Results for 'Pregnancy'

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Bibliography: Pregnancy in Applied Ethics
  1. Is pregnancy a disease? A normative approach.Anna Smajdor & Joona Räsänen - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics.
    In this paper, we identify some key features of what makes something a disease, and consider whether these apply to pregnancy. We argue that there are some compelling grounds for regarding pregnancy as a disease. Like a disease, pregnancy affects the health of the pregnant person, causing a range of symptoms from discomfort to death. Like a disease, pregnancy can be treated medically. Like a disease, pregnancy is caused by a pathogen, an external organism invading (...)
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  2. Pregnancy, Parthood and Proper Overlap: A Critique of Kingma.Alexander Geddes - 2023 - Philosophical Quarterly 73 (2):476-491.
    Elselijn Kingma argues that, in cases of mammalian placental pregnancy, the foster (roughly, the post-implantation embryo/foetus) is part of the gravida (the pregnant organism). But she does not consider the possibility of proper overlap. I show that this generates a number of serious problems for her argument and trace the oversight to a quite general issue within the literature on biological individuality. Doing so provides an opportunity to pull apart and clarify the relations between some importantly distinct questions concerning (...)
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  3. The Pregnancy Rescue Case: Why Abortion is Immoral.Perry Hendricks - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics.
    In cases in which we must choose between either (i) preventing a woman from remaining unwillingly pregnant or (ii) preventing a fetus from being killed, we should prevent the fetus from being killed. But this suggests that in typical cases abortion is wrong: typical abortions involve preventing a woman from remaining unwillingly pregnant over preventing a fetus from being killed. So abortion is typically wrong—and this holds whether or not fetuses are persons.
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  4. Twin pregnancy, fetal reduction and the 'all or nothing problem’.Joona Räsänen - 2022 - Journal of Medical Ethics 48 (2):101-105.
    Fetal reduction is the practice of reducing the number of fetuses in a multiple pregnancy, such as quadruplets, to a twin or singleton pregnancy. Use of assisted reproductive technologies increases the likelihood of multiple pregnancies, and many fetal reductions are done after in vitro fertilisation and embryo transfer, either because of social or health-related reasons. In this paper, I apply Joe Horton’s all or nothing problem to the ethics of fetal reduction in the case of a twin (...). I argue that in the case of a twin pregnancy, there are two intuitively plausible claims: abortion is morally permissible, and it is morally wrong to abort just one of the fetuses. But since we should choose morally permissible acts rather than impermissible ones, the two claims lead to another highly implausible claim: the woman ought to abort both fetuses rather than only one. Yet, this does not seem right. A plausible moral theory cannot advocate such a pro-death view. Or can it? I suggest ways to solve this problem and draw implications for each solution. There are no data in this work. (shrink)
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  5.  49
    The Pregnancy Rescue Case: a reply to Hendricks.Nathan William Davies - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics.
    In “The Pregnancy Rescue Case: why abortion is immoral”, Hendricks presents The Pregnancy Rescue Case. In this reply I argue that even if it would be better (i.e. less bad) for the abortion to be prevented in The Pregnancy Rescue Case, that does not mean that typical abortions are impermissible. I also argue that there is a possible explanation, consistent with the pro-choice view and empirically testable, as to why people would think it better for the abortion (...)
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  6. Mother Knows Best: Pregnancy, Applied Ethics, and Epistemically Transformative Experiences.Fiona Woollard - 2020 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 38 (1):155-171.
    L.A. Paul argues that interesting issues for rational choice theory are raised by epistemically transformative experiences: experiences which provide access to knowledge that could not be known without the experience. Consideration of the epistemic effects of pregnancy has important implications for our understanding of epistemically transformative experiences and for debate about the ethics of abortion and applied ethics more generally. Pregnancy is epistemically transformative both in Paul’s narrow sense and in a wider sense: those who have not been (...)
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  7. Experience as Evidence: Pregnancy Loss, Pragmatism, and Fetal Status.Amanda Roth - 2018 - Journal of Social Philosophy 49 (2):270-293.
    In this paper I take up (what I call) the pregnancy loss objection to defenses of abortion that deny fetal moral status. Though versions of this objection have been put forth by others—particularly Lindsey Porter’s in a 2015 paper—I argue that the existing versions of the objection are unsuccessful in various ways: failing to explain the ground of moral considerability that would apply to embryos/fetuses in very early pregnancy, lack of clarity about what it means to take grief (...)
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  8.  53
    CONCEIVING SELVES: What Pregnancy Can Teach Us about Ethics and Piety.Mary Nickel - 2021 - Journal of Religious Ethics 49 (2):337-357.
    Many ethics instructors turn to peculiar examples and cases to highlight ethical concerns about autonomy and collective goods. While these efforts are respectable, they lamentably reinforce the valorization of independence and the opposition of individuality to collectivity that are too prevalent in ethics today. Attending to the event of pregnancy would help overcome these troubles. By concentrating on pregnancy, we can better appreciate the dependence that is integral to the human experience, the discrete value of each individual, the (...)
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  9. Torture Born: Representing Pregnancy and Abortion in Contemporary Survival-Horror.Steve Jones - 2015 - Sexuality and Culture 19 (3):426-443.
    In proportion to the increased emphasis placed on abortion in partisan political debate since the early 2000s, there has been a noticeable upsurge in cultural representations of abortion. This article charts ways in which that increase manifests in contemporary survival-horror. This article contends that numerous contemporary survival-horror films foreground pregnancy. These representations of pregnancy reify the pressures that moralistic, partisan political campaigning places on individuals who consider terminating a pregnancy. These films contribute to public discourse by engaging (...)
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  10. The normative importance of pregnancy challenges surrogacy contracts.Anca Gheaus - 2016 - Analize. Journal of Gender and Feminist Studies 6 (20):20-31.
    Birth mothers usually have a moral right to parent their newborns in virtue of a mutual attachment formed, during gestation, between the gestational mother and the fetus. The attachment is formed, in part, thanks to the burdens of pregnancy, and it serves the interest of the newborn; the gestational mother, too, has a powerful interest in the protection of this attachment. Given its justification, the right to parent one's gestated baby cannot be transferred at will to other people who (...)
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  11. Phenomenology of Pregnancy, Maternity and Parenthood in the Writings of R. Joseph Soloveitchik and Emmanuel Lévinas.Hanoch Ben-Pazi - 2016 - JUDAICA Beiträge Zum Verstehen des Judentums 72 (3):387 - 412.
    This article aims to explore the philosophical meaning of pregnancy and maternity in the writ-ings of R. Soloveitchik and Emmanuel Lévinas. They both make a phenomenological enquiry into these phenomena, by looking on the biological aspect and the emotional aspects. R. Solove-itchik suggests a spiritual interpretation concerning the meaning of pregnancy, which is both biological and spiritual. He attempts to differentiate between the natural parenthood and the spiritual parenthood. Lévinas gives us the philosophical observation through the phenomenolog-ical research (...)
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  12. Neonatal incubator or artificial womb? Distinguishing ectogestation and ectogenesis using the metaphysics of pregnancy.Elselijn Kingma & Suki Finn - 2020 - Bioethics 34 (4):354-363.
    A 2017 Nature report was widely touted as hailing the arrival of the artificial womb. But the scientists involved claim their technology is merely an improvement in neonatal care. This raises an under-considered question: what differentiates neonatal incubation from artificial womb technology? Considering the nature of gestation—or metaphysics of pregnancy—(a) identifies more profound differences between fetuses and neonates/babies than their location (in or outside the maternal body) alone: fetuses and neonates have different physiological and physical characteristics; (b) characterizes birth (...)
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  13. Your Mother Should Know: Pregnancy, the Ethics of Abortion and Knowledge through Acquaintance of Moral Value.Fiona Woollard - 2022 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 103 (3):471-492.
    An important strand in the debate on abortion focuses on the moral status of fetuses. Knowledge of the moral value of fetuses is needed to assess fetuses’ moral status. As Errol Lord argues, acquaintance plays a key role in moral and aesthetic knowledge. Many pregnant persons have acquaintance with their fetus that provides privileged access to knowledge about that fetus’ moral value. This knowledge is (a) very difficult to acquire without being pregnant and (b) relevant for assessing the moral status (...)
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  14. Defending the Distinction Between Pregnancy and Parenthood.Prabhpal Singh - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (3):189-191.
    In this paper, I respond to criticisms toward my account of the difference in moral status between fetuses and newborns. I show my critics have not adequately argued for their view that pregnant women participate in a parent-child relationship. While an important counterexample is raised against my account, this counterexample had already been dealt with in my original paper. Because the criticisms against my account lack argumentative support, they do not pose a problem for my account. I conclude the raised (...)
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  15. Evaluating Ectogenesis via the Metaphysics of Pregnancy.Suki Finn & Sasha Isaac - 2021 - In Robbie Davis-Floyd (ed.), Birthing Techno-Sapiens: Human-Technology, Co-Evolution, and the Future of Reproduction. E-Book: Routledge: Taylor & Francis. pp. Chapter 8.
    Ectogenesis, or “artificial womb technology,” has been heralded by some, such as prominent feminist Shulamith Firestone, as a way to liberate women. In this chapter, we challenge this view by offering an alternative analysis of the technology as relying upon and perpetuating a problematic model of pregnancy which, rather than liberating women, serves to devalue them. We look to metaphysics as the abstract study of reality to elucidate how the entities in a pregnancy are related to one another. (...)
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  16. Toward a Philosophical Theology of Pregnancy Loss.Amber L. Griffioen - forthcoming - In Mikolaj Slawkowski-Rode (ed.), Meanings of Mourning: Perspectives on Death, Loss and Grief. Lanham, MD 20706, USA:
    Issues surrounding pregnancy loss are rarely addressed in Christian philosophy. Yet a modest estimate based on the empirical and medical literature places the rate of pregnancy loss between fertilization and term at somewhere between 40–60%. If miscarriage really is as common as the research gives us to believe, then it would seem a pressing topic for a Christian philosophy of the future to address. This paper attempts to begin this work by showing how thinking more closely about (...) loss understood as a grievable event can have a profound impact on the way we think about particular theoretical debates in Christian philosophy and provide opportunities for the discipline to put its skills to use in the development of helpful conceptual and hermeneutical resources for those grieving such losses. However, this will require seeking out and taking seriously the testimony of those who have undergone pregnancy loss, as well as getting clearer on how best to conceptualize pregnancy and its loss in the first place. (shrink)
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  17. Termination of Pregnancy After NonInvasive Prenatal Testing (NIPT): Ethical Considerations.Tom Shakespeare & Richard Hull - 2018 - Journal of Practical Ethics 6 (2):32-54.
    This article explores the Nuffield Council on Bioethics’ recent report about non-invasive prenatal testing. Given that such testing is likely to become the norm, it is important to question whether there should be some ethical parameters regarding its use. The article engages with the viewpoints of Jeff McMahan, Julian Savulescu, Stephen Wilkinson and other commentators on prenatal ethics. The authors argue that there are a variety of moral considerations that legitimately play a significant role with regard to (prospective) parental decision-making (...)
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  18. The King Was Pregnant: Reproductive Ethics and Transgender Pregnancy.Jill Drouillard - 2021 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 14 (1):120-140.
    Using Ursula K. Le Guin’s The Left Hand of Darkness as an inspirational backdrop, a novel whose story unfolds on a genderless planet that nevertheless relies on reproductive sex for the sake of generativity, this paper tackles the sex/gender debate, its entanglements with procreation, and its consequences for transgender pregnancies. More specifically, I analyze three issues that pose barriers to thinking about a more inclusive reproductive ethics: state-sanctioned sterilization, non-reproductive futurism, and access to assisted reproductive technology.
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  19. Not One, Not Two: Toward an Ontology of Pregnancy.Maja Sidzinska - 2017 - Feminist Philosophy Quarterly 3 (4):1-23.
    Basic understandings of subjectivity are derived from the principles of masculine embodiment such as temporal stability and singularity. But pregnancy challenges such understandings because it represents a sort of splitting of the body. In the pregnant situation, a subject may experience herself as both herself and an other, as well as neither herself nor an other. This is logically untenable—an impossibility. If our discourse depends on singular, fixed referents, then what paradigms of identity are available to the pregnant subject? (...)
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  20. Maternal Exercise during Pregnancy Increases BDNF Levels and Cell Numbers in the Hippocampal Formation but Not in the Cerebral Cortex of Adult Rat Offspring.Sérgio Gomes da Silva - 2016 - PLoS ONE 11 (1):01-15.
    Clinical evidence has shown that physical exercise during pregnancy may alter brain devel- opment and improve cognitive function of offspring. However, the mechanisms through which maternal exercise might promote such effects are not well understood. The present study examined levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and absolute cell num- bers in the hippocampal formation and cerebral cortex of rat pups born from mothers exer- cised during pregnancy. Additionally, we evaluated the cognitive abilities of adult offspring in different behavioral (...)
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  21. Are You Ready to Meet Your Baby? Phenomenology, Pregnancy, and the Ultrasound.Casey Rentmeester - 2020 - Journal of Applied Hermeneutics 2 (2020):1-13.
    Iris Marion Young’s classic paper on the phenomenology of pregnancy chronicles the alienating tendencies of technology-ridden maternal care, as the mother’s subjective knowledge of the pregnancy gets overridden by the objective knowledge provided by medical personnel and technological apparatuses. Following Fredrik Svenaeus, the authors argue that maternal care is not necessarily alienating by looking specifically at the proper attention paid by sonographers in maternal care when performing ultrasound examinations. Using Martin Heidegger’s philosophy as a theoretical lens, the authors (...)
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  22. Management and Results of Ectopic Pregnancy Adapted by Clinical Guidelines: Two Years Experience of University Hospital in Turkey.Serpil Aydogmus - 2014 - Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 4 (13):766-770.
    Ectopic pregnancy is defined as the fertilized ovum implants in a location outside the endometrial cavity, remains to be an important cause of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide and is a health problem with incidence ranges between 0.25% and 2% of all pregnancies. In our study, in Izmir Katip Celebi University Ataturk Training and Research Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology from 2011 to 2013, 96 cases with diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy managed by the adapted RCOG’s Guide were (...)
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  23. It’s Complicated: What Our Attitudes toward Pregnancy, Abortion, and Miscarriage Tell Us about the Moral Status of Early Fetuses.K. Lindsey Chambers - 2020 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 50 (8):950-965.
    Many accounts of the morality of abortion assume that early fetuses must all have or lack moral status in virtue of developmental features that they share. Our actual attitudes toward early fetuses don’t reflect this all-or-nothing assumption: early fetuses can elicit feelings of joy, love, indifference, or distress. If we start with the assumption that our attitudes toward fetuses reflect a real difference in their moral status, then we need an account of fetal moral status that can explain that difference. (...)
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  24. “An Equivocal Couple Overwhelmed by Life”: A Phenomenological Analysis of Pregnancy.Sara Heinämaa - 2014 - philoSOPHIA: A Journal of Continental Feminism 4 (1):12-49.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:“An Equivocal Couple Overwhelmed by Life”A Phenomenological Analysis of PregnancySara HeinämaaTwo conceptions of human generativity prevail in contemporary feminist philosophy. First, several contributors argue that the experience of pregnancy, when analyzed by phenomenological tools, undermines several distinctions that are central to Western philosophy, most importantly the subject-object distinction and the self-other and own-alien distinctions. This line of argument was already outlined by Iris Marion Young in her influential (...)
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  25. The Order of Life: How Phenomenologies of Pregnancy Revise and Reject Theories of the Subject.Talia Welsh - 2013 - In Sarah LaChance Adams & Caroline R. Lundquist (eds.), Coming to Life: Philosophies of Pregnancy, Childbirth and Mothering. New York: Fordham University Press. pp. 283-299.
    This chapter discusses how phenomenologies of pregnancy challenge traditional philosophical accounts of a subject that is seen as autonomous, rational, genderless, unified, and independent from other subjects. Pregnancy defies simple incorporation into such universal accounts since the pregnant woman and her unborn child are incapable of being subsumed into traditional theories of the subject. Phenomenological descriptions of the experience of pregnancy lead one to question if philosophy needs to reject the subject altogether as central, or rather to (...)
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  26. Feminist ethical approach to termination of pregnancy.Berat Alp Çevlikli - 2018 - Türkiye Biyoetik Dergisi 4 (4):158-164.
    INTRODUCTION[|] Feminism was born as an ethical opposition to the women's oppression by patriarchal society in almost every aspects of life. Termination of an unwanted pregnancy is one such aspect of life where this oppression is felt most intensively both in the past and still today. The aim of this study is to analyze how the feminist theorists and their supporters percieve the issue of termination of pregnancy and with which arguments they defend or object it. [¤]METHODS[|]The texts (...)
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  27. Why Should Ethicists Think About Pregnancy Sickness?Fiona Woolard - 2017 - The Philosophers' Magazine 77:41-46.
    I became a philosopher because I was fascinated by the ethics of abortion. Not only is abortion a crucial practical issue – a matter of life or death – but it forces us to grapple with some of the hardest and yet most significant philosophical questions: If we agree that all human beings have a right to life, what entities do we count as human beings? What characteristics, if any, are necessary? What happens when one entity’s life clashes with another’s (...)
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  28. What Follows from State-Mandated Pregnancy?Jake Earl & Caitlin J. Cain - 2023 - Annals of Internal Medicine 176 (2):270-271.
    This Ideas and Opinions article revisits an argument from Judith Jarvis Thomson in her essay “A Defense of Abortion” that abortion can be an ethical choice even if we assume that fetuses have full moral personhood and moral rights. The authors examine the implications of laws that require a pregnant person to care for another with their body and what other impositions states may also require of citizens to care for others.
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  29.  44
    Être licencié en Paradis: la prégnance du modèle scolaire au Moyen Age d’après un sermon de Robert de Sorbon.Jean-Luc Solere - 2005 - In Denis Kambouchner & F. Jacquet-Francillon (eds.), La Crise de la Culture Scolaire. Origines, interprétations, perspective. Paris, France: pp. 45-64.
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  30.  26
    The ethical aspects of unwanted pregnancy: Cases of rape reported in the media with legal restrictions on abortion in Turkey.Sukran Sevimli - 2023 - Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 33 (1):18-26.
    This study examines the ethical and legal issues faced by girls/women requesting abortions who were victims of rape, aspects which have received little attention to date. This is a retrospective study using an approach and legal issues relating to incidents of unwanted pregnancy resulting from rape as reported in Turkish newspapers from 2010 to 2018. A total of 95 articles were discovered and categorized. These were then evaluated for content and analyzed in terms of the ethical issues related to (...)
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  31. Review of Philosophical Inquiries into Pregnancy, Childbirth, and Mothering: Maternal Subjects. [REVIEW]Shelley M. Park - 2012 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2012:n.p..
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  32. Why Ectogestation is Unlikely to Transform the Abortion Debate: A discussion of 'Ectogestation and the Problem of Abortion'.Daniel Rodger - 2020 - Philosophy and Technology (4):1-7.
    In this commentary, I will consider the implications of the argument made by Christopher Stratman (2020) in ‘Ectogestation and the Problem of Abortion’. Clearly, the possibility of ectogestation will have some effect on the ethical debate on abortion. However, I have become increasingly sceptical that the possibility of ectogestation will transform the problem of abortion. Here, I outline some of my reasons to justify this scepticism. First, that virtually everything we already know about unintended pregnancies, abortion and adoption does not (...)
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  33. Embryonic Afterlives?Amber Griffioen - 2022 - TheoLogica: An International Journal for Philosophy of Religion and Philosophical Theology 8 (1).
    While much has been written on the moral and metaphysical status of fetuses in Christian bioethics, little thought has been given to how we might characterize the afterlives of the unborn, especially of those human biological individuals who die before even developing a body that could theoretically be resurrected. In this paper, I therefore undertake an examination of questions surrounding the afterlife, specifically as it relates to early pregnancy loss. I first lay out what I call the “problem of (...)
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  34. Abort og fosterreduksjon: En etisk sammenligning.Silje Langseth Dahl, Rebekka Hylland Vaksdal, Mathias Barra, Espen Gamlund & Carl Tollef Solberg - 2019 - Etikk I Praksis - Nordic Journal of Applied Ethics 1:89-111.
    In recent years, multifetal pregnancy reduction (MFPR) has increasingly been the subject of debate in Norway, and the intensity reached a tentative maximum when Legislation Department delivered the interpretative statement § 2 - Interpretation of the Abortion Act in 2016 in response to the Ministry of Health (2014) requesting the Legislation Department to consider whether the Law on abortion allows for MFPR of healthy fetuses in multiple pregnancies. The Legislation Department concluded that current abortion laws allow MFPR within the (...)
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  35. The Impact of Patriarchy on the Education of Mother-learners: A Phenomenological Study of Three Rural Schools in Namibia.Rauha Haipinge, Rene Ferguson & Dominic Griffiths - 2023 - African Journal of Gender, Society and Development 12 (2):55-82.
    This article investigates some of the constraining factors experienced by 16 school-going mothers in the Okalongo circuit, Namibia. This was a qualitative phenomenological study, conducted through in-depth individual interviews, focus group discussions, and reflective journals with 16 school-going mothers between the ages of 17 and 20, purposively selected from three different public rural schools. This qualitative, phenomenological study analyses, through feminist and intersectionality theory, the lived experiences of these young mothers as they encounter the traditional, patriarchal attitudes and practices of (...)
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  36. Estabelecimento da Gestação nos Animais.Emanuel Isaque Cordeiro da Silva - manuscript
    OBJETIVO A gestação nos mamíferos domésticos é um processo fisiológico que implica mudanças físicas, metabólicas e hormonais na fêmea, que culminam com o nascimento de um novo indivíduo. Desta forma, a compreensão de tais mudanças e como estas favorecem um ambiente ideal de desenvolvimento embrionário inicial, até a placentação e a fisiologia envolvidas durante esses processos é fundamental na tomada de decisões quanto à saúde reprodutiva da fêmea, na seleção de futuras matrizes e até mesmo para a saúde fetal e (...)
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  37. Impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on access to HIV and reproductive health care among women living with HIV (WLHIV) in Western Kenya: A mixed methods analysis.Caitlin Bernard, Shukri A. Hassan, John Humphrey, Julie Thorne, Mercy Maina, Beatrice Jakait, Evelyn Brown, Nashon Yongo, Caroline Kerich, Sammy Changwony, Shirley Rui W. Qian, Andrea J. Scallon, Sarah A. Komanapalli, Leslie A. Enane, Patrick Oyaro, Lisa L. Abuogi, Kara Wools-Kaloustian & Rena C. Patel - 2022 - Frontiers in Global Women's Health 3:943641.
    Results: We analyzed 1,402 surveys and 15 in-depth interviews. Many (32%) CL participants reported greater difficulty refilling medications and a minority (14%) reported greater difficulty accessing HIV care during the pandemic. Most (99%) Opt4Mamas participants reported no difficulty refilling medications or accessing HIV/pregnancy care. Among the CL participants, older women were less likely (aOR = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.92–0.98) and women with more children were more likely (aOR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.00–1.28) to report difficulty refilling medications. Only 2% (...)
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  38. Access to Prenatal Testing and Ethically Informed Counselling in Germany, Poland and Russia.Marcin Orzechowski, Cristian Timmermann, Katarzyna Woniak, Oxana Kosenko, Galina Lvovna Mikirtichan, Alexandr Zinovievich Lichtshangof & Florian Steger - 2021 - Journal of Personalized Medicine 11 (9):937.
    The development of new methods in the field of prenatal testing leads to an expansion of information that needs to be provided to expectant mothers. The aim of this research is to explore opinions and attitudes of gynecologists in Germany, Poland and Russia towards access to prenatal testing and diagnostics in these countries. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with n = 18 gynecologists in Germany, Poland and Russia. The interviews were analyzed using the methods of content analysis and thematic analysis. Visible (...)
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  39. Libertarian patriarchalism: Nudges, procedural roadblocks, and reproductive choice.Govind Persad - 2014 - Women’s Rights L. Rep 35:273--466.
    Cass Sunstein and Richard Thaler's proposal that social and legal institutions should steer individuals toward some options and away from others-a stance they dub "libertarian paternalism"-has provoked much high-level discussion in both academic and policy settings. Sunstein and Thaler believe that steering, or "nudging," individuals is easier to justify than the bans or mandates that traditional paternalism involves. -/- This Article considers the connection between libertarian paternalism and the regulation of reproductive choice. I first discuss the use of nudges to (...)
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  40. Detached from Humanity: Artificial Gestation and the Christian Dilemma.Daniel Rodger & Bruce P. Blackshaw - forthcoming - Christian Bioethics.
    The development of artificial womb technology is proceeding rapidly and will present important ethical and theological challenges for Christians. While there has been extensive secular discourse on artificial wombs in recent years, there has been little Christian engagement with this topic. There are broadly two primary uses of artificial womb technology—ectogestation as a form of enhanced neonatal care, where some of the gestation period takes place in an artificial womb, and ectogenesis, where the entire gestation period is within an artificial (...)
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  41. Gender-Based Administrative Violence as Colonial Strategy.Elena Ruíz & Nora Berenstain - 2018 - Philosophical Topics 46 (2):209-227.
    There is a growing trend across North America of women being criminalized for their pregnancy outcomes. Rather than being a series of aberrations resulting from institutional failures, we argue that this trend is part of a colonial strategy of administrative violence aimed at women of color and Native women across Turtle Island. We consider a range of medical and legal practices constituting gender-based administrative violence, and we argue that they are the result of non-accidental and systematic production of population-level (...)
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  42. Fisiologia da Gestação na Reprodução Bovina.Emanuel Isaque Da Silva -
    FISIOLOGIA DA REPRODUÇÃO BOVINA -/- 3 – GESTAÇÃO -/- -/- INTRODUÇÃO -/- -/- O estabelecimento da gestação é o objetivo fundamental dos programas reprodutivos. Após a fertilização, o zigoto se divide e dá origem a embriões de duas, quatro, oito, dezesseis células, e no sétimo dia o embrião tem mais de 80 células. Entre os dias 16 e 18 do ciclo estral, o embrião se alonga e atinge 15 cm de comprimento. O estabelecimento da gestação depende da supressão da secreção (...)
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  43. Forming subjective representations of subjective representations: Evidence of a subjective status bias.Guido Peeters - 2005 - Genetic Social And General Psychology Monographs 131 (3):251-276.
    Proceeding from serendipitous observations, three studies and two pilot experiments examined how the way mental representations are conceived varies as the subjective status of the representations is manifest or otherwise. Participants were found to produce simple line drawings differently when the drawings were assumed to represent mental contents (beliefs, imaginations, percepts). The results challenged particular lay epistemological concepts. They were partly accounted for by Gricean conversational rules, but a "subjective status bias" was postulated to have them fully explained. The discussion (...)
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  44. What Zarathustra Whispers.Gabriel Zamosc - 2015 - Nietzsche Studien 44 (1):231-266.
    Name der Zeitschrift: Nietzsche-Studien Jahrgang: 44 Heft: 1 Seiten: 231-266. -/- Abstract: In this essay I defend my interpretation of the unheard words that Zarathustra whispers into Life’s ear in “The Other Dance Song” and that have long kept commentators puzzled. I argue that what Zarathustra whispers is that he knows that Life is pregnant with his child. Zarathustra’s ability to make Life pregnant depends on his overcoming of Eternal Recurrence which threatens to strangle him with disgust of human beings (...)
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  45. Ethics of fetal reduction: a reply to my critics.Joona Räsänen - 2022 - Journal of Medical Ethics 48 (2):142-143.
    In the article, Twin pregnancy, fetal reduction and the ‘all or nothing problem’, I argued that there is a moral problem in multifetal pregnancy reduction from a twin to a singleton pregnancy. Drawing on Horton’s original version of the ‘all or nothing problem’, I argued that there are two intuitively plausible claims in 2-to-1 MFPR: aborting both fetuses is morally permissible, aborting only one of the twin fetuses is morally wrong. Yet, with the assumption that one should (...)
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  46. In Conversation: Ruth Macklin, Alison Reiheld, Robyn Bluhm, Sidney Callahan, and Frances Kissling Discuss the Marlise Munoz Case, Advance Directives, and Pregnant Women.Ruth Macklin, Alison Reiheld, Robyn Bluhm, Sidney Callahan & Frances Kissling - 2015 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 8 (1):156-167.
    Feminist bioethicists of a variety of persuasions discuss the 2013 case of Marlise Munoz, a pregnant woman whose medical care was in dispute after she became brain dead.
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  47. The virgin birth debate and testimony.Terence Rajivan Edward - manuscript
    Various tribes deny that pregnancy is caused by sexual relations. Is this irrational? I present a puzzle involving testimony which some tribes might once have faced.
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  48. Throwing Like a Girl and Other Essays in Feminist Philosophy and Social Theory.Iris Marion Young - 1990
    Feminist social theory and female body experience are the twin themes of Iris Marion Young's twelve outstanding essays written over the past decade and brought together here. Her contributions to social theory raise critical questions about women and citizenship, the relations of capitalism and women's oppression, and the differences between a feminist theory that emphasizes women's difference and one that assumes a gender-neutral humanity. Loosely following a phenomenological method of description, Young's essays on female embodiment discuss female movement, pregnancy, (...)
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  49. The Moral Significance of our Biological Nature.Hub Zwart - 1994 - Ethical Perspectives 1 (2):71-78.
    In the previous article the hermeneutical approach to ethics was outlined. In my presentation, I would like to illustrate further the methodological consequences of this approach by using two points in contemporary applied ethics. The question is: to what extent is the hermeneutical approach casuistically applicable. We start with the presupposition that the hermeneutical approach does not offer answers to the question of current applied ethics — namely, to the question of what is or is not acceptable in a particular (...)
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  50. How not to count the health benefits of family planning.Jacob Zionts & Joseph Millum - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 1:1-4.
    Several influential organisations have attempted to quantify the costs and benefits of expanding access to interventions-like contraceptives-that are expected to decrease the number of pregnancies. Such health economic evaluations can be invaluable to those making decisions about how to allocate scarce resources for health. Yet how the benefits should be measured depends on controversial value judgments. One such value judgment is found in recent analyses from the Disease Control Priority Network (DCPN) and the Study Group for the Global Investment Framework (...)
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