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  1. Constraints on an emergent formulation of conscious mental states.S. Hagan & Hirafuji - 2001 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 8 (9-10):99-121.
    Fundamental limitations constraining the application of emergence to formulations of conscious mental states are explored within the paradigm of classical science. This paradigm includes standard interpretations of functionalism, computationalism and complex systems theories of mind -- theories which are ultimately justified by an appeal to emergentist principles. We define a distinction between extrinsic and intrinsic accounts of emergent conscious states, and examine the prospects for both. Extrinsic accounts are subject to relativities with respect to external observers that must be resolved (...)
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  • Creative Evolution.Henri Bergson (ed.) - 1911 - New York: the Modern Library.
    Henri Bergson (1859-1941) is one of the truly great philosophers of the modernist period, and there is currently a major renaissance of interest in his unduly neglected texts and ideas amongst philosophers, literary theorists, and social theorists. Creative Evolution (1907) is the text that made Bergson world-famous in his own lifetime; in it Bergson responds to the challenge presented to our habits of thought by modern evolutionary theory, and attempts to show that the theory of knowledge must have its basis (...)
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  • Special Relativity.A. P. French - 1968 - New York: Norton.
    The book opens with a description of the smooth transition from Newtonian to Einsteinian behaviour from electrons as their energy is progressively increased, ...
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  • The Principles of Mathematics.Bertrand Russell - 1903 - Cambridge, England: Allen & Unwin.
    Published in 1903, this book was the first comprehensive treatise on the logical foundations of mathematics written in English. It sets forth, as far as possible without mathematical and logical symbolism, the grounds in favour of the view that mathematics and logic are identical. It proposes simply that what is commonly called mathematics are merely later deductions from logical premises. It provided the thesis for which _Principia Mathematica_ provided the detailed proof, and introduced the work of Frege to a wider (...)
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  • Consciousness Lost and Found: A Neuropsychological Exploration.Lawrence Weiskrantz - 1997 - Oxford University Press.
    The phenomenon of `consciousness' is intrinsically related to one's awareness of one's self, of time, and of the physical world. What, then, can be learned about consciousness from people who have suffered brain damage such as amnesia which affects their awareness? This is the question explored by Lawrence Weiskrantz, a distinguished neuropsychologist who has worked with such patients over 30 years. Written in an engaging and accessible style, Consciousness Lost and Found provides a unique perspective on one of the most (...)
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  • Creative Evolution.Henri Bergson - 1911 - London: Palgrave-Macmillan.
    Henri Bergson (1859-1941) is one of the truly great philosophers of the modernist period, and there is currently a major renaissance of interest in his unduly neglected texts and ideas amongst philosophers, literary theorists, and social theorists. Creative Evolution (1907) is the text that made Bergson world-famous in his own lifetime; in it Bergson responds to the challenge presented to our habits of thought by modern evolutionary theory, and attempts to show that the theory of knowledge must have its basis (...)
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  • Bergsonism.Gilles Deleuze - 1988 - Zone Books.
    Examines the philosophy of Henri Bergson, explains his concepts of duration, memory, and elan vital, and discusses the influence of science on Bergson.
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  • Relativity Reexamined.Léon Brillouin - 1970 - New York: Academic Press.
    Quantum theory and relativity -- Some problems about restricted relativity -- Gravitation and relativity quantized atomic clocks -- A badly needed distinction between mathematical sets of coordinates and physical frames of reference -- Special relativity Doppler effect -- Relativity and gravitation -- A gravistatic problem with spherical symmetry -- Remarks and suggestions.
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  • Time and Free Will: An Essay on the Immediate Data of Consciousness.Henri Bergson - 1910 - New York: Humanities Press.
    First published in 2002. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
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  • Matter and Memory.Henri Bergson - 1991 - MIT Press.
    A monumental work by an important modern philosopher, Matter and Memory (1896) represents one of the great inquiries into perception and memory, movement and time, matter and mind. Nobel Prize-winner Henri Bergson surveys these independent but related spheres, exploring the connection of mind and body to individual freedom of choice. Bergson’s efforts to reconcile the facts of biology to a theory of consciousness offered a challenge to the mechanistic view of nature, and his original and innovative views exercised a profound (...)
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  • World enough and space‐time: Absolute versus relational theories of space and time.Robert Toretti & John Earman - 1989 - Philosophical Review 101 (3):723.
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  • On relativity theory and openness of the future.Howard Stein - 1991 - Philosophy of Science 58 (2):147-167.
    It has been repeatedly argued, most recently by Nicholas Maxwell, that the special theory of relativity is incompatible with the view that the future is in some degree undetermined; and Maxwell contends that this is a reason to reject that theory. In the present paper, an analysis is offered of the notion of indeterminateness (or "becoming") that is uniquely appropriate to the special theory of relativity, in the light of a set of natural conditions upon such a notion; and reasons (...)
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  • Space, Time and Gravitation.H. R. Smart & A. S. Eddington - 1922 - Philosophical Review 31 (4):414.
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  • The Principles of Mathematics.Bertrand Russell - 1903 - Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale 11 (4):11-12.
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  • Précis of semantic cognition: A parallel distributed processing approach.Timothy T. Rogers & James L. McClelland - 2008 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (6):689-714.
    In this prcis we focus on phenomena central to the reaction against similarity-based theories that arose in the 1980s and that subsequently motivated the approach to semantic knowledge. Specifically, we consider (1) how concepts differentiate in early development, (2) why some groupings of items seem to form or coherent categories while others do not, (3) why different properties seem central or important to different concepts, (4) why children and adults sometimes attest to beliefs that seem to contradict their direct experience, (...)
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  • Virtual action: O'Regan & noë meet Bergson.Stephen E. Robbins - 2004 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (6):906-907.
    Bergson, writing in 1896, anticipated “sensorimotor contingencies” under the concept that perception is “virtual action.” But to explain the external image, he embedded this concept in a holographic framework where time-motion is an indivisible and the relation of subject/object is in terms of time. The target article's account of qualitative visual experience falls short for lack of this larger framework. [Objects] send back, then, to my body, as would a mirror, their eventual influence; they take rank in an order corresponding (...)
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  • The cost of explicit memory.Stephen E. Robbins - 2009 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 8 (1):33-66.
    Within Piaget there is an implicit theory of the development of explicit memory. It rests in the dynamical trajectory underlying the development of causality, object, space and time – a complex (COST) supporting a symbolic relationship integral to the explicit. Cassirer noted the same dependency in the phenomena of aphasias, insisting that a symbolic function is being undermined in these deficits. This is particularly critical given the reassessment of Piaget’s stages as the natural bifurcations of a self-organizing dynamic system. The (...)
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  • Semantic redintegration: Ecological invariance.Stephen E. Robbins - 2008 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (6):726-727.
    In proposing that their model can operate in the concrete, perceptual world, Rogers & McClelland (R&M) have not done justice to the complexities of the ecological sphere and its invariance laws. The structure of concrete events forces a different framework, both for retrieval of events and concepts defined across events, than that upon which the proposed model, rooted in essence in the verbal learning tradition, implicitly rests.
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  • On time, memory and dynamic form.Stephen E. Robbins - 2004 - Consciousness and Cognition 13 (4):762-788.
    A common approach to explaining the perception of form is through the use of static features. The weakness of this approach points naturally to dynamic definitions of form. Considering dynamical form, however, leads inevitably to the need to explain how events are perceived as time-extended—a problem with primacy over that even of qualia. Optic flow models, energy models, models reliant on a rigidity constraint are examined. The reliance of these models on the instantaneous specification of form at an instant, t, (...)
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  • Past, present, future, and special relativity.Nataša Rakić - 1997 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 48 (2):257-280.
    The open future view is the common-sense view that there is an ontological difference between the past, the present, and the future in the sense that the past and the present are real, whereas the future is not yet a part of reality. In this paper we develop a theory in which the open future view is consistently combined with special relativity. Technically, the heart of our contribution is a logical conservativity result showing that, although the open future view is (...)
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  • Relativistic quantum becoming.Wayne C. Myrvold - 2003 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 54 (3):475-500.
    In a recent paper, David Albert has suggested that no quantum theory can yield a description of the world unfolding in Minkowski spacetime. This conclusion is premature; a natural extension of Stein's notion of becoming in Minkowski spacetime to accommodate the demands of quantum nonseparability yields such an account, an account that is in accord with a proposal which was made by Aharonov and Albert but which is dismissed by Albert as a ‘mere trick’. The nature of such an account (...)
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  • Matter and Memory.Henri Bergson - 1911 - The Monist 21:318.
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  • Matter and Memory.Henri Bergson - 1894 - Mathesis Publications.
    French philosopher Henri Bergson produced four major works in his lifetime, the second of which, "Matter and Memory", is a philosophical and complex nineteenth century exploration of human nature and the spirituality of memory. In this work, Bergson investigates the function of the brain, and opposes the idea of memory being of a material nature, lodged within a particular part of the nervous system. He makes a claim early in this essay that Matter and Memory "is frankly dualistic," leading to (...)
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  • Time and Free Will: An Essay on the Immediate Data of Consciousness.Henri Bergson - 2003 - Routledge.
    First published in 2002. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
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  • Facing up to the problem of consciousness.David Chalmers - 1995 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 2 (3):200-19.
    To make progress on the problem of consciousness, we have to confront it directly. In this paper, I first isolate the truly hard part of the problem, separating it from more tractable parts and giving an account of why it is so difficult to explain. I critique some recent work that uses reductive methods to address consciousness, and argue that such methods inevitably fail to come to grips with the hardest part of the problem. Once this failure is recognized, the (...)
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  • On the electrodynamics of moving bodies.Albert Einstein - 1905 - In The Principle of Relativity. Dover Publications. pp. 35-65.
    It is known that Maxwell’s electrodynamics—as usually understood at the present time—when applied to moving bodies, leads to asymmetries which do not appear to be inherent in the phenomena. Take, for example, the reciprocal electrodynamic action of a magnet and a conductor. The observable phenomenon here depends only on the relative motion of the conductor and the magnet, whereas the customary view draws a sharp distinction between the two cases in which either the one or the other of these bodies (...)
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  • Facing up to the problem of consciousness.D. J. Chalmers - 1996 - Toward a Science of Consciousness:5-28.
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  • Reduction, emergence and other recent options on the mind/body problem: A philosophic overview.Robert van Gulick - 2001 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 8 (9-10):1-34.
    Though most contemporary philosophers and scientists accept a physicalist view of mind, the recent surge of interest in the problem of consciousness has put the mind /body problem back into play. The physicalists' lack of success in dispelling the air of residual mystery that surrounds the question of how consciousness might be physically explained has led to a proliferation of options. Some offer alternative formulations of physicalism, but others forgo physicalism in favour of views that are more dualistic or that (...)
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  • 9 A Process-oriented View of Qualia.Riccardo Manzotti - 2008 - In Edmond Wright (ed.), The Case for Qualia. MIT Press. pp. 175.
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  • Bergson and the Evolution of Physics.P. A. Y. Gunter - 1971 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 22 (1):75-76.
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  • Science at the Crossroads.Herbert Dingle - 1975 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 26 (4):358-362.
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  • On the Possibility of Direct Memory.Stephen E. Robbins - 2006 - In V. W. Fallio (ed.), New Developments in Consciousness Research. Nova Science. pp. 1--64.
    Is experience stored in the brain? The universal assumption is that it is, yet the answer to this question is critical to the theory of consciousness. If “yes,” it must be understood that this answer absolutely constrains all theories of the origin and nature of consciousness. Memory images, dreams, even perceptual images and perceptual experience must somehow be generated from stored elements within the neural substrate. If the answer is “no,” Searle’s principle of “neurobiological sufficiency,” as one example, carries no (...)
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  • Time, form and the limits of qualia.Stephen E. Robbins - 2007 - Journal of Mind and Behavior 28 (1):19-43.
    Our understanding of qualia is extremely weak when considerations of time are brought into play. Ignored has been the fact that the scale of time imposed by the brain on the events of the matter-field already defines quality, and that there is an essential “primary memory” or continuity of time that underlies all qualitative events. This weakness is magnified when the concept of qualia is applied to form. The origin of the dilemma lies in the fact that the problem of (...)
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  • Space and Time in the Modern Universe.P. C. W. Davies - 1978 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 29 (3):289-293.
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  • Bergson, perception and Gibson.Stephen E. Robbins - 2000 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 7 (5):23-45.
    Bergson's 1896 theory of perception/memory assumed a framework anticipating the quantum revolution in physics, the still unrealized implications of this framework contributing to the large neglect of Bergson today. The basics of his model are explored, including the physical concepts he advanced before the crisis in classical physics, his concept of perception as ‘virtual action’ with its relativistic implications, and his unique explication of the subject/object relationship. All form the basis for his solution to the ‘hard’ problem. The relation between (...)
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  • Space, time and consciousness.J. Smythies - 2003 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 10 (3):47-56.
    This paper describes a new theory of consciousness based on previous work by C.D. Broad, H.H. Price, Andrei Linde and others. This hypothesis states that the Universe consists of three fundamental entities - space-time, matter and consciousness, each with their own degrees of freedom. The paper pays particular attention to three areas that impact on this theory: the demonstration by neuroscience and psychophysics that we do not perceive the world as it actually is but as the brain computes it most (...)
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  • Semantics, experience and time.Stephen E. Robbins - 2002 - Cognitive Systems Research 3 (3):301-337.
    The computational hypothesis, with its inherent representationalism, and the dynamical hypothesis, with its apparent absence of representations and its commitment to continuous time, stand at an impasse. It is unclear how the dynamical stance can handle representational thought, or how computationalism can deal effectively with a tightly coupled, reciprocally causative agent-environment system in continuous transformation. Underlying this dilemma is the complex relation of mind to time, a relation encoded in the word experience. We must ask if any hypothesis describes a (...)
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