Results for 'medical history'

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  1. Getting physical: Empiricism’s medical History: Charles T. Wolfe and Ofer Gal : The body as object and instrument of knowledge: Embodied empiricism in early modern science. Dordrecht: Springer, 2010, x+349pp, €139.95 HB. [REVIEW]John Gascoigne - 2011 - Metascience 20 (2):299-301.
    Getting physical: Empiricism’s medical History Content Type Journal Article DOI 10.1007/s11016-010-9474-4 Authors John Gascoigne, School of History and Philosophy, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2056, Australia Journal Metascience Online ISSN 1467-9981 Print ISSN 0815-0796.
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  2. Medical Tourism in Ghana: A History.Samuel Adu-Gyamfi - 2022 - Kaleidoscope: Journal of History of Culture, Science and Medicine 12 (25):1-26.
    Medical tourism can be defined as the process of travelling outside of an individual’s country to another to seek medical care. The current research studies medical tourism in Ghana historically, focusing on Korle Bu Teaching Hospital in Accra and Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Kumase. Using a qualitative research approach, the study provides a historical argument on the continuities and discontinuities of medical tourism in Ghana. Indeed, medical tourism has undergone several transitions over time. To (...)
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  3. Do medical schools teach medical humanities? Review of curricula in the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom.Jeremy Howick, Lunan Zhao, Brenna McKaig, Alessandro Rosa, Raffaella Campaner, Jason Oke & Dien Ho - 2021 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice (1):86-92.
    Rationale and objectives: Medical humanities are becoming increasingly recognized as positively impacting medical education and medical practice. However, the extent of medical humanities teaching in medical schools is largely unknown. We reviewed medical school curricula in Canada, the UK and the US. We also explored the relationship between medical school ranking and the inclusion of medical humanities in the curricula. -/- Methods: We searched the curriculum websites of all accredited medical schools (...)
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  4. Beyond Marble, Medicants & Myth: Epidaurus' History, Material Culture, Purpose and Place in the Greater Mediterranean Area.Jan M. Van der Molen - Apr 14, 2020 - University of Groningen.
    'The most famous of sanctuaries of Asclepius had their origin from Epidaurus’, Pausanias writes in his Hellados Periegesis (‘Description of Greece’). All across the Aegean and beyond, word of the salutary reputation of Epidaurian divinity had spread. And as tales of Epidaurus’ sanctuary of Asclepius travelled the lands and crossed the seas, so did the urge to ensure that the Epidaurian success formula was, as we say, coming soon to a place near you. So we know Epidaurus had managed to (...)
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  5. Medical Privacy and Big Data: A Further Reason in Favour of Public Universal Healthcare Coverage.Carissa Véliz - 2019 - In Philosophical Foundations of Medical Law. pp. 306-318.
    Most people are completely oblivious to the danger that their medical data undergoes as soon as it goes out into the burgeoning world of big data. Medical data is financially valuable, and your sensitive data may be shared or sold by doctors, hospitals, clinical laboratories, and pharmacies—without your knowledge or consent. Medical data can also be found in your browsing history, the smartphone applications you use, data from wearables, your shopping list, and more. At best, data (...)
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  6. The Medical Cosmology of Halakha: The Expert, the Physician, and the Sick Person on Shabbat in the Shulchan Aruch.Zackary Berger - 2018 - Studies in Judaism, Humanities, and the Social Sciences 1 (2).
    One of the best-known principles of halakha is that Shabbat is violated to save a life. Who does this saving and how do we know that a life is in danger? What categories of illness violate Shabbat and who decides? A historical-sociological analysis of the roles played by Jew, non-Jew, and physician according to the approach of “medical cosmology” can help us understand the differences in the approach of the Shulchan Aruch compared to later decisors (e.g., the Mishnah Berurah). (...)
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  7. Countering medical nihilism by reconnecting facts and values.Ross Upshur & Maya J. Goldenberg - 2020 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 84:75-83.
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  8. Effectiveness of medical interventions.Jacob Stegenga - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 54:34-44.
    To be effective, a medical intervention must improve one's health by targeting a disease. The concept of disease, though, is controversial. Among the leading accounts of disease-naturalism, normativism, hybridism, and eliminativism-I defend a version of hybridism. A hybrid account of disease holds that for a state to be a disease that state must both (i) have a constitutive causal basis and (ii) cause harm. The dual requirement of hybridism entails that a medical intervention, to be deemed effective, must (...)
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  9. Consent: Historical Perspectives in Medical Ethics.Tom O'Shea - 2018 - In Peter Schaber & Andreas Müller (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of the Ethics of Consent. New York, NY: Routledge. pp. 261-271.
    This chapter provides an outline of consent in the history of medical ethics. In doing so, it ranges over attitudes towards consent in medicine in ancient Greece, medieval Europe and the Middle East, as well as the history of Western law and medical ethics from the early modern period onwards. It considers the relationship between consent and both the disclosure of information to patients and the need to indemnify physicians, while attempting to avoid an anachronistic projection (...)
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  10. The History of Medicine.Rochelle Forrester - unknown
    This paper was written to study the order of medical advances throughout history. It investigates changing human beliefs concerning the causes of diseases, how modern surgery developed and improved methods of diagnosis and the use of medical statistics. Human beliefs about the causes of disease followed a logical progression from supernatural causes, such as the wrath of the Gods, to natural causes, involving imbalances within the human body. The invention of the microscope led to the discovery of (...)
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  11. Modus Tollens probabilized: deductive and Inductive Methods in medical diagnosis.Barbara Osimani - 2009 - MEDIC 17 (1/3):43-59.
    Medical diagnosis has been traditionally recognized as a privileged field of application for so called probabilistic induction. Consequently, the Bayesian theorem, which mathematically formalizes this form of inference, has been seen as the most adequate tool for quantifying the uncertainty surrounding the diagnosis by providing probabilities of different diagnostic hypotheses, given symptomatic or laboratory data. On the other side, it has also been remarked that differential diagnosis rather works by exclusion, e.g. by modus tollens, i.e. deductively. By drawing on (...)
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  12. When data drive health: an archaeology of medical records technology.Colin Koopman, Paul D. G. Showler, Patrick Jones, Mary McLevey & Valerie Simon - 2022 - Biosocieties 17 (4):782-804.
    Medicine is often thought of as a science of the body, but it is also a science of data. In some contexts, it can even be asserted that data drive health. This article focuses on a key piece of data technology central to contemporary practices of medicine: the medical record. By situating the medical record in the perspective of its history, we inquire into how the kinds of data that are kept at sites of clinical encounter often (...)
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  13. An Unusual Power: the rise and influence of medical doctors.Stanley Wilkin - 2013
    The history, critique and philosophy of the medical profession. What is real?
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  14. Medicine, symbolization and the 'real' body: Lacan's understanding of medical science.Hub Zwart - 1998 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 1 (2):107-117.
    Throughout the 20th century, philosophers have criticized the scientific understanding of the human body. Instead of presenting the body as a meaningful unity or Gestalt, it is regarded as a complex mechanism and described in quasi-mechanistic terms. In a phenomenological approach, a more intimate experience of the body is presented. This approach, however, is questioned by Jacques Lacan. According to Lacan, three basic possibilities of experiencing the body are to be distinguished: the symbolical (or scientific) body, the imaginary (or ideal) (...)
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  15. The African Meta-Medical Science of Ukpuho Ukpong (Soul Transplantation): A Philosophical Critique.Diana-Abasi Ibanga - 2016 - International Journal of History and Philosophical Research 4 (1):49-60.
    The human soul has been believed to be immaterial and immortal element which exclusively inheres in the human body. Ukpugho ukpong (soul transplant) is an ancient meta-medical science of the Annang and Ibibio people, which is hinged on the belief that the human soul is transcendent and it exclusively inheres in proxy animal; that the soul is mortal, and can be surgically transplanted in the likeness of somatic tissue transplant. This study aimed at carrying out a philosophical critique of (...)
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  16.  98
    Expanding the notion of mechanism to further understanding of biopsychosocial disorders? Depression and medically-unexplained pain as cases in point.Jan Pieter Konsman - 2024 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 103 (C):123-136.
    Evidence-Based Medicine has little consideration for mechanisms and philosophers of science and medicine have recently made pleas to increase the place of mechanisms in the medical evidence hierarchy. However, in this debate the notions of mechanisms seem to be limited to 'mechanistic processes' and 'complex-systems mechanisms,' understood as 'componential causal systems'. I believe that this will not do full justice to how mechanisms are used in biological, psychological and social sciences and, consequently, in a more biopsychosocial approach to medicine. (...)
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  17. From Photography to fMRI: Epistemic Functions of Images in Medical Research on Hysteria.Paula Muhr - 2022 - Bielefeld: Transcript.
    Hysteria, a mysterious disease known since antiquity, is said to have ceased to exist. Challenging this commonly held view, this is the first cross-disciplinary study to examine the current functional neuroimaging research into hysteria and compare it to the nineteenth-century image-based research into the same disorder. Paula Muhr's central argument is that, both in the nineteenth-century and the current neurobiological research on hysteria, images have enabled researchers to generate new medical insights. Through detailed case studies, Muhr traces how different (...)
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  18. Contemporary History of the Increasing Use of Traditional Medicine among the Asante of Ghana: A Focus on Afigya Kwabre South District.Samuel Adu-Gyamfi & Obour Asante Sophia - 2023 - Caribbean Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies 2 (1):25-44.
    Using a qualitative method of research, the study investigated the increasing use of traditional medicine in Ghana, focusing on Afigya Kwabre South District. Traditional medicine has gone through various stages since time immemorial, especially with regard to how its patronage has evolved over time. The period ranges from the pre-colonial era, when it was the only source of remedy for the entire continent of Africa including Ghana, to the colonial period which marked another phase when European influence diverted the attention (...)
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  19. Medical Nihilism by Jacob Stegenga: What is the right dose? [REVIEW]Jonathan Fuller - 2020 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 81.
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  20. Causing Health and Disease: Medical Powers in Classical and Late Antiquity.Anna Marmodoro - 2014 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 22 (5):861-866.
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  21. Broadening the scope of our understanding of mechanisms: lessons from the history of the morning-after pill.Christopher ChoGlueck - 2021 - Synthese 198 (3):2223-2252.
    Philosophers of science and medicine now aspire to provide useful, socially relevant accounts of mechanism. Existing accounts have forged the path by attending to mechanisms in historical context, scientific practice, the special sciences, and policy. Yet, their primary focus has been on more proximate issues related to therapeutic effectiveness. To take the next step toward social relevance, we must investigate the challenges facing researchers, clinicians, and policy makers involving values and social context. Accordingly, we learn valuable lessons about the connections (...)
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  22. A Proposed Expert System for Vertigo Diseases Diagnosis.Dina F. Al-Borno & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2023 - International Journal of Academic Information Systems Research (IJAISR) 7 (6):1-9.
    Vertigo is a common symptom that can result from various underlying diseases and conditions, ranging from benign to severe. Accurate and timely diagnosis of the cause of vertigo is crucial for appropriate management and treatment. In this research, we propose the development of an expert system for vertigo diseases diagnosis, utilizing artificial intelligence (AI) and the proposed Expert System which was produced to help assist healthcare professionals in diagnosing the cause of vertigo based on a patient's symptoms, medical (...), and other relevant clinical information. The proposed expert system presents an overview about vertigo diseases are given, the cause of disease is outlined and the treatment or recommendation of disease whenever possible is given out. CLIPS language was used for designing and implementing the proposed expert system. The potential of the proposed expert system lies in its ability to enhance the accuracy and efficiency of vertigo diagnosis, as well as assist in the proper referral and management of patients. (shrink)
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  23.  41
    Public Health in Private.Philippa Nicole Barr - 2024 - Australian Feminist Studies 39:1-16.
    Elite women seized the public health campaign during the 1900 plague outbreak to assert political influence and advocate for sanitation reform grounded in their domestic experiences. These women advocated for their inclusion in the political sphere by valuing their domestic experiences as knowledge relevant for public health initiatives. This reframing of experience positioned them as viable citizens in the imminent Federation. Applying Laura Zanotti's concept of relational ontology, this analysis frames their actions as not simply a battle against institutional authority (...)
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  24. Knowledge-Based System for the Diagnosis of Flatulence.Jihad Tantawi & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2023 - International Journal of Academic Engineering Research (IJAER) 7 (6):23-29.
    Diagnosing flatulence involves a thorough assessment of an individual's symptoms, medical history, and, if necessary, the use of diagnostic tests. Healthcare providers gather information about the patient's medical background and conduct a physical examination to identify any signs of gastrointestinal issues. Dietary habits are evaluated, and potential triggers are identified through an elimination diet. Diagnostic tests such as breath tests, stool analysis, or imaging studies may be performed to further investigate the underlying causes of excessive flatulence. Accurate (...)
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  25. A Proposed Expert System for Diagnosis of Migraine.Malak S. Hammad, Raja E. N. Altarazi, Rawan N. Al Banna, Dina F. Al Borno & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2023 - International Journal of Academic Engineering Research (IJAER) 7 (6):1-8.
    Migraine is a complex neurological disorder characterized by recurrent moderate to severe headaches, accompanied by additional symptoms such as nausea, sensitivity to light and sound, and visual disturbances. Accurate and timely diagnosis of migraines is crucial for effective management and treatment. However, the diverse range of symptoms and overlapping characteristics with other headache disorders pose challenges in the diagnostic process. In this research, we propose the development of an expert system for migraine diagnosis using artificial intelligence and the CLIPS (C (...)
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  26. Deceitful Non-Disclosure and Misattributed Paternity.Madeline Kilty - 2010 - Australian Journal of Professional and Applied Ethics 11 (1-2).
    Certain truths, such as genetic identity, relationships and medical history are important goods for autonomy. Knowledge about genetic heritage allows children to form a factual narrative identity. Deceit about one's genetic identity can obliterate trust and confidence. This paper seeks to analyse some of the moral issues associated with misattributed paternity.
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  27. Anatomy of kidney: A comparative historical study.İlhan Bahşi, Murat Çetkin & Mustafa Orhan - 2016 - European Journal of Therapeutics 22 (2):66-71.
    Introduction: The having extremely detailed macroscopic anatomy knowledge of the present medicine literature has been result of the information accumulation throughout the hundreds years. The numerous science hero have contributed for this purpose. The scientists being ahead of his time by their knowledge and scientific perspective have contributed worthy to development process of medicine. -/- Materials and Methods: The chapters related to the kidney anatomy in El-Kânûn Fi’t-Tıbb was written by İbn-i Sînâ in the 11th century, Kitab-ı Teşrihü’l-Ebdan Min e’t-Tıb (...)
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  28. Empirical ethics, context-sensitivity, and contextualism.Albert Musschenga - 2005 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 30 (5):467 – 490.
    In medical ethics, business ethics, and some branches of political philosophy (multi-culturalism, issues of just allocation, and equitable distribution) the literature increasingly combines insights from ethics and the social sciences. Some authors in medical ethics even speak of a new phase in the history of ethics, hailing "empirical ethics" as a logical next step in the development of practical ethics after the turn to "applied ethics." The name empirical ethics is ill-chosen because of its associations with "descriptive (...)
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  29. The politics of environments before the environment: Biopolitics in the longue durée.Maurizio Meloni - 2021 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 88 (C):334-344.
    Our understanding of body–world relations is caught in a curious contradiction. On one side, it is well established that many concepts that describe interaction with the outer world – ‘plasticity’ or ‘metabolism’- or external influences on the body - ‘environment’ or ‘milieu’ – appeared with the rise of modern science. On the other side, although premodern science lacked a unifying term for it, an anxious attentiveness to the power of ‘environmental factors’ in shaping physical and moral traits held sway in (...)
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  30. Porous Bodies: Environmental Biopower and the Politics of Life in Ancient Rome.Maurizio Meloni - 2021 - Theory, Culture and Society 38 (3):91-115.
    The case for an unprecedented penetration of life mechanisms into the politics of Western modernity has been a cornerstone of 20th-century social theory. Working with and beyond Foucault, this article challenges established views about the history of biopower by focusing on ancient medical writings and practices of corporeal permeability. Through an analysis of three Roman institutions: a) bathing; b) urban architecture; and c) the military, it shows that technologies aimed at fostering and regulating life did exist in classical (...)
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  31.  96
    The problem of the consent for the processing of health data, particularly for biomedical research purposes, from the perspective of fundamental rights protection in the Digital Era.Joaquín Sarrión Esteve - 2018 - Revista de Derecho y Genoma Humano: Genética, Biotecnología y Medicina Avanzada = Law and the Human Genome Review: Genetics, Biotechnology and Advanced Medicine 48:107-132.
    Health data processing fields face ethical and legal problems regarding fundamental rights. As we know, patients can benefit in the Digital Era from having health or medical information available, and medical decisions can be more effective with a better understanding of clinical histories, medical and health data thanks to the development of Artificial Intelligence, Internet of Things and other Digital technologies. However, at the same time, we need to guarantee fundamental rights, including privacy ones. The complaint about (...)
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  32. Physicians at War: Betraying a Pacifist Professional Ethos?Daniel Messelken - 2012 - Filozofski Godišnjak 25:379-400.
    This paper examines the question whether physicians are obligated by their professional ethos to defend a pacifist position. The question is a more concrete and applied formulation of the general thesis that there are what I will call “pacifist professions”: professions whose ethos requires their members to act in a pacifist way. Since the present paper is rather one in applied philosophy than a theoretical one about the foundation of pacifism, it will concentrate on the practical issue of whether and (...)
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  33. Internet Use and Healthcare.László Ropolyi - 2021 - In Dagmar Eigner (ed.), Wahrnehmung, Kommunikation und Resonanz. Beiträge zur Medical Anthropology, Band 4. Perception, Communication, and Resonance. Contributions to Medical Anthropology, Volume 4. Schriftenreihe der Landesverteidigungsakademie. pp. 173-192.
    The medical use of computing and information and communication technologies (ICTs) has a history of several decades, but the emergence of the internet, and especially the web and social media, created a new situation. As a result, currently the term eHealth is widely used – and the usage of the internet (and mobile) “technologies” in healthcare (among the patients and professionals, too) tends to be usual practice. There are more and more signs of the institutionalization of this new (...)
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  34. Rationalism, Empiricism, and Evidence-Based Medicine: A Call for a New Galenic Synthesis.William Webb - 2018 - Medicines 5 (2).
    Thirty years after the rise of the evidence-based medicine (EBM) movement, formal training in philosophy remains poorly represented among medical students and their educators. In this paper, I argue that EBM’s reception in this context has resulted in a privileging of empiricism over rationalism in clinical reasoning with unintended consequences for medical practice. After a limited review of the history of medical epistemology, I argue that a solution to this problem can be found in the method (...)
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  35. L'etica del Novecento. Dopo Nietzsche.Sergio Cremaschi - 2005 - Roma RM, Italia: Carocci.
    TWENTIETH-CENTURY ETHICS. AFTER NIETZSCHE -/- Preface This book tells the story of twentieth-century ethics or, in more detail, it reconstructs the history of a discussion on the foundations of ethics which had a start with Nietzsche and Sidgwick, the leading proponents of late-nineteenth-century moral scepticism. During the first half of the century, the prevailing trends tended to exclude the possibility of normative ethics. On the Continent, the trend was to transform ethics into a philosophy of existence whose self-appointed task (...)
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  36. Black trust in Covid-19 vaccine efficacy.Maddox Larson - manuscript
    American history has been far from kind to Black and African Americans. As a group, they were subjected to the gruesome, racist human rights violations committed during the period of American slavery, then Jim Crow laws, economic and political rights violations, medical experimentation, redlining, and lack of representation in politics all came to remind Black Americans that their fight for equality was far from over. Recent periods of activism, however, have brought some of the current plights of Black (...)
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  37. The Essentialism of Early Modern Psychiatric Nosology.Hein van den Berg - 2023 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 45 (2):1-25.
    Are psychiatric disorders natural kinds? This question has received a lot of attention within present-day philosophy of psychiatry, where many authors debate the ontology and nature of mental disorders. Similarly, historians of psychiatry, dating back to Foucault, have debated whether psychiatric researchers conceived of mental disorders as natural kinds or not. However, historians of psychiatry have paid little to no attention to the influence of (a) theories within logic, and (b) theories within metaphysics on psychiatric accounts of proper method, and (...)
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  38. Locke on Scientific Methodology.Huaping Lu-Adler - 2021 - In Jessica Gordon-Roth & Shelley Weinberg (eds.), The Lockean Mind. New York, NY: Routledge. pp. 277-89.
    This chapter brings some much-needed conceptual clarity to the debate about Locke’s scientific methodology. Instead of having to choose between the method of hypothesis and that of natural history (as most interpreters have thought), he would resist prescribing a single method for natural sciences in general. Following Francis Bacon and Robert Boyle, Locke separates medicine and natural philosophy (physics), so that they call for completely different methods. While a natural philosopher relies on “speculative” (causal-theoretical) hypotheses together with natural-history (...)
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  39. The Gift of Insanity. The Rise and Fall of Cultures from a Psychiatric Perspective.Marcin Moskalewicz, Michael A. Schwartz & Osborne Wiggins - 2018 - Eidos. A Journal for Philosophy of Culture 2 (2):27-37.
    This paper argues in favor of two related theses. First, due to a fundamental, biologically grounded world-openness, human culture is a biological imperative. As both biology and culture evolve historically, cultures rise and fall and the diversity of the human species develops. Second, in this historical process of rise and fall, abnormality plays a crucial role. From the perspective of a broader context traditionally addressed by speculative philosophies of history, the so-called mental disorders may be seen as entailing particular (...)
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  40. La philía y la guerra en la filosofía de la historia epicteteana.Francisco Miguel Ortiz Delgado - 2018 - Cuadernos de Filosofía 2 (71):19-32.
    The present article studies the epictetean philosophical use of some passages of the Greek and Roman history. The concepts of love-friendship (philía) and personal con- venience (sumphéron) second the philosopher to explain why happiness (eudaimonía) has not been reached by the human being in all history. All historical war or strife (pólemos), such as the Trojan, the Medics and the Peloponnesian wars, is provoked by epistemological-moral mistakes derived from the ignorance of which is the correct place to put (...)
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  41. Russian Studies on Abul-Qāsim al-Zahrāwī and His Work Titled Kitāb al-Taṣrīf.Fegani Beyler - 2020 - Jass Studies - the Journal of Academic Social Science Studies 13 (79):431-443.
    Important achievements were obtained in the fields of mathematics, medicine, chemistry, astronomy, physics, optics, mechanics, zoology, botanic, mineralogy, geography and etc. in the Turkish-Islamic world between the ninth and thirteenth centuries. According to the leading historians of science, scholars living in different parts of the TurkishIslamic world not only surpassed their Greek and Byzantine predecessors. They also paved the way for development of these fields of science for following centuries. It is possible to mention many physicians that left non-erasable marks (...)
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  42. An Ethical Enquiry that Questions Whether Psychiatrists Truly are Mental Health/Disability Experts? Reasons to Doubt!Giuseppe Naimo - forthcoming - In Patricia Hanna (ed.), An Anthology of Philosophical Studies, vol. 14. Athens Institute for Education and Research. pp. Chapter 13 pp. 143-158.
    The observation that a crisis of confidence regarding Psychiatry exists is a notion shared even among psychiatrists themselves. Psychiatry has a checkered history and its alliance with the pharmaceutical industry, aka Big-Pharma, continues to reinforce a need for healthy skepticism. Why? Mainly, an over-reliance on the questionable expertise and authority afforded psychiatry as the specialists of mental health. I contend that the authority of psychiatry is misplaced and too often harmful. Since the criteria required to justify and satisfy psychiatric (...)
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  43. Unification.T. Jones - 2005 - In Martin Curd & Stathis Psillos (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Science. New York: Routledge.
    Summary: Throughout the history of science, indeed throughout the history of knowledge, unification has been touted as a central aim of intellectual inquiry. We’ve always wanted to discover not only numerous bare facts about the universe, but to show how such facts are linked and interrelated. Large amounts of time and effort have been spent trying to show diverse arrays of things can be seen as different manifestations of some common underlying entities or properties. Thales is said to (...)
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  44. Darwinize It Two Times: On the Possibilities of Extending Evolutionary Medicine Through New Developments in Evolutionary Theory.Ozan Altan Altinok - 2022 - Azimuth 19 (1):197 - 210.
    In this paper, I will briefly summarize the history and current accounts of Evolutionary Medicine (EM). I will show that EM, in its current forms, is using an evolutionary understanding that carries the explanatory framework, as well as explanatory limits, of the Modern Synthesis (MS). I will then point out some essential elements that need to be seen as limiting factors within EM and analyze the limitations that are brought about by the MS understanding of it. On this basis, (...)
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  45. Bhai Vir Singh - A Harbinger of Sikh Renaissance and Father of Modern Punjabi Literature.Devinder Pal Singh - 2022 - Punjab Dey Rang, Lahore, Pakistan 16 (2):24-34.
    Bhai Vir Singh, a multifaceted personality, had made a seminal contribution to the Sikh religion, its heritage and Punjabi literature. He was one of the harbingers of the Sikh renaissance and immensely contributed to rejuvenating Sikh heritage, history, literature, education, culture and commerce. Bhai Vir Singh was born on December 5, 1872, at Amritsar. He was the eldest among his six siblings. His father, Dr. Charan Singh, was a medical practitioner and an illustrious scholar. His grandfather Bhai Kahan (...)
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  46. Autism: The Very Idea.Simon Cushing - 2012 - In Jami L. Anderson & Simon Cushing (eds.), The Philosophy of Autism. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. pp. 17-45.
    If each of the subtypes of autism is defined simply as constituted by a set of symptoms, then the criteria for its observation are straightforward, although, of course, some of those symptoms themselves might be hard to observe definitively. Compare with telling whether or not someone is bleeding: while it might be hard to tell if someone is bleeding internally, we know what it takes to find out, and when we have the right access and instruments we can settle the (...)
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  47. The First Smart Pill: Digital Revolution or Last Gasp?Anna K. Swartz & Phoebe Friesen - 2023 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 33 (3):277-319.
    ABSTRACT: Abilify MyCite was granted regulatory approval in 2017, becoming the world’s first “smart pill” that could digitally track whether patients had taken their medication. The new technology was introduced as one that had gained the support of patients and ethicists alike, and could contribute to solving the widespread and costly problem of patient nonadherence. Here, we offer an in-depth exploration of this narrative, through an examination of the origins and development of Abilify, the drug that would later become MyCite. (...)
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  48. Philosophy of immunology.Bartlomiej Swiatczak & Alfred I. Tauber - 2020 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy 2020.
    Philosophy of immunology is a subfield of philosophy of biology dealing with ontological and epistemological issues related to the studies of the immune system. While speculative investigations and abstract analyses have always been part of immune theorizing, until recently philosophers have largely ignored immunology. Yet the implications for understanding the philosophical basis of organismal functions framed by immunity offer new perspectives on fundamental questions of biology and medicine. Developed in the context of history of medicine, theoretical biology, and (...) anthropology, philosophy of immunology differs from these related branches of study in its focus on traditional philosophical questions concerning identity, individuality, ecology, cognition, scientific methodology and theory construction. This broad agenda derives from immunology’s multifaceted research program that has developed from its initial clinical challenges of host defense, transplantation, autoimmunity, tumor immunology, and allergy. In addition to these well-established research areas, immunity is now understood to play a central role in other physiological functions, development, ecology, and evolutionary mechanics. Holding together these diverse domains of inquiry lie philosophical commitments oriented by organismal identity. In this regard, pertinent issues are raised concerning cognition (organization of immune perception and information processing), the character of individuality (framed by the ecological context of immune-mediated assimilation and rejection), and the dynamics of complex systems (understood as holistic systems biology). Indeed, immunology, in the context of cognitive science, evolutionary biology, environmental sciences, and development provides multi-focal perspectives for philosophy of science. (shrink)
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  49. From Obesity to Energy Metabolism: Ontological Perspectives on the Metrics of Human Bodies.Davide Serpico & Andrea Borghini - 2020 - Topoi 40 (3):577-586.
    In this paper, we aim at rethinking the concept of obesity in a way that better captures the connection between underlying medical aspects, on the one hand, and an individual’s developmental history, on the other. Our proposal rests on the idea that obesity is not to be understood as a phenotypic trait or character; rather, obesity represents one of the many possible states of a more complex phenotypic trait that we call ‘energy metabolism.’ We argue that this apparently (...)
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  50. Philosophy as Therapy - A Review of Konrad Banicki's Conceptual Model.Bruno Contestabile & Michael Hampe - manuscript
    In his article Banicki proposes a universal model for all forms of philosophical therapy. He is guided by works of Martha Nussbaum, who in turn makes recourse to Aristotle. As compared to Nussbaum’s approach, Banicki’s model is more medical and less based on ethical argument. He mentions Foucault’s vision to apply the same theoretical analysis for the ailments of the body and the soul and to use the same kind of approach in treating and curing them. In his interpretation (...)
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