The authors of the book have come to the conclusion that toensuring the country’s security in the conditions of military aggression, it is necessary to use the mechanisms of protection of territories and population, support of economic entities, international legal levers of influence on the aggressor country. Basic research focuses on assessment the resource potential of enterprises during martial law, the analysis of migration flows in the middle of the country and abroad, the volume of food exports, marketing and logistics (...) system. The research results have been implemented in the different decision-making models during martial law, information and economic security management, formation of personnel potential and assets of enterprises, food, energy and environmental security management, use of budgetary levers and financial instruments. The results of the study can be used in the developing of directions, programs and strategies for the post-war recovery of Ukraine’s economy and the attraction of foreign investments in the regions, decision-making at the level of ministries and agencies that regulate security management processes. The results can also be used by students and young scientists in the educational process and conducting scientific research on the problems of ensuring the country’s security. (shrink)
In this paper, I consider a family of three-valued regular logics: the well-known strong and weak S.C. Kleene’s logics and two intermedi- ate logics, where one was discovered by M. Fitting and the other one by E. Komendantskaya. All these systems were originally presented in the semantical way and based on the theory of recursion. However, the proof theory of them still is not fully developed. Thus, natural deduction sys- tems are built only for strong Kleene’s logic both with one (...) (A. Urquhart, G. Priest, A. Tamminga) and two designated values (G. Priest, B. Kooi, A. Tamminga). The purpose of this paper is to provide natural deduction systems for weak and intermediate regular logics both with one and two designated values. (shrink)
This paper considers non-standard analysis and a recently introduced computational methodology based on the notion of ①. The latter approach was developed with the intention to allow one to work with infinities and infinitesimals numerically in a unique computational framework and in all the situations requiring these notions. Non-standard analysis is a classical purely symbolic technique that works with ultrafilters, external and internal sets, standard and non-standard numbers, etc. In its turn, the ①-based methodology does not use any of these (...) notions and proposes a more physical treatment of mathematical objects separating the objects from tools used to study them. It both offers a possibility to create new numerical methods using infinities and infinitesimals in floating-point computations and allows one to study certain mathematical objects dealing with infinity more accurately than it is done traditionally. In these notes, we explain that even though both methodologies deal with infinities and infinitesimals, they are independent and represent two different philosophies of Mathematics that are not in a conflict. It is proved that texts :539–555, 2017; Gutman and Kutateladze in Sib Math J 49:835–841, 2008; Kutateladze in J Appl Ind Math 5:73–75, 2011) asserting that the ①-based methodology is a part of non-standard analysis unfortunately contain several logical fallacies. Their attempt to show that the ①-based methodology can be formalized within non-standard analysis is similar to trying to show that constructivism can be reduced to the traditional Mathematics. (shrink)
This article analyzes the historical development of the philosophical logic syntax from the standpoint of the unity of historical and logical methods. According to this perspective, there are three types of logical syntax: the elementary subject-predicate, the modified definitivespecificative, and the standard propositional-functional. These types are generalized in the grammatical and mathematical styles of logical syntax. The main attention is paid to two scientific revolutions in elementary subject-predicate syntax, which led to the emergence of modified definitive-specific and standard propositional-functional syntaxes (...) and created the syntactic conditions for the development of contemporary philosophical logic. The specifics of contemporary philosophical logic and the methodological possibilities of its application to philosophical discourse are studied. The article aims to reevaluate the undeservedly forgotten systems of philosophical logic of the continental tradition, created by such prominent representatives as Aristotle, G.W.F. Hegel, and E. Husserl, and to actualize these logics in the context of contemporary philosophical culture. The potential of the above-mentioned logics is not fully involved in the philosophical discourse of modernity, primarily because they primarily used an imperfect elementary subject-predicate syntax and modified definitive-specificative syntax as its slightly improved version. Both syntaxes have one thing in common: the grammatical style of sentence structure. Nevertheless, they also have one common flaw – a high dependence on grammar formalism. As a result, the interaction between these syntaxes and Frege’s standard propositional-functional syntax is impossible, because the latter is based on mathematical formalism, which operates on the philosophical logic of the analytic tradition. The article substantiates the way to solve this problem by constructing a modified subject-predicate syntax of contemporary philosophical logic. This syntax provides information interaction between Aristotle’s elementary subject-predicate syntax, and Frege’s standard propositional-functional syntax based on Hegel’s modified definitive-specificative syntax. The proposed solution to this problem can create new opportunities for complementarity and mutual enrichment between the philosophical logic of continental and analytical traditions. The theoretical basis for the construction and study of contemporary philosophical logic is a functional analysis of contemporary symbolic logic, which improves the grammatical analysis of traditional formal logic. Functional-grammatical analysis is a way to rehabilitate the philosophical logic of the continental tradition. The novelty of this paper lies in the substantiation of the modified subjectpredicate syntax of contemporary philosophical logic. It makes it possible to establish a dialogue between continental and analytical traditions, which is designed to promote the further development of philosophy. (shrink)
The main purpose of the article is to analyze the statements of philosophical Ukrainian Studies about the anthropological specifics of Ukrainian philosophical thought by means of historicalphilosophical cultural-predicative analysis. The research methodology was determined primarily by the concept of cultural attribution and translation in the dialogue of languages of historical cultures of the Poznań Methodological School (J. Topolski, W. Wrzosek, E. Domańska) and the culturological approach in historical-philosophical Ukrainian Studies (V. Horskyi, S. Rudenko). The statements of the language of historical (...) and philosophical Ukrainian studies are analyzed by means of historicalphilosophical cultural-predicative analysis. The latter is a specific humanities research strategy, which we propose as a means of studying the communicative specifics and syntactic correctness of the language of historical-philosophical theory. The study of communicative specifics takes place from the perspective of modernized versions of metaphysical, phenomenological, and dialectical logic. The first is understood as the logic of transcendental metaphysics, the second as the logic of immanent metaphysics, and the third as the logic of procedural metaphysics. Such an approach provides a qualitative and comprehensive understanding of the analyzed statements. The statements of the language of the historical-philosophical theory are generalized in its names, depending on the perspective of one of the three versions of the logic of philosophical reasoning. The offered historical-philosophical cultural-predicative analysis of communicative specifics and the syntactic correctness of the Ukrainian historical-philosophical theory statements opens new dimensions in research of the anthropological specifics of Ukrainian philosophy. (shrink)
The article deals with the Aristotelian doctrine of induction and its influence on the theory of induction of Al-Farabi. Inductive syllogisms of antiquity and the Middle Ages are compared with modern inferences by induction.
Засобами логіки комунікації історичних логік і методології історико-філософської міжкультурної комунікації аналізується культурна предикація як концепт історико-філософського дискурсу. Звертається увага на функціювання культурної предикації в контексті методологічної комунікації як інформаційної взаємодії конкуруючих методологій, їхніх інструментів і стратегій. Здійснюється конкретний аналіз ситуації застосування методологічної комунікації в межах історико-філософської комунікації як різновиду міжкультурної комунікації. В результаті методологічний і процесуальний дискурси історії філософії постають складниками специфічного історико-філософського комплексу.
The article analyzes cultural constructivism as one of the ways of a conceptual representation of historical reality. The connection between cultural constructivism as an epistemological position and cultural predication as a procedure of historical discourse is substantiated. The main focus is on the constructive function of cultural prediction in historical discourse. Constructivism as the position, behind which reality is the construction of consciousness is opposed to realism – the position in which thought or language reflect objectively existing and independent of (...) consciousness reality. When constructed reality corresponds to objective reality, constructivism acquires thе status of constructive realism. The classification of constructivism was proposed, according to which it is divided into epistemological, social and cultural. It is noted that cultural constructivism and cultural predication form the constructivist paradigm of historical discourse. (shrink)
Досліджуються методологічні можливості історії понять та її зв'язок з історією філософських понять і дискурс-аналізом філософських текстів. Окреслюються їхні функції у процесі культурної предикації. Наголошується на їхньому значенні при забезпеченні адекватного перекладу з мови історичної на мову актуальної культури.
У статті аналізуються джерела активності та розвитку історії філософії. Головна увага звертається на Світовий дух – суб’єкт історії філософії як логіки поняття та концептуальний персонаж – суб’єкт історії філософії як логіки смислу, філософську логіку та філософську евристику. Обґрунтовується діалектичний зв’язок між Світовим духом як абсолютним чи універсальним суб’єктом і концептуальним персонажем як індивідуальним суб’єктом.
Аналізується специфіка та характер логіки як науки, основні логічні форми й закони, логічні основи наукової методології. Обґрунтовується роль логіки в підготовці до філософського та наукового мислення.
У статті розглядається логіка філософії, її структури і метафори. Головна увага звертається на SP-структури метафізичної логіки і DS-структури діалектичної логіки, метафоричний стиль метафізики і діалектики.
У статті досліджуються структурні елементи діалогічних дефініцій. Обґрунтовується можливість застосування діалогічних дефініцій в інтерпретативних моделях філософського тексту.
Досліджуються логічні ідеї Д. Чижевського, співвідношення предметної логіки й металогіки у його логіко-філософській концепції. Основна увага зосереджена на логічних теоріях поняття, судження й виводу та їх філософських інтерпретаціях.
Логіка комунікації історичних логік є відповіддю на онтологічну проблему логічного синтаксису, засобомїї розв’язання і способом звільнення від догматизму в логіці. Суть цієї проблеми в тому, що, відповідно допануючих і конкуруючих між собою догматичних уявлень і переконань, право на існування має лише якась однаверсія логічного синтаксису – суб’єктно - предикативний синтаксис Аристотеля, дефінітивно - специфікативнийсинтаксис Ґ. Геґеля чи пропозиційно - функціональний синтаксис Г. Фреґе. Логіка комунікації історичних логік,пропонуючи розв’язання цієї проблеми, обґрунтовує інформаційну взаємодію між існуючими історичнимитипами логічного синтаксису за правилами побудови (...) простого силогізму, де крайніми термінами є суб’єктно - предикативний синтаксис Аристотеля і пропозиційно - функціональний синтаксис Г. Фреґе, а середнім терміном – дефінітивно - специфікативний синтаксис Ґ. Геґеля. (shrink)
У статті розглядаються базові моделі основних тем історії філософії. Значна увага приділяється проблемі наступності й прогресу, взаємодії особистого й колективного в історії філософії.
У монографії аналізуються методологічні можливості культурної предикації, що має теоретичний статус міжкультурної комунікації і дефінітивної специфікації. Вони слугують основами культурно-предикативного аналізу як гуманітарно-наукової методології. Культурно-предикативний аналіз узагальнює окремі методології гуманітарних наук. Серед них – методологія історії, методологія логіки і методологія історії філософії, в якій методології історії і логіки поєднуються на підставі принципу єдності історичного і логічного. Монографія адресована фахівцям з філософії і методології гуманітарних наук, методології історії, логіки та історії філософії, метафілософії і комунікативістики.
Українська академічна спільнота, незважаючи на значний теоретичний масив інформації, й далі перебуває у полоні ілюзій, шаблонів сприйняття та некоректних тлумачень концепта «український кордоцентризм». Філософська дискусія навколо цього концепта є конфліктом міфологій – протистоянням між міфом про унікальний етноментальний феномен та міфом про ілюзію наукової уяви. Водночас вона є конфліктом інтерпретацій – протистоянням між міфічною інтерпретацією класичної доби української філософії та її метафілософською інтерпретацією. Пропонована монографія ознайомлює із філософською позицією автора концепта «український кордоцентризм», його оцінкою цих конфліктів.
In this survey, a recent computational methodology paying a special attention to the separation of mathematical objects from numeral systems involved in their representation is described. It has been introduced with the intention to allow one to work with infinities and infinitesimals numerically in a unique computational framework in all the situations requiring these notions. The methodology does not contradict Cantor’s and non-standard analysis views and is based on the Euclid’s Common Notion no. 5 “The whole is greater than the (...) part” applied to all quantities (finite, infinite, and infinitesimal) and to all sets and processes (finite and infinite). The methodology uses a computational device called the Infinity Computer (patented in USA and EU) working numerically (recall that traditional theories work with infinities and infinitesimals only symbolically) with infinite and infinitesimal numbers that can be written in a positional numeral system with an infinite radix. It is argued that numeral systems involved in computations limit our capabilities to compute and lead to ambiguities in theoretical assertions, as well. The introduced methodology gives the possibility to use the same numeral system for measuring infinite sets, working with divergent series, probability, fractals, optimization problems, numerical differentiation, ODEs, etc. (recall that traditionally different numerals lemniscate; Aleph zero, etc. are used in different situations related to infinity). Numerous numerical examples and theoretical illustrations are given. The accuracy of the achieved results is continuously compared with those obtained by traditional tools used to work with infinities and infinitesimals. In particular, it is shown that the new approach allows one to observe mathematical objects involved in the Hypotheses of Continuum and the Riemann zeta function with a higher accuracy than it is done by traditional tools. It is stressed that the hardness of both problems is not related to their nature but is a consequence of the weakness of traditional numeral systems used to study them. It is shown that the introduced methodology and numeral system change our perception of the mathematical objects studied in the two problems. (shrink)
There exists a huge number of numerical methods that iteratively construct approximations to the solution y(x) of an ordinary differential equation (ODE) y′(x) = f(x,y) starting from an initial value y_0=y(x_0) and using a finite approximation step h that influences the accuracy of the obtained approximation. In this paper, a new framework for solving ODEs is presented for a new kind of a computer – the Infinity Computer (it has been patented and its working prototype exists). The new computer is (...) able to work numerically with finite, infinite, and infinitesimal numbers giving so the possibility to use different infinitesimals numerically and, in particular, to take advantage of infinitesimal values of h. To show the potential of the new framework a number of results is established. It is proved that the Infinity Computer is able to calculate derivatives of the solution y(x) and to reconstruct its Taylor expansion of a desired order numerically without finding the respective derivatives analytically (or symbolically) by the successive derivation of the ODE as it is usually done when the Taylor method is applied. Methods using approximations of derivatives obtained thanks to infinitesimals are discussed and a technique for an automatic control of rounding errors is introduced. Numerical examples are given. (shrink)
Several ways used to rank countries with respect to medals won during Olympic Games are discussed. In particular, it is shown that the unofficial rank used by the Olympic Committee is the only rank that does not allow one to use a numerical counter for ranking – this rank uses the lexicographic ordering to rank countries: one gold medal is more precious than any number of silver medals and one silver medal is more precious than any number of bronze medals. (...) How can we quantify what do these words, more precious, mean? Can we introduce a counter that for any possible number of medals would allow us to compute a numerical rank of a country using the number of gold, silver, and bronze medals in such a way that the higher resulting number would put the country in the higher position in the rank? Here we show that it is impossible to solve this problem using the positional numeral system with any finite base. Then we demonstrate that this problem can be easily solved by applying numerical computations with recently developed actual infinite numbers. These computations can be done on a new kind of a computer – the recently patented Infinity Computer. Its working software prototype is described briefly and examples of computations are given. It is shown that the new way of counting can be used in all situations where the lexicographic ordering is required. (shrink)
The Koch snowflake is one of the first fractals that were mathematically described. It is interesting because it has an infinite perimeter in the limit but its limit area is finite. In this paper, a recently proposed computational methodology allowing one to execute numerical computations with infinities and infinitesimals is applied to study the Koch snowflake at infinity. Numerical computations with actual infinite and infinitesimal numbers can be executed on the Infinity Computer being a new supercomputer patented in USA and (...) EU. It is revealed in the paper that at infinity the snowflake is not unique, i.e., different snowflakes can be distinguished for different infinite numbers of steps executed during the process of their generation. It is then shown that for any given infinite number n of steps it becomes possible to calculate the exact infinite number, Nn, of sides of the snowflake, the exact infinitesimal length, Ln, of each side and the exact infinite perimeter, Pn, of the Koch snowflake as the result of multiplication of the infinite Nn by the infinitesimal Ln. It is established that for different infinite n and k the infinite perimeters Pn and Pk are also different and the difference can be infinite. It is shown that the finite areas An and Ak of the snowflakes can be also calculated exactly (up to infinitesimals) for different infinite n and k and the difference An − Ak results to be infinitesimal. Finally, snowflakes constructed starting from different initial conditions are also studied and their quantitative characteristics at infinity are computed. (shrink)
A new computational methodology allowing one to work in a new way with infinities and infinitesimals is presented in this paper. The new approach, among other things, gives the possibility to calculate the number of elements of certain infinite sets, avoids indeterminate forms and various kinds of divergences. This methodology has been used by the author as a starting point in developing a new kind of computer – the Infinity Computer – able to execute computations and to store in its (...) memory not only finite numbers but also infinite and infinitesimal ones. (shrink)
It is well known that the set of algebraic numbers (let us call it A) is countable. In this paper, instead of the usage of the classical terminology of cardinals proposed by Cantor, a recently introduced methodology using ①-based infinite numbers is applied to measure the set A (where the number ① is called grossone). Our interest to this methodology is explained by the fact that in certain cases where cardinals allow one to say only whether a set is countable (...) or it has the cardinality of the continuum, the ①-based methodology can provide a more accurate measurement of infinite sets. In this article, lower and upper estimates of the number of elements of A are obtained. Both estimates are expressed in ①-based numbers. (shrink)
There exist many applications where it is necessary to approximate numerically derivatives of a function which is given by a computer procedure. In particular, all the fields of optimization have a special interest in such a kind of information. In this paper, a new way to do this is presented for a new kind of a computer - the Infinity Computer - able to work numerically with finite, infinite, and infinitesimal number. It is proved that the Infinity Computer is able (...) to calculate values of derivatives of a higher order for a wide class of functions represented by computer procedures. It is shown that the ability to compute derivatives of arbitrary order automatically and accurate to working precision is an intrinsic property of the Infinity Computer related to its way of functioning. Numerical examples illustrating the new concepts and numerical tools are given. (shrink)
A new computational methodology for executing calculations with infinite and infinitesimal quantities is described in this paper. It is based on the principle ‘The part is less than the whole’ introduced by Ancient Greeks and applied to all numbers (finite, infinite, and infinitesimal) and to all sets and processes (finite and infinite). It is shown that it becomes possible to write down finite, infinite, and infinitesimal numbers by a finite number of symbols as particular cases of a unique framework. The (...) new methodology has allowed us to introduce the Infinity Computer working with such numbers (its simulator has already been realized). Examples dealing with divergent series, infinite sets, and limits are given. (shrink)
The article examines the peculiarities of state-church relations that are formed in the process of legitimizing civil society. It is substantiated that the 21st century, like the last 20th century, forces us to search for a new format of state-church relations in the context of international relations, modern globalization challenges, and the development of the latest communication and information space. This, of course, prompts a new assessment of the status of religion and the church in the modern political system and (...) the state based on equality, taking into account the unsuccessful experience in the Soviet past of perceiving the church as an enemy of man and, at best, a secondary or auxiliary element in state-building processes. There is an increased interest of the Christian community in direct participation in social life, the formation of civil society and the establishment of a democratic and legal state. The church, as an institution, is quite different from the state, exerting its influence not only on the spiritual situation in Ukraine, but also trying to doctrinally intervene in political life and taking responsibility for determining the civilizational perspective of the state’s development. (shrink)
In this paper, a number of traditional models related to the percolation theory has been considered by means of new computational methodology that does not use Cantor’s ideas and describes infinite and infinitesimal numbers in accordance with the principle ‘The part is less than the whole’. It gives a possibility to work with finite, infinite, and infinitesimal quantities numerically by using a new kind of a compute - the Infinity Computer – introduced recently in [18]. The new approach does not (...) contradict Cantor. In contrast, it can be viewed as an evolution of his deep ideas regarding the existence of different infinite numbers in a more applied way. Site percolation and gradient percolation have been studied by applying the new computational tools. It has been established that in an infinite system the phase transition point is not really a point as with respect of traditional approach. In light of new arithmetic it appears as a critical interval, rather than a critical point. Depending on “microscope” we use this interval could be regarded as finite, infinite and infinitesimal short interval. Using new approach we observed that in vicinity of percolation threshold we have many different infinite clusters instead of one infinite cluster that appears in traditional consideration. (shrink)
In this article, some classical paradoxes of infinity such as Galileo’s paradox, Hilbert’s paradox of the Grand Hotel, Thomson’s lamp paradox, and the rectangle paradox of Torricelli are considered. In addition, three paradoxes regarding divergent series and a new paradox dealing with multiplication of elements of an infinite set are also described. It is shown that the surprising counting system of an Amazonian tribe, Pirah ̃a, working with only three numerals (one, two, many) can help us to change our perception (...) of these paradoxes. A recently introduced methodology allowing one to work with finite, infinite, and infinitesimal numbers in a unique computational framework not only theoretically but also numerically is briefly described. This methodology is actively used nowadays in numerous applications in pure and applied mathematics and computer science as well as in teaching. It is shown in the article that this methodology also allows one to consider the paradoxes listed above in a new constructive light. (shrink)
A computational methodology called Grossone Infinity Computing introduced with the intention to allow one to work with infinities and infinitesimals numerically has been applied recently to a number of problems in numerical mathematics (optimization, numerical differentiation, numerical algorithms for solving ODEs, etc.). The possibility to use a specially developed computational device called the Infinity Computer (patented in USA and EU) for working with infinite and infinitesimal numbers numerically gives an additional advantage to this approach in comparison with traditional methodologies studying (...) infinities and infinitesimals only symbolically. The grossone methodology uses the Euclid’s Common Notion no. 5 ‘The whole is greater than the part’ and applies it to finite, infinite, and infinitesimal quantities and to finite and infinite sets and processes. It does not contradict Cantor’s and non-standard analysis views on infinity and can be considered as an applied development of their ideas. In this paper we consider infinite series and a particular attention is dedicated to divergent series with alternate signs. The Riemann series theorem states that conditionally convergent series can be rearranged in such a way that they either diverge or converge to an arbitrary real number. It is shown here that Riemann’s result is a consequence of the fact that symbol ∞ used traditionally does not allow us to express quantitatively the number of addends in the series, in other words, it just shows that the number of summands is infinite and does not allows us to count them. The usage of the grossone methodology allows us to see that (as it happens in the case where the number of addends is finite) rearrangements do not change the result for any sum with a fixed infinite number of summands. There are considered some traditional summation techniques such as Ramanujan summation producing results where to divergent series containing infinitely many positive integers negative results are assigned. It is shown that the careful counting of the number of addends in infinite series allows us to avoid this kind of results if grossone-based numerals are used. (shrink)
The goal of this paper consists of developing a new (more physical and numerical in comparison with standard and non-standard analysis approaches) point of view on Calculus with functions assuming infinite and infinitesimal values. It uses recently introduced infinite and infinitesimal numbers being in accordance with the principle ‘The part is less than the whole’ observed in the physical world around us. These numbers have a strong practical advantage with respect to traditional approaches: they are representable at a new kind (...) of a computer – the Infinity Computer – able to work numerically with all of them. An introduction to the theory of physical and mathematical continuity and differentiation (including subdifferentials) for functions assuming finite, infinite, and infinitesimal values over finite, infinite, and infinitesimal domains is developed in the paper. This theory allows one to work with derivatives that can assume not only finite but infinite and infinitesimal values, as well. It is emphasized that the newly introduced notion of the physical continuity allows one to see the same mathematical object as a continuous or a discrete one, in dependence on the wish of the researcher, i.e., as it happens in the physical world where the same object can be viewed as a continuous or a discrete in dependence on the instrument of the observation used by the researcher. Connections between pure mathematical concepts and their computational realizations are continuously emphasized through the text. Numerous examples are given. (shrink)
Many biological processes and objects can be described by fractals. The paper uses a new type of objects – blinking fractals – that are not covered by traditional theories considering dynamics of self-similarity processes. It is shown that both traditional and blinking fractals can be successfully studied by a recent approach allowing one to work numerically with infinite and infinitesimal numbers. It is shown that blinking fractals can be applied for modeling complex processes of growth of biological systems including their (...) season changes. The new approach allows one to give various quantitative characteristics of the obtained blinking fractals models of biological systems. (shrink)
The paper considers a new type of objects – blinking fractals – that are not covered by traditional theories studying dynamics of self-similarity processes. It is shown that the new approach allows one to give various quantitative characteristics of the newly introduced and traditional fractals using infinite and infinitesimal numbers proposed recently. In this connection, the problem of the mathematical modelling of continuity is discussed in detail. A strong advantage of the introduced computational paradigm consists of its well-marked numerical character (...) and its own instrument – Infinity Computer – able to execute operations with infinite and infinitesimal numbers. (shrink)
The paper investigates how the mathematical languages used to describe and to observe automatic computations influence the accuracy of the obtained results. In particular, we focus our attention on Single and Multi-tape Turing machines which are described and observed through the lens of a new mathematical language which is strongly based on three methodological ideas borrowed from Physics and applied to Mathematics, namely: the distinction between the object (we speak here about a mathematical object) of an observation and the instrument (...) used for this observation; interrelations holding between the object and the tool used for the observation; the accuracy of the observation determined by the tool. Results of the observation executed by the traditional and new languages are compared and discussed. (shrink)
The Turing machine is one of the simple abstract computational devices that can be used to investigate the limits of computability. In this paper, they are considered from several points of view that emphasize the importance and the relativity of mathematical languages used to describe the Turing machines. A deep investigation is performed on the interrelations between mechanical computations and their mathematical descriptions emerging when a human (the researcher) starts to describe a Turing machine (the object of the study) by (...) different mathematical languages (the instruments of investigation). Together with traditional mathematical languages using such concepts as ‘enumerable sets’ and ‘continuum’ a new computational methodology allowing one to measure the number of elements of different infinite sets is used in this paper. It is shown how mathematical languages used to describe the machines limit our possibilities to observe them. In particular, notions of observable deterministic and non-deterministic Turing machines are introduced and conditions ensuring that the latter can be simulated by the former are established. (shrink)
New algorithms for the numerical solution of Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) with initial condition are proposed. They are designed for work on a new kind of a supercomputer – the Infinity Computer, – that is able to deal numerically with finite, infinite and infinitesimal numbers. Due to this fact, the Infinity Computer allows one to calculate the exact derivatives of functions using infinitesimal values of the stepsize. As a consequence, the new methods described in this paper are able to work (...) with the exact values of the derivatives, instead of their approximations. (shrink)
The importance of the prime factorization problem is very well known (e.g., many security protocols are based on the impossibility of a fast factorization of integers on traditional computers). It is necessary from a number k to establish two primes a and b giving k = a · b. Usually, k is written in a positional numeral system. However, there exists a variety of numeral systems that can be used to represent numbers. Is it true that the prime factorization is (...) difficult in any numeral system? In this paper, a numeral system with partial carrying is described. It is shown that this system contains numerals allowing one to reduce the problem of prime factorization to solving [K/2] − 1 systems of equations, where K is the number of digits in k (the concept of digit in this system is more complex than the traditional one) and [u] is the integer part of u. Thus, it is shown that the difficulty of prime factorization is not in the problem itself but in the fact that the positional numeral system is used traditionally to represent numbers participating in the prime factorization. Obviously, this does not mean that P=NP since it is not known whether it is possible to re-write a number given in the traditional positional numeral system to the new one in a polynomial time. (shrink)
The First Hilbert problem is studied in this paper by applying two instruments: a new methodology distinguishing between mathematical objects and mathematical languages used to describe these objects; and a new numeral system allowing one to express different infinite numbers and to use these numbers for measuring infinite sets. Several counting systems are taken into consideration. It is emphasized in the paper that different mathematical languages can describe mathematical objects (in particular, sets and the number of their elements) with different (...) accuracies. The traditional and the new approaches are compared and discussed. (shrink)
A recently developed computational methodology for executing numerical calculations with infinities and infinitesimals is described in this paper. The approach developed has a pronounced applied character and is based on the principle “The part is less than the whole” introduced by the ancient Greeks. This principle is applied to all numbers (finite, infinite, and infinitesimal) and to all sets and processes (finite and infinite). The point of view on infinities and infinitesimals (and in general, on Mathematics) presented in this paper (...) uses strongly physical ideas emphasizing interrelations that hold between a mathematical object under observation and the tools used for this observation. It is shown how a new numeral system allowing one to express different infinite and infinitesimal quantities in a unique framework can be used for theoretical and computational purposes. Numerous examples dealing with infinite sets, divergent series, limits, and probability theory are given. (shrink)
Very often traditional approaches studying dynamics of self-similarity processes are not able to give their quantitative characteristics at infinity and, as a consequence, use limits to overcome this difficulty. For example, it is well know that the limit area of Sierpinski’s carpet and volume of Menger’s sponge are equal to zero. It is shown in this paper that recently introduced infinite and infinitesimal numbers allow us to use exact expressions instead of limits and to calculate exact infinitesimal values of areas (...) and volumes at various points at infinity even if the chosen moment of the observation is infinitely faraway on the time axis from the starting point. It is interesting that traditional results that can be obtained without the usage of infinite and infinitesimal numbers can be produced just as finite approximations of the new ones. (shrink)
In this paper, we deal with the computation of Lie derivatives, which are required, for example, in some numerical methods for the solution of differential equations. One common way for computing them is to use symbolic computation. Computer algebra software, however, might fail if the function is complicated, and cannot be even performed if an explicit formulation of the function is not available, but we have only an algorithm for its computation. An alternative way to address the problem is to (...) use automatic differentiation. In this case, we only need the implementation of the algorithm that evaluates the function in terms of its analytic expression in a programming language, but we cannot use this if we have only a compiled version of the function. In this paper, we present a novel approach for calculating the Lie derivative of a function, even in the case where its analytical expression is not available, that is based on the In finity Computer arithmetic. A comparison with symbolic and automatic differentiation shows the potentiality of the proposed technique. (shrink)
Numerous problems arising in engineering applications can have several objectives to be satisfied. An important class of problems of this kind is lexicographic multi-objective problems where the first objective is incomparably more important than the second one which, in its turn, is incomparably more important than the third one, etc. In this paper, Lexicographic Multi-Objective Linear Programming (LMOLP) problems are considered. To tackle them, traditional approaches either require solution of a series of linear programming problems or apply a scalarization of (...) weighted multiple objectives into a single-objective function. The latter approach requires finding a set of weights that guarantees the equivalence of the original problem and the single-objective one and the search of correct weights can be very time consuming. In this work a new approach for solving LMOLP problems using a recently introduced computational methodology allowing one to work numerically with infinities and infinitesimals is proposed. It is shown that a smart application of infinitesimal weights allows one to construct a single-objective problem avoiding the necessity to determine finite weights. The equivalence between the original multi-objective problem and the new single-objective one is proved. A simplex-based algorithm working with finite and infinitesimal numbers is proposed, implemented, and discussed. Results of some numerical experiments are provided. (shrink)
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