991 - Artificial Intelligence 50 (3):331-383.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  • Foundations of AI: The Big Issues.David Kirsh - 1991 - Artificial Intelligence 47 (1-3):3-30.
    The objective of research in the foundations of Al is to explore such basic questions as: What is a theory in Al? What are the most abstract assumptions underlying the competing visions of intelligence? What are the basic arguments for and against each assumption? In this essay I discuss five foundational issues: (1) Core Al is the study of conceptualization and should begin with knowledge level theories. (2) Cognition can be studied as a disembodied process without solving the symbol grounding (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   8 citations  
  • Semantic Change and Cognition.Gábor Györi - 2002 - Cognitive Linguistics 13 (2).
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  • .Ernest LePore & Brian P. McLaughlin (eds.) - 1985 - Blackwell.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   154 citations  
  • The Correspondence Continuum.B. Smith - 1987 - Csli 87.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   12 citations  
  • Word and Object.Willard Van Orman Quine - 1960 - Les Etudes Philosophiques 17 (2):278-279.
    Download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2105 citations  
  • Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things: What Categories Reveal About the Mind.George Lakoff - 1987 - Philosophy and Rhetoric 22 (4):299-302.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   892 citations  
  • The View From Nowhere.Thomas Nagel - 1986 - Behaviorism 15 (1):73-82.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   492 citations  
  • Holism: A Shopper's Guide.Russell Trenholme - 1994 - Noûs 28 (2):241-252.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   95 citations  
  • Texts and Their Interpretation.Jorge J. E. Gracia - 1990 - Review of Metaphysics 43 (3):495 - 542.
    IF THE HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY studies ideas from the past, as is generally accepted, then historians of philosophy face a serious problem concerning their object of study for two reasons. In the first place, like all history, the history of philosophy is concerned with the past and we can never have direct empirical access to the past unless that past is close to us and we have taken part in it. In order to know the past in which we have (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  • Understanding Understanding: Syntactic Semantics and Computational Cognition.William J. Rapaport - 1995 - Philosophical Perspectives 9:49-88.
    John Searle once said: "The Chinese room shows what we knew all along: syntax by itself is not sufficient for semantics. (Does anyone actually deny this point, I mean straight out? Is anyone actually willing to say, straight out, that they think that syntax, in the sense of formal symbols, is really the same as semantic content, in the sense of meanings, thought contents, understanding, etc.?)." I say: "Yes". Stuart C. Shapiro has said: "Does that make any sense? Yes: Everything (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   21 citations  
  • Searle's Experiments with Thought.William J. Rapaport - 1986 - Philosophy of Science 53 (June):271-9.
    A critique of several recent objections to John Searle's Chinese-Room Argument against the possibility of "strong AI" is presented. The objections are found to miss the point, and a stronger argument against Searle is presented, based on a distinction between "syntactic" and "semantic" understanding.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   25 citations  
  • The view from nowhere.Thomas Nagel - 1986 - Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 178 (2):221-222.
    Download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   415 citations  
  • Intentionality and the Structure of Existence.William Joseph Rapaport - 1976 - Dissertation, Indiana University
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   17 citations  
  • [Omnibus Review].William J. Rapaport - 1988 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 53 (2):669-670.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   21 citations  
  • The Philosophy of Logical Atomism.Bertrand Russell - 1918 - In ¸ Iterussell1986. Open Court. pp. 193-210..
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   247 citations  
  • Syntactic Semantics: Foundations of Computational Natural Language Understanding.William J. Rapaport - 1988 - In James H. Fetzer (ed.), Aspects of AI. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
    This essay considers what it means to understand natural language and whether a computer running an artificial-intelligence program designed to understand natural language does in fact do so. It is argued that a certain kind of semantics is needed to understand natural language, that this kind of semantics is mere symbol manipulation (i.e., syntax), and that, hence, it is available to AI systems. Recent arguments by Searle and Dretske to the effect that computers cannot understand natural language are discussed, and (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   31 citations  
  • Models and Minds.Stuart C. Shapiro & William J. Rapaport - 1991 - In Robert E. Cummins & John L. Pollock (eds.), Philosophy and AI. Cambridge: MIT Press. pp. 215--259.
    Cognitive agents, whether human or computer, that engage in natural-language discourse and that have beliefs about the beliefs of other cognitive agents must be able to represent objects the way they believe them to be and the way they believe others believe them to be. They must be able to represent other cognitive agents both as objects of beliefs and as agents of beliefs. They must be able to represent their own beliefs, and they must be able to represent beliefs (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   16 citations  
  • Seeing Voices.Oliver Sacks - 1991 - Human Studies 14 (4):371-376.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   47 citations