Results for 'Gustav Theodor Fechner'

156 found
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  1.  36
    Gustav Fechner e a Alma do Mundo.Marcio Miotto - 2020 - Revista Helius 3 (2):852-906.
    O presente trabalho pretende delinear a noção de Panpsiquismo no projeto filosófico de Gustav Theodor Fechner, especialmente a partir da análise do livro Über die Seelenfrage, de 1861. Para isso, o artigo repõe em linhas gerais a questão das relações entre seu projeto filosófico e a Psicofísica, uma vez que as interpretações clássicas sobre Fechner geralmente enxergam essas duas competências como separadas. Em segundo lugar, o artigo situa questões históricas sobre Fechner e a Psicologia (e (...)
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  2. Zurück Zu Fechner? Il Neokantismo E le Sfide Della Psicologia Scientifica.Riccardo Martinelli - 2015 - Philosophical Readings 7 (2):31-48.
    This essay addresses the attitude of some leading Neo-Kantian philosophers toward scientific psychology and psychophysics. Early influential figures like Friedrich A. Lange counted Gustav T. Fechner’s psychophysical law among their allies in the rehabilitation of the Kantian standpoint. Later on, however, Neo-Kantian philosophers firmly rejected psychological measurement as a whole and harshly criticized the methods adopted by several psychologists of their time. For example, the Marburg mathematician and philosopher August Stadler reduced the validity of Fechner’s law to (...)
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  3.  79
    Hermann Lotzes Philosophie der Psychologie.Nikolay Milkov - 2021 - In Hermann Lotze, Medizinische Psychologie oder Physiologie der Seele. Heidelberg: Springer-Spektrum. pp. 1-28.
    Die Psychologie hat sich im zweiten Viertel des 19. Jahrhunderts langsam zu einer autonomen Disziplin entwickelt. Im Unterschied zu den anderen Figuren in dieser Entwicklung, Johann Friedrich Herbart, Ernst Heinrich Weber und Gustav Theodor Fechner, hat Lotze in seiner Medicinische Psychologie (1852) von Anfang an die neue Disziplin, die Psychologie, konsequent in enger Verbindung mit der Philosophie entwickelt. Damit hat er die Hoffnung gebremst, die Psychologie völlig experimentellen Untersuchungen zu überlassen, die um diese Zeit schon viele gepflegt (...)
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  4. Art After Auschwitz – Responding to an Infinite Demand. Gustav Metzger’s Works as Responses to Theodor W. Adorno’s “New Categorical Imperative”.Anna-Verena Nosthoff - 2014 - Cultural Politics 10 (3):300–319.
    This essay explores the works of German artist Gustav Metzger as a potential response to Theodor W. Adorno’s dictum “Nach Auschwitz ein Gedicht zu schreiben, ist barbarisch” (“To write poetry after Auschwitz is barbaric”). It argues that culture, as understood in the Adornian sense, is inextricably barbaric as a result of simply being after Auschwitz. Culture must acknowledge the finitude in its own ability to live up to an ethical demand in response to justice, whose arrival is infinitely (...)
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  5. Psychology Without a Soul, Philosophy Without an I: Nietzsche and 19th Century Psychophysics.Pietro Gori - 2015 - In Bartholomew Ryan, Maria Joao Mayer Branco & João Constancio (eds.), Nietzsche and the Problem of Subjectivity. De Gruyter. pp. 166-195.
    Friedrich Nietzsche’s criticism towards the substance-concept „I“ plays an important role in his late thought, and can be properly understood by making reference to the 19th century debate on the scientific psychology. Friedrich Lange and Ernst Mach gave an important contribution to that debate. Both of them developed the ideas of Gustav Fechner, and thought about a „psychology without soul“, i.e. an investigation that gives up with the old metaphysics of substance in dealing with the mind-body problem. In (...)
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  6. Posizioni ottocentesche sul rapporto corpo-mente: Lange, Mach, Nietzsche.Gori Pietro - 2015 - Intersezioni:63-88.
    Friedrich Nietzsche's criticism towards the substance-concept «I» plays an important role in his late thought, and can be properly understood by making reference to the 19th century debate on the scientific psychology. Friedrich Lange and Ernst Mach gave an important contribution to that debate. Both of them developed the ideas of Gustav Fechner, and thought about a «psychology without a soul», i.e. an investigation that gives up with the old metaphysics of substance in dealing with the mind-body problem. (...)
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  7. A Psicologia entre o longo passado e a curta história.Marcio Luiz - 2018 - Dissertatio 47:95-134.
    O presente trabalho pretende inserir a História da Psicologia dentro de um debate mais alargado, em torno das Histórias da Filosofia e das Ciências. Para isso, o objeto de análise é a célebre frase de Ebbinghaus, 'A Psicologia tem um longo passado, mas uma curta história', e toda a tradição de livros e textbooks decorrente dela, muito popular nos séculos XX e XXI. O trabalho analisará o texto de Ebbinghaus e seus compromissos decorrentes. Então realizará uma crítica a essa tradição, (...)
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  8. Histórias das ciências e os “fundamentos históricos” da Psicologia.Marcio Luiz - 2018 - Temporalidades 10 (1):129-158.
    RESUMO: O presente texto põe algumas questões referentes à “história” dos fundamentos da Psicologia entre os séculos XIX e XX, mostrando como ocorrem ainda, em História da Psicologia, certos fatores controversos, muitos deles tributários de postulados filosóficos do século XIX, especialmente em torno do positivismo. O artigo concentra-se em mostrar, preliminarmente, de que forma a ruptura da Filosofia Natural e a ascensão da figura do “cientista” no século XIX ensejaram novos motivos de análise, dentre eles certo cientificismo que se impôs (...)
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  9. The Secular Beyond: Free Religious Dissent and Debates Over the Afterlife in Nineteenth-Century Germany.Todd H. Weir - 2008 - Church History 77 (3):629-658.
    The 1830s and 1840s saw the proliferating usage of “the Beyond” (Jenseits) as a choice term for the afterlife in German public discourse. This linguistic innovation coincided with the rise of empiricism in natural science. It also signaled an emerging religious debate in which bald challenges to the very existence of heaven were aired before the wider German public for the first time. Against the belief of many contemporaries that empirical science was chiefly responsible for this attack on one of (...)
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  10. Gender Is a Natural Kind with a Historical Essence.Theodore Bach - 2012 - Ethics 122 (2):231-272.
    Traditional debate on the metaphysics of gender has been a contrast of essentialist and social-constructionist positions. The standard reaction to this opposition is that neither position alone has the theoretical resources required to satisfy an equitable politics. This has caused a number of theorists to suggest ways in which gender is unified on the basis of social rather than biological characteristics but is “real” or “objective” nonetheless – a position I term social objectivism. This essay begins by making explicit the (...)
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  11. Social Categories Are Natural Kinds, Not Objective Types (and Why It Matters Politically).Theodore Bach - 2016 - Journal of Social Ontology 2 (2):177-201.
    There is growing support for the view that social categories like men and women refer to “objective types” (Haslanger 2000, 2006, 2012; Alcoff 2005). An objective type is a similarity class for which the axis of similarity is an objective rather than nominal or fictional property. Such types are independently real and causally relevant, yet their unity does not derive from an essential property. Given this tandem of features, it is not surprising why empirically-minded researchers interested in fighting oppression and (...)
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  12. A Unified Account of General Learning Mechanisms and Theory‐of‐Mind Development.Theodore Bach - 2014 - Mind and Language 29 (3):351-381.
    Modularity theorists have challenged that there are, or could be, general learning mechanisms that explain theory-of-mind development. In response, supporters of the ‘scientific theory-theory’ account of theory-of-mind development have appealed to children's use of auxiliary hypotheses and probabilistic causal modeling. This article argues that these general learning mechanisms are not sufficient to meet the modularist's challenge. The article then explores an alternative domain-general learning mechanism by proposing that children grasp the concept belief through the progressive alignment of relational structure that (...)
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  13. Aristotle on What Is Done in Perceiving.Theodor Ebert - 1983 - Zeitschrift für Philosophische Forschung 37 (2):181 - 198.
    The paper discusses the active part in the process of perceiving, usually expressed by the Greek word krinein. It is argued that krinein in one of its uses means "to judge" in the sense of judging a case, i. e. deciding it. It is not used for making statements. A second meaning of the Greek word is that of discerning or discriminating, and it is this meaning that plays a central part in Aristotle's theory of perception.
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  14. Why the Empirical Study of Non-Philosophical Expertise Does Not Undermine the Status of Philosophical Expertise.Theodore Bach - forthcoming - Erkenntnis:1-25.
    In some domains experts perform better than novices, and in other domains experts do not generally perform better than novices. According to empirical studies of expert performance, this is because the former but not the latter domains make available to training practitioners a direct form of learning feedback. Several philosophers resource this empirical literature to cast doubt on the quality of philosophical expertise. They claim that philosophy is like the dubious domains in that it does not make available the good, (...)
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  15. In Defence of Armchair Expertise.Theodore Bach - 2019 - Theoria 85 (5):350-382.
    In domains like stock brokerage, clinical psychiatry, and long‐term political forecasting, experts generally fail to outperform novices. Empirical researchers agree on why this is: experts must receive direct or environmental learning feedback during training to develop reliable expertise, and these domains are deficient in this type of feedback. A growing number of philosophers resource this consensus view to argue that, given the absence of direct or environmental philosophical feedback, we should not give the philosophical intuitions or theories of expert philosophers (...)
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  16. Analogical Cognition: Applications in Epistemology and the Philosophy of Mind and Language.Theodore Bach - 2012 - Philosophy Compass 7 (5):348-360.
    Analogical cognition refers to the ability to detect, process, and learn from relational similarities. The study of analogical and similarity cognition is widely considered one of the ‘success stories’ of cognitive science, exhibiting convergence across many disciplines on foundational questions. Given the centrality of analogy to mind and knowledge, it would benefit philosophers investigating topics in epistemology and the philosophies of mind and language to become familiar with empirical models of analogical cognition. The goal of this essay is to describe (...)
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  17. Children and Added Sugar: The Case for Restriction.Theodore Bach - 2016 - Journal of Applied Philosophy:105-120.
    It is increasingly clear that children's excessive consumption of products high in added sugar causes obesity and obesity-related health problems like type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic syndrome. Less clear is how best to address this problem through public health policy. In contrast to policies that might conflict with adult's right to self-determination — for example sugar taxes and soda bans — this article proposes that children's access to products high in added sugars should be restricted in the same (...)
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  18.  95
    Aristotelian Accidents.Theodor Ebert - 1998 - Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 16:133-159.
    I argue, firstly, that the accounts of 'accident' in Aristotle's Met. V 30 and in Top. I 5 cannot be used to elucidate each other: the Metaphysics passage tries to disentangle the uses of a Greek word, the Topics passage introduces technical terms for Aristotle's semantics. I then argue that the positive definition in Top. I 5 is to be understood in the following way: X is an accident of Y iff X belongs to Y and if there is a (...)
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  19. Fechner's Panpsychism: A Scientific Solution to the Mind-Body Problem.William R. Woodward - 1972 - Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences 8:367-386.
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  20.  73
    A Nominalistic Interpretation of Truth.Theodore de Laguna & Joel Katzav - 2019 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 27 (5):1034-1040.
    This paper by Theodore de Laguna presents and argues for the deflationary theory of truth. The paper was first published in French in 1922. The version published here is the original, English version of the paper and has been edited by Joel Katzav.
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  21.  28
    In Defence of the Dialectical School.Theodor Ebert - 2008 - In Francesca Alesse (ed.), Anthropine Sophia. Studi di filologia e storiografia filosofica in memoria di Gabriele Giannantoni. Bibliopolis. pp. 275-293.
    In this paper I defend the existence of a Dialectical school proper against criticisms brought forward by Klaus Döring and by Jonathan Barnes. Whereas Döring claims that there was no Dialectical school separate from the Megarians, Barnes takes issue with my claim (argued for in “Dialektiker und frühe Stoiker bei Sextus Empiricus”) that most of the reports in Sextus on the dialecticians refer to members of the Dialectical school. Barnes contends that these dialecticians are in fact Stoic logicians. As against (...)
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  22. Critical Notice of Theodore Sider, Four Dimensionalism.Matthew Davidson - 2004 - Philosophical Books 45 (1):17-33.
    This is a critical notice of Theodore Sider's book, _Four-Dimensionalism_.
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  23. Was Ist Ein Vollkommener Syllogismus des Aristoteles?Theodor Ebert - 1995 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 77 (3):221-247.
    This paper (1) criticizes Patzig's explanation of Aristotle's reason for calling his first figure syllogisms perfect syllogisms, i.e. the transitivity relation: it can only be used for Barbara, not for the other three moods. The paper offers (2) an alternative interpretation: It is only in the case of the (perfect) first figure moods that we can move from the subject term of the minor premiss, taken to be a predicate of an individual, to the predicate term of the major premiss. (...)
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  24. Dialectical Materialism a Historical and Systematic Survey of Philosophy in the Soviet Union.Gustav A. Wetter - 1958 - F. A. Praeger.
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  25. Dialecticians and Stoics on the Classification of Propositions.Theodor Ebert - 1993 - In Klaus Döring & Theodor Ebert (eds.), Dialektiker und Stoiker. Zur Logik der Stoa und ihrer Vorläufer. Stuttgart: Steiner Verlag. pp. 111-127.
    This paper discusses the reports in Diogenes Laertius and in Sextus Empiricus concerning the classification of propositions. It is argued that the material in Sextus uses a source going back to the Dialectical school whose most prominent members were Diodorus Cronus and Philo of Megara. The material preserved in Diogenes Laertius, on the other hand, goes back to Chrysippus.
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  26. Nonbelief Vs. Lack of Evidence.Theodore M. Drange - 1998 - Philo 1 (1):105-114.
    After a presentation of the problem of God's hiddenness, there is discussion of two arguments for God's nonexistence related to that problem. One is the Lack-of-evidence Argument (LEA), according to which there would have been good objective evidence of God's existence if he were to exist. The other is the Argument from Nonbelief (ANB), according to which there would not be as many nonbelievers as there actually are if God were to exist. Reasons are given for assessing ANB as a (...)
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  27.  34
    Why is Evenus Called a Philosopher at Phaedo 61c?Theodor Ebert - 2001 - Classical Quarterly 51 (2):423-434.
    I contend that “philosophos” is meant to carry the connotation of a Pythagorean: Euenus is a native from Paros which had a strong Pythagorean community down to the end of the fifth century. Moreover, “philosophos” was used to refer to the Pythagoreans, as can be seen from the story related by Cicero from Heraclides Ponticus (Tusc. Disp. V, iii, 7-8; cp. DL, 1.12; 8.8). I argue (against Burkert) that even if this story is part of the lore surrounding Pythagoras and, (...)
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  28. Kants kategorischer Imperativ und die Kriterien gebotener, verbotener und freigestellter Handlungen.Theodor Ebert - 1976 - Kant-Studien 67 (1-4):570-583.
    Kant’s Categorical Imperative (CI) is to be taken as a necessary and sufficient condition for any action that is permissible, i. e. not prohibited. The class of permissible actions contains actions which are allowed as well as those which are morally required. If to perform an action and to abstain from this action can be taken to be ‘practical opposites’, then an action that is morally required for, a duty, is an action whose practical opposite is prohibited, and vice versa. (...)
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  29. Warum Fehlt Bei Aristoteles Die 4. Figur?Theodor Ebert - 1980 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 62 (1):13-31.
    The reason for Aristotle’s treatment of (traditional) fourth figure syllogisms as first figure syllogisms with inverted terms in the conclusion is the following: To disprove the conclusiveness of a premiss pair Aristotle formulates two triplets of true propositions such that two of them correspond to the premiss pair in question and that the third proposition corresponding to a conclusion is an a-proposition in the first case, an e-proposition in the other. Since the truth of an a-proposition grants the falsity of (...)
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  30. IMMORTALITAS Oder IMMATERIALITAS? Zum Untertitel von Descartes' Meditationen.Theodor Ebert - 1992 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 74 (2):180-202.
    This paper discusses the question why the first edition of Descartes' Meditations carries a title announcing a proof of the immortality of the soul, whereas Descartes himself (in the Synopsis as well as in his Replies) explicitly denies any intention to deliver such a proof. In the first part of the paper, I refute existing attempts to explain this inconsistency. In the second part, I argue that it was Descartes' intention to announce a proof for the immaterialitas, not for the (...)
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  31. A Simple Logic for Comparisons and Vagueness.Theodore J. Everett - 2000 - Synthese 123 (2):263-278.
    This article provide an intuitive semantic account of a new logic for comparisons (CL), in which atomic statements are assigned both a classical truth-value and a “how much” value or extension in the range [0, 1]. The truth-value of each comparison is determined by the extensions of its component sentences; the truth-value of each atomic depends on whether its extension matches a separate standard for its predicate; everything else is computed classically. CL is less radical than Casari’s comparative logics, in (...)
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  32. Other Voices, Other Minds.Theodore J. Everett - 2000 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 78 (2):213-222.
    Solipsism can be refuted along fairly traditional, internalist lines, by means of a second-order induction. We are justified in believing in other minds, because other people tell us that they have minds, and we have good inductive reason to believe that whatever certain others say is likely to be true. This simple argument is sound, the author argues, even though we are in no prior position to believe that other thinking people exist as such, or that the sounds they make (...)
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  33. Recension av Ann Heberlein, Etik: människa, moral, mening. [REVIEW]Gustav Alexandrie - 2015 - Filosofisk Tidskrift 36 (1):43-48.
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  34. Recension av Håkan Salwén, Miljöetik: en introduktion. [REVIEW]Gustav Alexandrie - 2014 - Filosofisk Tidskrift 35 (2):42-45.
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  35.  44
    Theodore de Laguna's Discovery of the Deflationary Theory of Truth.Joel Katzav - 2019 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 27 (5):1025-1033.
    Theodore de Laguna develops and argues for a deflationary view of truth well before the publication of what many have taken to be its source, or at least its inspiration, namely Frank P. Ramsey’s paper ‘Facts and Propositions’. I outline de Laguna’s view of truth and the arguments he offers for it; I also discuss its role in the history of twentieth-century philosophy. My outline and discussion serve as an introduction to de Laguna’s ‘A Nominalistic Interpretation of Truth’, a paper (...)
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  36. Gustav Magnus Und Sein Haus: Im Auftrag der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft, Ed. Dieter Hoffmann, Stuttgart: Verlag Für Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften Und der Technik, 1995. [REVIEW]Gabriel Finkelstein - 1998 - Technology and Culture 39 (3):568-569.
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  37. G. T. Fechner (1801-1887) in and for Psychology.William Woodward - 2018 - Archives of Psychology 2 (5):1-21.
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  38. Ideología y dogmática jurídica.Theodor Viehweg - 1978 - Escritos de Filosofía 1 (2):97-106.
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  39. Going Live: On the Value of a Newspaper-Centered Philosophy Seminar.Theodore Bach - 2015 - American Association of Philosophy Teachers Studies in Pedagogy 1:191-200.
    For the last several years I have made the daily newspaper the pedagogical center piece of my philosophy seminar. This essay begins by describing the variations, themes, and logistics of this approach. The essay then offers several arguments in support of the value of this approach. The first argument references measurable indicators of success. A second argument contends that by “going live” with philosophical concepts, the newspaper-centered approach is uniquely well-positioned to motivate and excite the philosophy student. A third argument (...)
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  40. Real Kinds in Real Time: On Responsible Social Modeling.Theodore Bach - 2019 - The Monist 102 (2):236-258.
    There is broad agreement among social researchers and social ontologists that the project of dividing humans into social kinds should be guided by at least two methodological commitments. First, a commitment to what best serves moral and political interests, and second, a commitment to describing accurately the causal structures of social reality. However, researchers have not sufficiently analyzed how these two commitments interact and constrain one another. In the absence of that analysis, several confusions have set in, threatening to undermine (...)
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  41. Review of Sally Haslanger, Resisting Reality: Social Construction and Social Critique. [REVIEW]Theodore Bach - 2014 - Ethics 124 (3):612-617.
    There has been a significant amount of research, from a variety of disciplines, targeting the nature and political status of human categories such as woman, man, Black, and Latino. The result is a tangle of concepts and distinctions that often obscure more than clarify the subject matter. This incentivizes the creation of fresh terms and distinctions that might disentangle the old, but too often these efforts just add to the snarl. The process iterates, miscommunication becomes standard, and insufficiently vetted concepts (...)
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  42. Being Good in a World of Uncertainty: A Reply to Temkin.Theodore M. Lechterman - 2019 - Journal of Practical Ethics 7 (1):33-39.
    This reply affirms Temkin’s critical perspective on effective altruism but seeks to draw out its constructive implications. It first encourages Temkin to defend the practical urgency of global poverty in the face of doubts about aid effectiveness. It then argues for a more holistic conception of effectiveness to mitigate these doubts. It considers some alternative aid strategies that respond to this broader conception. Finally, it exhorts effective altruists to think more seriously about the reform of global institutions.
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  43. Atheism, Agnosticism, Noncognitivism (1998).Theodore M. Drange - manuscript
    This online essay puts forth and defends precise definitions of the terms "atheism," "agnosticism." and "[theological] noncognitivism.".
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  44. On Defending Atheism (2005).Theodore M. Drange - manuscript
    This essay addresses the definition of "atheism" and what it means to "defend atheism." It also shows why defending atheism is preferable to defending the separation of church and state.
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  45. Science and Miracles (1998).Theodore M. Drange - manuscript
    This online essay explores how the term "miracle" is best defined and whether it is possible for scientists, as scientists, to believe in miracles.
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  46. The Arguments From Confusion and Biblical Defects (2006).Theodore Drange - manuscript
    Many have said that God is hidden. This alleged hiddenness is particularly troublesome for evangelical Christianity, much more so than generally recognized, for it would render certain facts about the world and about the Bible very hard to explain on the hypothesis that the God of evangelical Christianity exists. Those facts would be best explained by appeal to the alternate hypothesis that that deity does not exist. Three evidential, epistemic, atheological arguments emerge from this consideration. One of them is the (...)
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  47. Why Be Moral? (1998).Theodore M. Drange - manuscript
    It is shown how the title question ("Why Be Moral?") can be interpreted in six different ways. Each of the six ways is analyzed and discussed, and, for each of them, an answer to the question is proposed and defended.
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  48.  52
    Theodore Sider: Writing the Book of the World. [REVIEW]Matej Drobňák - 2016 - Organon F: Medzinárodný Časopis Pre Analytickú Filozofiu 23:1.
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  49. Gattungen der Prädikate Und Gattungen des Seienden Bei Aristoteles. Zum Verhältnis von Kat. 4 Und Top. I 9.Theodor Ebert - 1985 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 67 (2):113-138.
    The paper starts from a distinction between two terms in Aristotle: kategoroumenon and kategoria. It is argued that the job of the first is to pick out 'predicated predicates' (i.e. predicates attached to a specific subject), the job of the second is to designate 'predicable predicates' (terms which can be attached to specific subjects). It is then argued (1) that Aristotle's division of the (erroneously) so-called 'predicables' (i. e. genus, proprium, definiens, accident) is a classification of predicated predicates, (2) that (...)
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  50. Jürgen Habermas im Gespräch mit Joseph Ratzinger über "Vorpolitische moralische Grundlagen eines freiheitlichen Staates".Theodor Ebert - 2015 - Aufklärung Und Kritik 2015 (1):100-132.
    The paper discusses Habermas` contribution to a debate between him and Joseph Ratzinger, at the time the prefect of the Congregation for the Catholic faith. Habermas is criticized for his tendency to adopt openly anti-enlightenment positions.
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