Results for 'Electronic Health Records'

998 found
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  1. Negative Findings in Electronic Health Records and Biomedical Ontologies: A Realist Approach.Werner Ceusters, Peter Elkin & Barry Smith - 2007 - International Journal of Medical Informatics 76 (3):S326-S333.
    PURPOSE—A substantial fraction of the observations made by clinicians and entered into patient records are expressed by means of negation or by using terms which contain negative qualifiers (as in “absence of pulse” or “surgical procedure not performed”). This seems at first sight to present problems for ontologies, terminologies and data repositories that adhere to a realist view and thus reject any reference to putative non-existing entities. Basic Formal Ontology (BFO) and Referent Tracking (RT) are examples of such paradigms. (...)
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  2. Tracking Referents in Electronic Health Records.Werner Ceusters & Barry Smith - 2005 - Studies in Health Technology and Informatics 116:71–76.
    Electronic Health Records (EHRs) are organized around two kinds of statements: those reporting observations made, and those reporting acts performed. In neither case does the record involve any direct reference to what such statements are actually about. They record not: what is happening on the side of the patient, but rather: what is said about what is happening. While the need for a unique patient identifier is generally recognized, we argue that we should now move to an (...)
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  3. How Bioethics Principles Can Aid Design of Electronic Health Records to Accommodate Patient Granular Control.Eric M. Meslin & Peter H. Schwartz - 2014 - Journal of General Internal Medicine 30 (1):3-6.
    Ethics should guide the design of electronic health records (EHR), and recognized principles of bioethics can play an important role. This approach was adopted recently by a team of informaticists designing and testing a system where patients exert granular control over who views their personal health information. While this method of building ethics in from the start of the design process has significant benefits, questions remain about how useful the application of bioethics principles can be in (...)
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  4. Strategies for Referent Tracking in Electronic Health Records.Werner Ceusters & Barry Smith - 2006 - Journal of Biomedical Informatics 39 (3):362-378.
    The goal of referent tracking is to create an ever-growing pool of data relating to the entities existing in concrete spatiotemporal reality. In the context of Electronic Healthcare Records (EHRs) the relevant concrete entities are not only particular patients but also their parts, diseases, therapies, lesions, and so forth, insofar as these are salient to diagnosis and treatment. Within a referent tracking system, all such entities are referred to directly and explicitly, something which cannot be achieved when familiar (...)
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  5.  83
    Foundation for the Electronic Health Record: An Ontological Analysis of the HL7 Reference Information Model.Lowell Vizenor, Barry Smith & Werner Ceusters - 2004 - In IFOMIS Reports. Saarbrücken: IFOMIS. pp. 1-14.
    Despite the recent advances in information and communication technology that have increased our ability to store and circulate information, the task remains of ensuring that the right sorts of information reach the right sorts of people. In what follows we defend the thesis that efforts to develop efficient means for sharing information across healthcare systems and organizations would benefit from a careful analysis of human action in healthcare organizations, and that the communication of healthcare information and knowledge needs to rest (...)
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  6. What Particulars Are Referred to in EHR Data? A Case Study in Integrating Referent Tracking Into an Electronic Health Record Application.Ron Rudnicki, Werner Ceusters, Shaid Manzoo & Barry Smith - 2007 - In Proceedings of the Annual Symposium of the American Medical Informatics Association, Chicago, IL. Washington, DC: AMIA. pp. 630-634.
    Referent Tracking (RT) advocates the use of instance unique identifiers to refer to the entities comprising the subject matter of patient health records. RT promises many benefits to those who use health record data to improve patient care. To further the adoption of the paradigm we provide an illustration of how data from an EHR application needs to be decomposed in order to make it accord with the tenets of RT. We describe the ontological principles on which (...)
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  7.  57
    An Ontology-Based Methodology for the Migration of Biomedical Terminologies to Electronic Health Records.Barry Smith & Werner Ceusters - 2005 - In Proceedings of AMIA Symposium 2005, Washington DC,. Washington, DC: AMIA. pp. 704-708.
    Biomedical terminologies are focused on what is general, Electronic Health Records (EHRs) on what is particular, and it is commonly assumed that the step from the one to the other is unproblematic. We argue that this is not so, and that, if the EHR of the future is to fulfill its promise, then the foundations of both EHR architectures and biomedical terminologies need to be reconceived. We accordingly describe a new framework for the treatment of both generals (...)
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  8. Design and Evaluation of a Wireless Electronic Health Records System for Field Care in Mass Casualty Settings.David Kirsh, L. A. Lenert, W. G. Griswold, C. Buono, J. Lyon, R. Rao & T. C. Chan - 2011 - Journal of the American Medical Informatic Association 18 (6):842-852.
    There is growing interest in the use of technology to enhance the tracking and quality of clinical information available for patients in disaster settings. This paper describes the design and evaluation of the Wireless Internet Information System for Medical Response in Disasters (WIISARD).
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  9. Giving Patients Granular Control of Personal Health Information: Using an Ethics ‘Points to Consider’ to Inform Informatics System Designers.Eric M. Meslin, Sheri A. Alpert, Aaron E. Carroll, Jere D. Odell, William M. Tierney & Peter H. Schwartz - 2013 - International Journal of Medical Informatics 82:1136-1143.
    Objective: There are benefits and risks of giving patients more granular control of their personal health information in electronic health record (EHR) systems. When designing EHR systems and policies, informaticists and system developers must balance these benefits and risks. Ethical considerations should be an explicit part of this balancing. Our objective was to develop a structured ethics framework to accomplish this. -/- Methods: We reviewed existing literature on the ethical and policy issues, developed an ethics framework called (...)
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  10. Ethical Issues in Text Mining for Mental Health.Joshua Skorburg & Phoebe Friesen - forthcoming - In M. Dehghani & R. Boyd (ed.), The Atlas of Language Analysis in Psychology.
    A recent systematic review of Machine Learning (ML) approaches to health data, containing over 100 studies, found that the most investigated problem was mental health (Yin et al., 2019). Relatedly, recent estimates suggest that between 165,000 and 325,000 health and wellness apps are now commercially available, with over 10,000 of those designed specifically for mental health (Carlo et al., 2019). In light of these trends, the present chapter has three aims: (1) provide an informative overview of (...)
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  11. The Role of Ontologies for Sustainable, Semantically Interoperable and Trustworthy EHR Solutions.Bernd Blobel, Dipak Kalra, Marc Koehn, Ken Lunn, Peter Pharow, Pekka Ruotsalainen, Stefan Schulz & Barry Smith - 2009 - Studies in Health Technology and Informatics 150:953-957.
    As health systems around the world turn towards highly distributed, specialized and cooperative structures to increase quality and safety of care as well as efficiency and efficacy of delivery processes, there is a growing need for supporting communication and collaboration of all parties involved with advanced ICT solutions. The Electronic Health Record (EHR) provides the information platform which is maturing towards the eHealth core application. To meet the requirements for sustainable, semantically interoperable, and trustworthy EHR solutions, different (...)
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  12.  98
    Dealing with Elements of Medical Encounters: An Approach Based on Ontological Realism.Farinelli Fernanda, Almeida Mauricio, Elkin Peter & Barry Smith - 2016 - Proceedings of the Joint International Conference on Biological Ontology and Biocreative 1747.
    Electronic health records (EHRs) serve as repositories of documented data collected in a health care encounter. An EHR records information about who receives, who provides the health care and about the place where the encounter happens. We also observe additional elements relating to social relations in which the healthcare consumer is involved. To provide a consensus representation of common data and to enhance interoperability between different EHR repositories we have created a solution grounded in (...)
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  13. A Realism-Based Approach to the Evolution of Biomedical Ontologies.Barry Smith - 2006 - In Proceedings of the Annual AMIA Symposium. Washington, DC: American Medical Informatics Association. pp. 121-125.
    We present a novel methodology for calculating the improvements obtained in successive versions of biomedical ontologies. The theory takes into account changes both in reality itself and in our understanding of this reality. The successful application of the theory rests on the willingness of ontology authors to document changes they make by following a number of simple rules. The theory provides a pathway by which ontology authoring can become a science rather than an art, following principles analogous to those that (...)
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  14. Referent Tracking: The Problem of Negative Findings.Werner Ceusters, Peter Elkin & Barry Smith - 2006 - Studies in Health Technology and Informatics 124:741-46.
    The paradigm of referent tracking is based on a realist presupposition which rejects so-called negative entities (congenital absent nipple, and the like) as spurious. How, then, can a referent tracking-based Electronic Health Record deal with what are standardly called ‘negative findings’? To answer this question we carried out an analysis of some 748 sentences drawn from patient charts and containing some form of negation. Our analysis shows that to deal with these sentences we need to introduce a new (...)
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  15. ARGOS Policy Brief on Semantic Interoperability.Dipak Kalra, Mark Musen, Barry Smith & Werner Ceusters - 2011 - Studies in Health Technology and Informatics 170 (1):1-15.
    Semantic interoperability requires the use of standards, not only for Electronic Health Record (EHR) data to be transferred and structurally mapped into a receiving repository, but also for the clinical content of the EHR to be interpreted in conformity with the original meanings intended by its authors. Accurate and complete clinical documentation, faithful to the patient’s situation, and interoperability between systems, require widespread and dependable access to published and maintained collections of coherent and quality-assured semantic resources, including models (...)
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  16. The Ethical Implications of Personal Health Monitoring.Brent Mittelstadt - 2014 - International Journal of Technoethics 5 (2):37-60.
    Personal Health Monitoring (PHM) uses electronic devices which monitor and record health-related data outside a hospital, usually within the home. This paper examines the ethical issues raised by PHM. Eight themes describing the ethical implications of PHM are identified through a review of 68 academic articles concerning PHM. The identified themes include privacy, autonomy, obtrusiveness and visibility, stigma and identity, medicalisation, social isolation, delivery of care, and safety and technological need. The issues around each of these are (...)
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  17. SNOMED CT Standard Ontology Based on the Ontology for General Medical Science.Shaker El-Sappagh, Francesco Franda, Ali Farman & Kyung-Sup Kwak - 2018 - BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making 76 (18):1-19.
    Background: Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine—Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT, hereafter abbreviated SCT) is acomprehensive medical terminology used for standardizing the storage, retrieval, and exchange of electronic healthdata. Some efforts have been made to capture the contents of SCT as Web Ontology Language (OWL), but theseefforts have been hampered by the size and complexity of SCT. Method: Our proposal here is to develop an upper-level ontology and to use it as the basis for defining the termsin SCT in a way that (...)
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  18. Impact of Wireless Electronic Medical Record System on the Quality of Patient Documentation by Emergency Field Responders During a Disaster Mass-Casualty Exercise.David Kirsh - 2011 - Prehospital and Disaster Medicine 26 (4):268-275.
    The use of wireless, electronic, medical records and communications in the prehospital and disaster field is increasing. Objective: This study examines the role of wireless, electronic, medical records and com- munications technologies on the quality of patient documentation by emergency field responders during a mass-casualty exercise.
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  19. Wüsteria.Barry Smith, Werner Ceusters & Rita Temmerman - 2005 - Studies in Health Technology and Informatics 116:647-652.
    The last two decades have seen considerable efforts directed towards making Electronic Health Records interoperable through improvements in medical ontologies, terminologies and coding systems. Unfortunately, these efforts have been hampered by a number of influential ideas inherited from the work of Eugen Wüster, the father of terminology standardization and the founder of ISO TC 37. We here survey Wüster’s ideas – which see terminology work as being focused on the classification of concepts in people’s minds – and (...)
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  20. From Concepts to Clinical Reality: An Essay on the Benchmarking of Biomedical Terminologies.Barry Smith - 2006 - Journal of Biomedical Informatics 39 (3):288-298.
    It is only by fixing on agreed meanings of terms in biomedical terminologies that we will be in a position to achieve that accumulation and integration of knowledge that is indispensable to progress at the frontiers of biomedicine. Standardly, the goal of fixing meanings is seen as being realized through the alignment of terms on what are called ‘concepts’. Part I addresses three versions of the concept-based approach – by Cimino, by Wüster, and by Campbell and associates – and surveys (...)
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  21. Ontology-Based Integration of Medical Coding Systems and Electronic Patient Records.W. Ceusters, Barry Smith & G. De Moor - 2004 - IFOMIS Reports.
    In the last two decades we have witnessed considerable efforts directed towards making electronic healthcare records comparable and interoperable through advances in record architectures and (bio)medical terminologies and coding systems. Deep semantic issues in general, and ontology in particular, have received some interest from the research communities. However, with the exception of work on so-called ‘controlled vocabularies’, ontology has thus far played little role in work on standardization. The prime focus has been rather the rapid population of terminologies (...)
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  22. Referent Tracking and its Applications.Werner Ceusters & Barry Smith - 2007 - In Proceedings of the Workshop WWW2007 Workshop i3: Identity, Identifiers, Identification (Workshop on Entity-Centric Approaches to Information and Knowledge Management on the Web), Banff, Canada. CEUR.
    Referent tracking (RT) is a new paradigm, based on unique identification, for representing and keeping track of particulars. It was first introduced to support the entry and retrieval of data in electronic health records (EHRs). Its purpose is to avoid the ambiguity that arises when statements in an EHR refer to disorders or other entities on the side of the patient exclusively by means of compound descriptions utilizing general terms such as ‘pimple on nose’ or ‘small left (...)
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  23. New Desiderata for Biomedical Terminologies.Barry Smith - 2008 - In Katherine Munn & Barry Smith (eds.), Applied Ontology: An Introduction. Ontos. pp. 83-109.
    It is only by fixing on agreed meanings of terms in biomedical terminologies that we will be in a position to achieve that accumulation and integration of knowledge that is indispensable to progress at the frontiers of biomedicine. Standardly, the goal of fixing meanings is seen as being realized through the alignment of terms on what are called ‘concepts’. Part I addresses three versions of the concept-based approach – by Cimino, by Wüster, and by Campbell and associates – and surveys (...)
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  24. OntONeo: The Obstetric and Neonatal Ontology.Fernanda Farinelli, Mauricio Almeida, Peter Elkin & Barry Smith - 2016 - In Dealing with elements of medical encounters: An approach based on ontological realism. Aachen: CEUR, vol. 1747.
    This paper presents the Obstetric and Neonatal Ontology (OntONeo). This ontology has been created to provide a consensus representation of salient electronic health record (EHR) data and to serve interoperability of the associated data and information systems. More generally, it will serve interoperability of clinical and translational data, for example deriving from genomics disciplines and from clinical trials. Interoperability of EHR data is important to ensuring continuity of care during the prenatal and postnatal periods for both mother and (...)
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  25. An Ontology for Carcinoma Classification for Clinical Bioinformatics.Anand Kumar, Yum Lina Yip, Barry Smith, Dirk Marwede & Daniel Novotny - 2005 - Studies in Health Technology and Informatics 116 (1):635-640.
    There are a number of existing classifications and staging schemes for carcinomas, one of the most frequently used being the TNM classification. Such classifications represent classes of entities which exist at various anatomical levels of granularity. We argue that in order to apply such representations to the Electronic Health Records one needs sound ontologies which take into consideration the diversity of the domains which are involved in clinical bioinformatics. Here we outline a formal theory for addressing these (...)
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  26. Technology and Epistemic Possibility.Isaac Record - 2013 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie (2):1-18.
    My aim in this paper is to give a philosophical analysis of the relationship between contingently available technology and the knowledge that it makes possible. My concern is with what specific subjects can know in practice, given their particular conditions, especially available technology, rather than what can be known “in principle” by a hypothetical entity like Laplace’s Demon. The argument has two parts. In the first, I’ll construct a novel account of epistemic possibility that incorporates two pragmatic conditions: responsibility and (...)
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  27.  95
    Speech Acts and Medical Records: The Ontological Nexus.Lowell Vizenor & Barry Smith - 2004 - In Proceedings of the International Joint Meeting EuroMISE.
    Despite the recent advances in information and communication technology that have increased our ability to store and circulate information, the task of ensuring that the right sorts of information gets to the right sorts of people remains. We argue that the many efforts underway to develop efficient means for sharing information across healthcare systems and organizations would benefit from a careful analysis of human action in healthcare organizations. This in turn requires that the management of information and knowledge within healthcare (...)
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  28. Policy Response, Social Media and Science Journalism for the Sustainability of the Public Health System Amid the COVID-19 Outbreak: The Vietnam Lessons.La Viet Phuong, Pham Thanh Hang, Manh-Toan Ho, Nguyen Minh Hoang, Nguyen Phuc Khanh Linh, Vuong Thu Trang, Nguyen To Hong Kong, Tran Trung, Khuc Van Quy, Ho Manh Tung & Quan-Hoang Vuong - 2020 - Sustainability 12:2931.
    Vietnam, with a geographical proximity and a high volume of trade with China, was the first country to record an outbreak of the new Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 or SARS-CoV-2. While the country was expected to have a high risk of transmission, as of April 4, 2020—in comparison to attempts to contain the disease around the world—responses from Vietnam are being seen as prompt and effective in protecting the interests of its citizens, (...)
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  29. The Use (and Misuse) of 'Cognitive Enhancers' by Students at an Academic Health Sciences Center.J. Bossaer, J. A. Gray, S. E. Miller, V. C. Gaddipati, R. E. Enck & G. G. Enck - 2013 - Academic Medicine (7):967-971.
    Purpose Prescription stimulant use as “cognitive enhancers” has been described among undergraduate college students. However, the use of prescription stimulants among future health care professionals is not well characterized. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of prescription stimulant misuse among students at an academic health sciences center. -/- Method Electronic surveys were e-mailed to 621 medical, pharmacy, and respiratory therapy students at East Tennessee State University for four consecutive weeks in fall 2011. Completing the survey (...)
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  30. The Limited Effectiveness of Prestige as an Intervention on the Health of Medical Journal Publications.Carole J. Lee - 2013 - Episteme 10 (4):387-402.
    Under the traditional system of peer-reviewed publication, the degree of prestige conferred to authors by successful publication is tied to the degree of the intellectual rigor of its peer review process: ambitious scientists do well professionally by doing well epistemically. As a result, we should expect journal editors, in their dual role as epistemic evaluators and prestige-allocators, to have the power to motivate improved author behavior through the tightening of publication requirements. Contrary to this expectation, I will argue that the (...)
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  31.  53
    Enabling Posthumous Medical Data Donation: An Appeal for the Ethical Utilisation of Personal Health Data.Jenny Krutzinna, Mariarosaria Taddeo & Luciano Floridi - 2019 - Science and Engineering Ethics 25 (5):1357-1387.
    This article argues that personal medical data should be made available for scientific research, by enabling and encouraging individuals to donate their medical records once deceased, similar to the way in which they can already donate organs or bodies. This research is part of a project on posthumous medical data donation developed by the Digital Ethics Lab at the Oxford Internet Institute at the University of Oxford. Ten arguments are provided to support the need to foster posthumous medical data (...)
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  32.  69
    Enabling Posthumous Medical Data Donation: A Plea for the Ethical Utilisation of Personal Health Data.Luciano Floridi, Mariarosaria Taddeo & Jenny Krutzinna - 2019 - In Jenny Krutzinna & Luciano Floridi (eds.), The Ethics of Medical Data Donation. Springer Verlag.
    This article argues that personal medical data should be made available for scientific research, by enabling and encouraging individuals to donate their medical records once deceased, in a way similar to how they can already donate organs or bodies. This research is part of a project on posthumous medical data donation developed by the Digital Ethics Lab at the Oxford Internet Institute. Ten arguments are provided to support the need to foster posthumous medical data donation. Two major risks are (...)
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  33.  81
    The Case Fatality Rate in COVID-19 Patients With Cardiovascular Disease: Global Health Challenge and Paradigm in the Current Pandemic.Siddhartha Dan, Mohit Pant & Sushil Kumar Upadhyay - 2021 - Curr Pharmacol Rep 6:1-10.
    Purpose of Review Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is identified from Wuhan, China, and has spread almost worldwide. Recently, the newly identified SARS-CoV-2 has been confirmed to kill millions of people worldwide and is dangerous to society health, survival, and livelihood. The people with cardiovascular problems are noticed as most common patients of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). There is a greater risk of mortality and morbidity in these patients than other patients of COVID-19. In the heart, expressed angiotensin-converting (...)
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  34.  94
    Ontology as the Core Discipline of Biomedical Informatics: Legacies of the Past and Recommendations for the Future Direction of Research.Barry Smith & Werner Ceusters - 2007 - In Gordana Dodig Crnkovic & Susan Stuart (eds.), Computation, Information, Cognition: The Nexus and the Liminal. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. pp. 104-122.
    The automatic integration of rapidly expanding information resources in the life sciences is one of the most challenging goals facing biomedical research today. Controlled vocabularies, terminologies, and coding systems play an important role in realizing this goal, by making it possible to draw together information from heterogeneous sources – for example pertaining to genes and proteins, drugs and diseases – secure in the knowledge that the same terms will also represent the same entities on all occasions of use. In the (...)
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  35. Bridging the Gap Between Medical and Bioinformatics: An Ontological Case Study in Colon Carcinoma.Anand Kumar, Yum Lina Yip, Barry Smith & Pierre Grenon - 2006 - Computers in Biology and Medicine 36 (7):694--711.
    Ontological principles are needed in order to bridge the gap between medical and biological information in a robust and computable fashion. This is essential in order to draw inferences across the levels of granularity which span medicine and biology, an example of which include the understanding of the roles of tumor markers in the development and progress of carcinoma. Such information integration is also important for the integration of genomics information with the information contained in the electronic patient (...) in such a way that real time conclusions can be drawn. In this paper we describe a large multi-granular datasource built by using ontological principles and focusing on the case of colon carcinoma. (shrink)
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  36. The Ontology of Biological and Clinical Statistics (OBCS) for Standardized and Reproducible Statistical Analysis.Jie Zheng, Marcelline R. Harris, Anna Maria Masci, Lin Yu, Alfred Hero, Barry Smith & Yongqun He - 2016 - Journal of Biomedical Semantics 7 (53).
    Statistics play a critical role in biological and clinical research. However, most reports of scientific results in the published literature make it difficult for the reader to reproduce the statistical analyses performed in achieving those results because they provide inadequate documentation of the statistical tests and algorithms applied. The Ontology of Biological and Clinical Statistics (OBCS) is put forward here as a step towards solving this problem. Terms in OBCS, including ‘data collection’, ‘data transformation in statistics’, ‘data visualization’, ‘statistical data (...)
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  37. Hypochondria and Self-Recalibration.Sherrilyn Roush - manuscript
    Health anxiety is, among other things, a response to a universal epistemological problem about whether changes in one’s body indicate serious illness, a problem that grows more challenging to the individual with age and with every advance in medical science, detection, and treatment. There is growing evidence that dysfunctional metacognitive beliefs – beliefs about thinking – are the driving factor, with dysfunctional substantive beliefs about the probability of illness a side‐effect, and that Metacognitive Therapy (MCT) is more effective than (...)
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  38.  74
    Shared Decision‐Making and Maternity Care in the Deep Learning Age: Acknowledging and Overcoming Inherited Defeaters.Keith Begley, Cecily Begley & Valerie Smith - 2021 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 27 (3):497–503.
    In recent years there has been an explosion of interest in Artificial Intelligence (AI) both in health care and academic philosophy. This has been due mainly to the rise of effective machine learning and deep learning algorithms, together with increases in data collection and processing power, which have made rapid progress in many areas. However, use of this technology has brought with it philosophical issues and practical problems, in particular, epistemic and ethical. In this paper the authors, with backgrounds (...)
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  39.  60
    Online Information of Vaccines: Information Quality, Not Only Privacy, is an Ethical Responsibility of Search Engines.Pietro Ghezzi, Peter Bannister, Gonzalo Casino, Alessia Catalani, Michel Goldman, Jessica Morley, Marie Neunez, Andreu Prados-Bo, Pierre Robert Smeeters, Mariarosaria Taddeo, Tania Vanzolini & Luciano Floridi - 2021 - Frontiers in Medicine 7.
    The fact that Internet companies may record our personal data and track our online behavior for commercial or political purpose has emphasized aspects related to online privacy. This has also led to the development of search engines that promise no tracking and privacy. Search engines also have a major role in spreading low-quality health information such as that of anti-vaccine websites. This study investigates the relationship between search engines’ approach to privacy and the scientific quality of the information they (...)
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  40.  2
    Targeted Human Trafficking -- The Wars Between Proxy and Surrogated Economy.Yang Immanuel Pachankis - 2022 - International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research 13 (7):398-409.
    Upon Brexit & Trade War, the research took a supply-side analysis in macroeconomic paradigm for the purpose and cause of the actions. In the geopolitical competitions on crude oil resources between the allied powers & the Russian hegemony, the latter of which has effective control over P. R. China’s multilateral behaviors, the external research induced that trade war, either by complete information in intelligence or an unintended result, was a supply chain attack in prohibiting the antisatellite weapon supplies in the (...)
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  41.  61
    Medication of Hydroxychloroquine, Remdesivir and Convalescent Plasma During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Germany—An Ethical Analysis.Katja Voit, Cristian Timmermann & Florian Steger - 2021 - International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18 (11):5685.
    This paper aims to analyze the ethical challenges in experimental drug use during the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic, using Germany as a case study. In Germany uniform ethical guidelines were available early on nationwide, which was considered as desirable by other states to reduce uncertainties and convey a message of unity. The purpose of this ethical analysis is to assist the preparation of future guidelines on the use of medicines during public health emergencies. The use of hydroxychloroquine, (...)
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  42. Self-Treatment of Psychosis and Complex Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder with LSD and DMT—A Retrospective Case Study.Mika Turkia - 2022 - Psychiatry Research Case Reports 1 (2):100029.
    This article describes a case of a teenager with early complex trauma due to chronic domestic violence. Cannabis use triggered auditory hallucinations, after which the teenager was diagnosed with an acute schizophrenia-like psychotic disorder. Antipsychotic medication did not fully resolve symptoms. Eventually the teenager chose to self-medicate with LSD in order to resolve a suicidal condition. The teenager carried out six unsupervised LSD sessions, followed by an extended period of almost daily use of inhaled low-dose DMT. Psychotic symptoms were mostly (...)
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  43.  79
    Introduction.Thomas Douglas & David Birks - 2018 - In David Birks & Thomas Douglas (eds.), Treatment for Crime: Philosophical Essays on Neurointerventions in Criminal Justice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Crime-preventing neurointerventions (CPNs) are increasingly being used or advocated for crime prevention. There is increasing use of testosterone-lowering agents to prevent recidivism in sexual offenders, and strong political and scientific interest in developing pharmaceutical treatments for psychopathy and anti-social behaviour. Recent developments suggest that we may ultimately have at our disposal a range of drugs capable of suppressing violent aggression, and it is not difficult to imagine possible applications of such drugs in crime prevention. But should neurointerventions be used in (...)
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  44. Without a Trace: Why Did Corona Apps Fail?Lucie White & Philippe van Basshuysen - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (12):1-4.
    At the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, high hopes were put on digital contact tracing, using mobile phone apps to record and immediately notify contacts when a user reports as infected. Such apps can now be downloaded in many countries, but as second waves of COVID-19 are raging, these apps are playing a less important role than anticipated. We argue that this is because most countries have opted for app configurations that cannot provide a means of rapidly informing users of (...)
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  45. Ontology and the Future of Dental Research Informatics.Barry Smith, Louis J. Goldberg, Alan Ruttenberg & Michael Glick - 2010 - Journal of the American Dental Association 141 (10):1173-75.
    How do we find what is clinically significant in the swarms of data being generated by today’s diagnostic technologies? As electronic records become ever more prevalent – and digital imaging and genomic, proteomic, salivaomics, metabalomics, pharmacogenomics, phenomics and transcriptomics techniques become commonplace – fdifferent clinical and biological disciplines are facing up to the need to put their data houses in order to avoid the consequences of an uncontrolled explosion of different ways of describing information. We describe a new (...)
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  46. The Limits of Deontology in Dental Ethics Education.Parker Crutchfield, Lea Brandt & David Fleming - 2016 - International Journal of Ethics Education 1 (2):183-200.
    Most current dental ethics curricula use a deontological approach to biomedical and dental ethics that emphasizes adherence to duties and principles as properties that determine whether an act is ethical. But the actual ethical orientation of students is typically unknown. The purpose of the current study was to determine the ethical orientation of dental students in resolving clinical ethical dilemmas. First-year students from one school were invited to participate in an electronic survey that included eight vignettes featuring ethical conflicts (...)
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  47. Unification of Science - Einstein's Missing Steps in E=Mc2 and His Missing Link to Quantum Gravity.Rodney Bartlett - 2018 - Beau Bassin, Mauritius: Lambert Academic Publishing.
    A Monograph Dealing With Unification In Relation To Dark Energy, Dark Matter, Cosmic Expansion, E=mc2, Quantum Gravity, "Imaginary" Computers, Creation Of The Infinite And Eternal Universe Using Electronic BITS + PI + "Imaginary" Time, Earthly Education, Science-Religion Union, The Human Condition, Superconductivity, Planetary Fields, How Gravitation Can Boost Health, Space-Time Propulsion From The Emdrive To The Brouwer Fixed-Point Theorem, "Light Matter", Etc. These Effects Were Originally Discussed In Several Short Internet Articles. Table Of Contents Introduction Superconductivity And Planetary (...)
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  48. Plasma Brain Dynamics (PBD): A Mechanism for EEG Waves Under Human Consciousness.Z. G. ma - 2017 - Cosmos and History 13 (2):185-203.
    EEG signals are records of nonlinear solitary waves in human brains. The waves have several types (e.g., α, β, γ, θ, δ) in response to different levels of consciousness. They are classified into two groups: Group-1 consists of complex storm-like waves (α, β, and γ); Group-2 is composed of simple quasilinear waves (θ and δ). In order to elucidate the mechanism of EEG wave formation and propagation, this paper extends the Vlasov-Maxwell equations of Plasma Brain Dynamics (PBD) to a (...)
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  49.  40
    Should the Family Have a Role in Deceased Organ Donation Decision-Making? A Systematic Review of Public Knowledge and Attitudes Towards Organ Procurement Policies in Europe.Alberto Molina-Pérez, Janet Delgado, Mihaela Frunza, Myfanwy Morgan, Gurch Randhawa, Jeantine Reiger-Van de Wijdeven, Silke Schicktanz, Eline Schiks, Sabine Wöhlke & David Rodríguez-Arias - 2022 - Transplantation Reviews 36 (1).
    Goal: To assess public knowledge and attitudes towards the family’s role in deceased organ donation in Europe. -/- Methods: A systematic search was conducted in CINHAL, MEDLINE, PAIS Index, Scopus, PsycINFO, and Web of Science on December 15th, 2017. Eligibility criteria were socio-empirical studies conducted in Europe from 2008 to 2017 addressing either knowledge or attitudes by the public towards the consent system, including the involvement of the family in the decision-making process, for post-mortem organ retrieval. Screening and data collection (...)
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  50. Relativity Theory May Not Have the Last Word on the Nature of Time: Quantum Theory and Probabilism.Nicholas Maxwell - 2017 - In G. Ghirardi & S. Wuppulur (eds.), Space, Time and the Limits of Human Understanding. Springer. pp. 109-124.
    Two radically different views about time are possible. According to the first, the universe is three dimensional. It has a past and a future, but that does not mean it is spread out in time as it is spread out in the three dimensions of space. This view requires that there is an unambiguous, absolute, cosmic-wide "now" at each instant. According to the second view about time, the universe is four dimensional. It is spread out in both space and time (...)
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