Results for 'Class'

438 found
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  1. Kants Critik der reinen Vernunft. Philologischer Commentar zur ersten Auflage 1781.Wolfgang Class (ed.) - 2008 - Verlag Senging.
    Der vorliegende "philologische" Kommentar beansprucht Kants Critik der reinen Vernunft aus ihren historischen Voraussetzungen zu erklären. Zu diesen gehört an erster Stelle Kants Sprache; sie ist nicht mehr die unsere, was den unvorbereiteten Leser von heute schon an der Semantik und Syntax vieler Sätze scheitern lässt. Neben einer Fülle von sprachlichen Erläuterungen und textkritischen Untersuchungen bringt der Kommentar reichliche Zitate aus den von Kant benutzten Logik- und Metaphysik-Lehrbüchern, die seine Rezeption der "dogmatischen" Philosophie Christian Wolffs und seiner Nachfolger belegen; lateinische (...)
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  2. Kommentar Zu Fichtes Grundlage der Gesamten Wissenschaftslehre.Wolfgang Class & Alois K. Soller (eds.) - 2004 - Brill | Rodopi.
    Die „Grundlage der gesamten Wissenschaftslehre“ bleibt für den, der Fichte im philosophiegeschichtlichen Zusammenhang sehen will, der wichtigste Text; dies gilt auch dann noch, wenn die Akademie-Ausgabe abgeschlossen sein wird. Der Jenaer Fichte hat nicht nur auf seine Zeitgenossen am stärksten gewirkt, er war auch seinerseits damals noch am offensten für Einflüsse. Der vorliegende Kommentar – der erste, der den gesamten deutschen Text behandelt – bietet keine Paraphrase, keine Übersetzung in eine zeitgemäßere Sprache, keine „Darstellung“, die Fichtes Disposition durch eine eigene (...)
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  3. Immigration, Class, and Global Justice: Some Moral Considerations/Implications.Alex Sager - 2012 - In Micheline Labelle, Jocelyne Couture & Frank Remiggi (eds.), La communauté politique en question. Regards croisés sur l’immigration, la citoyenneté, la diversité et le pouvoir. UQAM Press. pp. 21-46.
    I argue for the importance of class-based analysis for analyzing the justice of migration policies. I contend that the abstract, liberal discourse of much writing on justice and immigration distorts our moral judgments. In contrast, I provide a class-based critique of the role of human capital in managed migration, drawing evidence from Canada’s Seasonal Agricultural Worker and Live-in Caregiver Programs. This reveals the domination and exploitation inherent in these migration policies and allows us to situate immigration in a (...)
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  4.  16
    A Problem with Conceptually Relating Race and Class, Regarding the Question of Choice.Emily S. Lee - 2017 - Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal 38 (2):349-368.
    The close association of particular races with particular classes invites a means to exhibit disdain for a race via class. Class and race do not simply occupy a list of social problems, because generally, specific races correlate with particular classes. Racism is presently unacceptable, but not classism. We may feel sympathy for the poor, but we do not refrain from disdain. The disdain of the poor centers on Neoclassical economics’ insistence on choice in regards to class. The (...)
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  5. In Defense of the Progressive Stack: A Strategy for Prioritizing Marginalized Voices During in-Class Discussion.Jake Wright - 2018 - Teaching Philosophy 41 (4):407-428.
    Progressive stacking is a strategy for prioritizing in-class contributions that allows marginalized students to speak before non-marginalized students. I argue that this strategy is both pedagogically and ethically defensible. Pedagogically, it provides benefits to all students (e.g., expanded in-class discourse) while providing special benefits (e.g., increased self-efficacy) to marginalized students, helping to address historic educational inequalities. Ethically, I argue that neither marginalized nor non-marginalized students are wronged by such a policy. First, I present a strategy for self-disclosure that (...)
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  6. Denying Pell Grants to Prisoners: Race, Class, and the Philosophy of Mass Incarceration.Jason L. Mallory - 2015 - International Social Science Review 90 (1).
    This paper asks whether prisoners should have access to Pell Grants, for which they are currently ineligible. In the first section, the author considers philosophical arguments relating to the present ban by examining traditional concerns of deterrence, rehabilitation, and retribution. The second section explores two arguments against a more inclusive Pell Grant policy. In the third section the author argues that restoring higher education grants to prisoners is compelling, especially when one considers issues of race and class. The paper (...)
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  7. Aesthetics in the Age of Austerity: Building the Creative Class.Christine James - 2015 - In Anthology of Philosophical Studies 9. Athens Institute for Education and Research. pp. 37-48.
    Aesthetic theorists often interpret and understand works of art through the social and political context that creates and inspires the work. The recent economic recessions, and the accompanying austerity measures in many European countries, provide an interesting test case for this contextual understanding. Economists debate whether or not spending on entertainment and arts drops during times of recession and austerity. Some economists assume that spending will decline in times of austerity, but others point to evidence that spending on creative arts (...)
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  8. Guessing, Mind-Changing, and the Second Ambiguous Class.Samuel Alexander - 2016 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 57 (2):209-220.
    In his dissertation, Wadge defined a notion of guessability on subsets of the Baire space and gave two characterizations of guessable sets. A set is guessable if and only if it is in the second ambiguous class, if and only if it is eventually annihilated by a certain remainder. We simplify this remainder and give a new proof of the latter equivalence. We then introduce a notion of guessing with an ordinal limit on how often one can change one’s (...)
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  9.  31
    Classes and Theories of Trees Associated with a Class of Linear Orders.Valentin Goranko & Ruaan Kellerman - 2011 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 19 (1):217-232.
    Given a class of linear order types C, we identify and study several different classes of trees, naturally associated with C in terms of how the paths in those trees are related to the order types belonging to C. We investigate and completely determine the set-theoretic relationships between these classes of trees and between their corresponding first-order theories. We then obtain some general results about the axiomatization of the first-order theories of some of these classes of trees in terms (...)
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  10.  52
    Family Autonomy and Class Fate.Gideon Calder - 2016 - Symposion: Theoretical and Applied Inquiries in Philosophy and Social Sciences 3 (3):131-149.
    The family poses problems for liberal understandings of social justice, because of the ways in which it bestows unearned privileges. This is particularly stark when we consider inter-generational inequality, or ‘class fate’ – the ways in which inequality is transmitted from one generation to the next, with the family unit ostensibly a key conduit. There is a recognized tension between the assumption that families should as far as possible be autonomous spheres of decision-making, and the assumption that we should (...)
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  11.  28
    Using Lectio Divina as an in-Class Contemplative Tool.Jake Wright - manuscript
    Lectio Divina, a contemplative reading exercise first codified in the 12th Century, offers a number of benefits when adapted for use in a secular classroom. Though limited discussion of Lectio Divina's pedagogical benefits has taken place in formal and informal literature, there has been no extended, formal discussion of the practice's history, its aims, and the practicalities of its use in a college classroom. The current essay aims to address this shortcoming by providing a brief overview of the history of (...)
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  12.  42
    Fighting Class Cleansing at Grady Memorial Hospital.Samuel R. Newcom - 2000 - Ethics and Behavior 10 (1):83-90.
    The author reviews the planned withdrawal of healthcare from the primary public hospital, Grady Memorial Hospital, of Atlanta, Georgia. Prior to passage of the Affordable Care Act of 2010, at least half of the patients had no public or private health insurance and their care was financially supported by State and County funding as well as supplementation from Emory University. New administration in the elected positions of the State and County and at the University reached agreement to decrease care. The (...)
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  13.  26
    Laboratory Test of a Class of Gravity Models.Richard Benish - 2007 - Apeiron 14 (4):362.
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  14.  53
    A Theory of Truth for a Class of Mathematical Languages and an Application.S. Heikkilä - manuscript
    In this paprer a class of so called mathematically acceptable (shortly MA) languages is introduced First-order formal languages containing natural numbers and numerals belong to that class. MA languages which are contained in a given fully interpreted MA language augmented by a monadic predicate are constructed. A mathematical theory of truth (shortly MTT) is formulated for some of these languages. MTT makes them fully interpreted MA languages which posses their own truth predicates, yielding consequences to philosophy of mathematics. (...)
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  15. Lukács's 1967 Preface to History and Class Consciousness.Alfredo Lucero-Montaño - manuscript
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  16.  9
    Class-Theoretic Paradoxes and the Neo-Kantian Discarding of Intuition.Chris Onof - unknown
    Book synopsis: This volume is a collection of papers selected from those presented at the 5th International Conference on Philosophy sponsored by the Athens Institute for Research and Education (ATINER), held in Athens, Greece at the St. George Lycabettus Hotel, June 2010. Held annually, this conference provides a singular opportunity for philosophers from all over the world to meet and share ideas with the aim of expanding our understanding of our discipline. Over the course of the conference, sixty papers were (...)
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  17. Aesthetic Adjectives Lack Uniform Behavior.Shen-yi Liao, Louise McNally & Aaron Meskin - 2016 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 59 (6):618-631.
    The goal of this short paper is to show that esthetic adjectives—exemplified by “beautiful” and “elegant”—do not pattern stably on a range of linguistic diagnostics that have been used to taxonomize the gradability properties of adjectives. We argue that a plausible explanation for this puzzling data involves distinguishing two properties of gradable adjectives that have been frequently conflated: whether an adjective’s applicability is sensitive to a comparison class, and whether an adjective’s applicability is context-dependent.
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  18. On the Preference for More Specific Reference Classes.Paul Thorn - 2017 - Synthese 194 (6):2025-2051.
    In attempting to form rational personal probabilities by direct inference, it is usually assumed that one should prefer frequency information concerning more specific reference classes. While the preceding assumption is intuitively plausible, little energy has been expended in explaining why it should be accepted. In the present article, I address this omission by showing that, among the principled policies that may be used in setting one’s personal probabilities, the policy of making direct inferences with a preference for frequency information for (...)
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  19.  22
    Extrapolation of Experimental Results Through Analogical Reasoning From Latent Classes.Gerdien G. van Eersel, Julian Reiss & Gabriela V. Koppenol-Gonzalez - 2019 - Philosophy of Science 86 (2):219-235.
    In the human sciences, experimental research is used to establish causal relationships. However, the extrapolation of these results to the target population can be problematic. To facilitate extrapolation, we propose to use the statistical technique Latent Class Regression Analysis in combination with the analogical reasoning theory for extrapolation. This statistical technique can identify latent classes that differ in the effect of X on Y. In order to extrapolate by means of analogical reasoning, one can characterize the latent classes by (...)
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  20.  74
    Direct Inference From Imprecise Frequencies.Paul D. Thorn - 2017 - In Michela Massimi, Jan-Willem Romeijn & Gerhard Schurz (eds.), EPSA15 Selected Papers - The 5th conference of the European Philosophy of Science. Springer. pp. 347-358.
    It is well known that there are, at least, two sorts of cases where one should not prefer a direct inference based on a narrower reference class, in particular: cases where the narrower reference class is gerrymandered, and cases where one lacks an evidential basis for forming a precise-valued frequency judgment for the narrower reference class. I here propose (1) that the preceding exceptions exhaust the circumstances where one should not prefer direct inference based on a narrower (...)
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  21. ""Lambda Theory: Introduction of a Constant for" Nothing" Into Set Theory, a Model of Consistency and Most Noticeable Conclusions.Laurent Dubois - 2013 - Logique Et Analyse 56 (222):165-181.
    The purpose of this article is to present several immediate consequences of the introduction of a new constant called Lambda in order to represent the object ``nothing" or ``void" into a standard set theory. The use of Lambda will appear natural thanks to its role of condition of possibility of sets. On a conceptual level, the use of Lambda leads to a legitimation of the empty set and to a redefinition of the notion of set. It lets also clearly appear (...)
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  22.  64
    A Short Outline of the Indicativity Theory of Knowledge.Igal Kvart - manuscript
    Abstract In this paper I present a short outline of an Indicativity Theory of Knowledge, for the cases of Perceptual Knowledge and Knowledge by Memory. I explain the main rationale for a token-indicativity approach, and how it is fleshed out precisely in terms of chances. I elaborate on the account of the value of knowledge it provides, and what that value is. I explain why, given the rationale of conceiving Knowledge as token indicativity, separate sub-accounts in terms of chances should (...)
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  23.  62
    The Paradox of Ideology.Justin Schwartz - 1993 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 23 (4):543 - 574.
    A standard problem with the objectivity of social scientific theory in particular is that it is either self-referential, in which case it seems to undermine itself as ideology, or self-excepting, which seem pragmatically self-refuting. Using the example of Marx and his theory of ideology, I show how self-referential theories that include themselves in their scope of explanation can be objective. Ideology may be roughly defined as belief distorted by class interest. I show how Marx thought that natural science was (...)
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  24.  28
    Talpa o serpente? Popolo, classe, moltitudine.Elia Zaru - 2018 - Etica E Politica (1):127-143.
    This essay aims at clarifying the concept of «multitude» through a comparison between Negri’s work and some of the critiques addressed to his thought. In the first part of the paper, I will consider the relationship between multitude and the individual, in order to confute those who think that the category of «multitude» is a liberal one. Then, I will analyze the connection between the multitude and class-working class, so as to highlight that in Negri’s theory there is (...)
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  25.  8
    Aftermath Of The Nothing.Laurent Dubois - 2017 - In J.-Y. Beziau, A. Costa-Leite & I. M. L. D’Ottaviano (eds.), CLE, v.81. Rio de Janeiro, État de Rio de Janeiro, Brésil: pp. 93-124.
    This article consists in two parts that are complementary and autonomous at the same time. -/- In the first one, we develop some surprising consequences of the introduction of a new constant called Lambda in order to represent the object ``nothing" or ``void" into a standard set theory. On a conceptual level, it allows to see sets in a new light and to give a legitimacy to the empty set. On a technical level, it leads to a relative resolution of (...)
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  26. Anatomies of Inequality: Considering the Emotional Cost of Aiming Higher for Marginalised, Mature, Mothers Re-Entering Education.Dawn Mannay & Melanie Morgan - 2013 - Journal of Adult and Continuing Education 19 (1):57-75.
    The Anatomy of Economic Inequality in Wales (2011) provides quantitative evidence for the pervasive nature of class-based inequalities in education, demonstrating that an individual in social housing is approximately 10 times less likely to be a graduate compared to those in other types of accommodation. This article moves beyond the baseline figures and argues that for marginalised, mature mothers re-entering education, the emotional cost is often one that they are unable to pay, and that practitioners and policy makers need (...)
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  27.  97
    A Treatise on Political Philosophy.John Altmann - manuscript
    A Treatise on Political Philosophy expounds upon the nature of government and its relationship with the citizen. We see how this relationship regresses towards class warfare and the egregious error made by government that makes such warfare possible. The Treatise also examines the role of the citizen and their importance in the dictation of the State.
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  28. The Fine-Tuning Argument and the Requirement of Total Evidence.Peter Fisher Epstein - 2017 - Philosophy of Science 84 (4):639-658.
    According to the Fine-Tuning Argument, the existence of life in our universe confirms the Multiverse Hypothesis. A standard objection to FTA is that it violates the Requirement of Total Evidence. I argue that RTE should be rejected in favor of the Predesignation Requirement, according to which, in assessing the outcome of a probabilistic process, we should only use evidence characterizable in a manner available before observing the outcome. This produces the right verdicts in some simple cases in which RTE leads (...)
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  29. Prisons for Profit in the United States: Retribution and Means Vs. Ends.Christine James - 2012 - Journal for Human Rights 6 (1):76-93.
    The recent trend toward privately owned and operated prisons calls attention to a variety of issues involving human rights. The growing number of corporatized correctional institutions is especially notable in the United States, but it is also a global phenomenon in many countries. The reasons cited for privatizing prisons are usually economic; the opportunity to outsource prison services enables local political leaders to save tax revenue, and local communities are promised a chance to create new jobs and bring in a (...)
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  30. Prospects for a Naive Theory of Classes.Hartry Field, Harvey Lederman & Tore Fjetland Øgaard - 2017 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 58 (4):461-506.
    The naive theory of properties states that for every condition there is a property instantiated by exactly the things which satisfy that condition. The naive theory of properties is inconsistent in classical logic, but there are many ways to obtain consistent naive theories of properties in nonclassical logics. The naive theory of classes adds to the naive theory of properties an extensionality rule or axiom, which states roughly that if two classes have exactly the same members, they are identical. In (...)
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  31.  42
    Globalization And The Shifting Of Global Economic-Political Balance.Leonid Grinin & Andrey Korotayev - 2014 - In Endre Kiss & Arisztotelész Kiadó (eds.), The Dialectics of Modernity - Recognizing Globalization. Studies on the Theoretical Perspectives of Globalization. Budapest: Publisherhouse Arostotelész. pp. 184-207.
    The article offers forecasts of the geopolitical and geo-economic development of the world in the forthcoming decades. One of the main accusations directed toward globalization is that it deepens the gap between the developed and developing countries dooming them to eternal backwardness. The article demonstrates that the actual situation is very different. It is shown that this is due to the globalization that the developing countries are generally growing much faster than the developed states, the World System core starts weakening (...)
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  32. Meanings of Form.John Corcoran - 2008 - Manuscrito 31 (1):223-266.
    The expressions ‘form’, ‘structure’, ‘schema’, ‘shape’, ‘pattern’, ‘figure’, ‘mold’, and related locutions are used in logic both as technical terms and in metaphors. This paper juxtaposes, distinguishes, and analyses uses of [FOR these PUT such] expressions by logicians. No [FOR such PUT similar] project has been attempted previously. After establishing general terminology, we present a variant of traditional usage of the expression ‘logical form’ followed by a discussion of the usage found in the two-volume Chateaubriand book Logical Forms (2001 and (...)
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  33.  56
    It Ain’T Necessarily So: The Misuse of 'Human Nature' in Law and Social Policy and Bankruptcy of the 'Nature-Nurture' Debate.Schwartz Justin - 2012 - Texas Journal of Women and the Law 21:187-239.
    Debate about legal and policy reform has been haunted by a pernicious confusion about human nature, the idea that it is a set of rigid dispositions, today generally conceived as genetic, that is manifested the same way in all circumstances. Opponents of egalitarian alternatives argue that we cannot depart far from the status quo because human nature stands in the way. Advocates of such reforms too often deny the existence of human nature because, sharing this conception, they think it would (...)
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  34.  94
    New Waves in Philosophy of Technology.Amy E. Wendling & Elizabeth M. Sokolowski - 2010 - Historical Materialism 18 (2):195-207.
    Essay Review of New Waves in the Philosophy of Technology (Olsen/Selinger). Treats issue of difference of technology in Marx and Heidegger at some length.
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  35.  47
    Quietly Reverting Public Issues Into Private Troubles.Aysen Candas & Yildiz Silier - 2014 - Social Politics 21 (1).
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  36.  36
    Birth Fathers: Unequal Power and Myth in the Terry Achance Case.Rose Mary Volbrecht - 2014 - Pediatric Nursing 40 (Mar/Apr):99-102.
    In the Terry Achane case, a birth father who was in the military was not notified when his child's birth mother put up their child for adoption. Birth fathers are often stereotyped as uninvolved and irresponsible, especially when they are not married to the birth mother. Terry Achane was married. The adoption agency made little effort to contact him, raising ethical issues about the roles played by the race, economic status, and perhaps religious beliefs of the adopting parents.
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  37.  17
    La représentation visuelle des classes d’objets.Amirouche Moktefi - 2013 - Visible 10:153-164.
    It is customary to draw a circle to represent a collection of objects. This makes it easy to represent logical relations between classes thanks to topological relations between spaces. The aim of this paper is to discuss the process by which spaces represent visually classes.
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  38. Lay Denial of Knowledge for Justified True Beliefs.Jennifer Nagel, Valerie San Juan & Raymond A. Mar - 2013 - Cognition 129 (3):652-661.
    Intuitively, there is a difference between knowledge and mere belief. Contemporary philosophical work on the nature of this difference has focused on scenarios known as “Gettier cases.” Designed as counterexamples to the classical theory that knowledge is justified true belief, these cases feature agents who arrive at true beliefs in ways which seem reasonable or justified, while nevertheless seeming to lack knowledge. Prior empirical investigation of these cases has raised questions about whether lay people generally share philosophers’ intuitions about these (...)
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  39. Enkrasia or Evidentialism? Learning to Love Mismatch.Maria Lasonen-Aarnio - forthcoming - Philosophical Studies:1-36.
    I formulate a resilient paradox about epistemic rationality, discuss and reject various solutions, and sketch a way out. The paradox exemplifies a tension between a wide range of views of epistemic justification, on the one hand, and enkratic requirements on rationality, on the other. According to the enkratic requirements, certain mismatched doxastic states are irrational, such as believing p, while believing that it is irrational for one to believe p. I focus on an evidentialist view of justification on which a (...)
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  40. Why General Education? Peters, Hirst and History.John White - 2009 - Philosophy of Education 43 (Supplement s1):123-141.
    Richard Peters argued for a general education based largely on the study of truth-seeking subjects for its own sake. His arguments have long been acknowledged as problematic. There are also difficulties with Paul Hirst's arguments for a liberal education, which in part overlap with Peters'. Where justification fails, can historical explanation illuminate? Peters was influenced by the prevailing idea that a secondary education should be based on traditional, largely knowledge-orientated subjects, pursued for intrinsic as well as practical ends. Does history (...)
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  41. What is a Definition of Emotion? And Are Emotions Mental-Behavioral Processes?Rainer Reisenzein - 2007 - Social Science Information 7 (3):26-29.
    [I argue that a precise definition of emotions is neither necessary nor possible prior to empirical research on emotions. It is not necessary because all that is needed for for fruitful research and successful communication is a working definition of emotions, a description that allows to roughly demarcate the class of emotions. It is not possible because precise emotion definitions are real definitions, empirical claims about the essence of emotions. These claims about the nature of emotion are always formulated (...)
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  42. The Folk Conception of Knowledge.Christina Starmans & Ori Friedman - 2012 - Cognition 124 (3):272-283.
    How do people decide which claims should be considered mere beliefs and which count as knowledge? Although little is known about how people attribute knowledge to others, philosophical debate about the nature of knowledge may provide a starting point. Traditionally, a belief that is both true and justified was thought to constitute knowledge. However, philosophers now agree that this account is inadequate, due largely to a class of counterexamples (termed ‘‘Gettier cases’’) in which a person’s justified belief is true, (...)
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  43. Stop Making Sense? On a Puzzle About Rationality.Clayton Littlejohn - 2018 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research:257-272.
    In this paper, I present a puzzle about epistemic rationality. It seems plausible that it should be rational to believe a proposition if you have sufficient evidential support for it. It seems plausible that it rationality requires you to conform to the categorical requirements of rationality. It also seems plausible that our first-order attitudes ought to mesh with our higher-order attitudes. It seems unfortunate that we cannot accept all three claims about rationality. I will present three ways of trying to (...)
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  44. Why Standpoint Matters.Alison Wylie - 2003 - In Robert Figueroa & Sandra G. Harding (eds.), Science and Other Cultures: Issues in Philosophies of Science and Technology. Routledge. pp. 26--48.
    Feminist standpoint theory has been marginal to mainstream philosophical analyses of science–indeed, it has been marginal to science studies generally–and it has had an uneasy reception among feminist theorists. Critics of standpoint theory have attributed to it untenable foundationalist assumptions about the social identities that can underpin an epistemically salient standpoint, and implausible claims about the epistemic privilege that should be accorded to those who occupy subdominant social locations. I disentangle what I take to be the promising core of feminist (...)
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  45. Why Truthmakers.Gonzalo Rodriguez-Pereyra - 2005 - In H. Beebee & J. Dodd (eds.), Truthmakers: the contemporary debate. Oxford University Press. pp. 17-31.
    Consider a certain red rose. The proposition that the rose is red is true because the rose is red. One might say as well that the proposition that the rose is red is made true by the rose’s being red. This, it has been thought, does not commit one to a truthmaker of the proposition that the rose is red. For there is no entity that makes the proposition true. What makes it true is how the rose is, and how (...)
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  46. Future Contingents Are All False! On Behalf of a Russellian Open Future.Patrick Todd - 2016 - Mind 125 (499):775-798.
    There is a familiar debate between Russell and Strawson concerning bivalence and ‘the present King of France’. According to the Strawsonian view, ‘The present King of France is bald’ is neither true nor false, whereas, on the Russellian view, that proposition is simply false. In this paper, I develop what I take to be a crucial connection between this debate and a different domain where bivalence has been at stake: future contingents. On the familiar ‘Aristotelian’ view, future contingent propositions are (...)
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  47. The Metaphysics of Cognitive Artifacts.Richard Heersmink - 2016 - Philosophical Explorations 19 (1):78-93.
    This article looks at some of the metaphysical properties of cognitive artefacts. It first identifies and demarcates the target domain by conceptualizing this class of artefacts as a functional kind. Building on the work of Beth Preston, a pluralist notion of functional kind is developed, one that includes artefacts with proper functions and system functions. Those with proper functions have a history of cultural selection, whereas those with system functions are improvised uses of initially non-cognitive artefacts. Having identified the (...)
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  48. Recent Issues in High-Level Perception.Grace Helton - 2016 - Philosophy Compass 11 (12):851-862.
    Recently, several theorists have proposed that we can perceive a range of high-level features, including natural kind features (e.g., being a lemur), artifactual features (e.g., being a mandolin), and the emotional features of others (e.g., being surprised). I clarify the claim that we perceive high-level features and suggest one overlooked reason this claim matters: it would dramatically expand the range of actions perception-based theories of action might explain. I then describe the influential phenomenal contrast method of arguing for high-level perception (...)
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  49. Truth-Makers.Kevin Mulligan, Peter Simons & Barry Smith - 1984 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 44 (3):287-321.
    A realist theory of truth for a class of sentences holds that there are entities in virtue of which these sentences are true or false. We call such entities ‘truthmakers’ and contend that those for a wide range of sentences about the real world are moments (dependent particulars). Since moments are unfamiliar, we provide a definition and a brief philosophical history, anchoring them in our ontology by showing that they are objects of perception. The core of our theory is (...)
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  50. The Enemy: A Thought Experiment on Patriarchies, Feminisms and Memes.Robert James M. Boyles - 2011 - In Jeane Peracullo & Noelle Leslie Dela Cruz (eds.), Feminista: Gender, Race, and Class in the Philippines. Anvil Publishing, Inc. pp. 53–64.
    This article examines who or what should be the target of feminist criticism. Throughout the discussion, the concept of memes is applied in analyzing systems such as patriarchy and feminism itself. Adapting Dawkins' theory on genes, this research puts forward the possibility that patriarchies and feminisms are memeplexes competing for the limited energy and memory space of humanity.
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