Results for 'medical model'

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  1. The medical model, with a human face.Justis Koon - 2022 - Philosophical Studies 179 (12):3747-3770.
    In this paper, I defend a version of the medical model of disability, which defines disability as an enduring biological dysfunction that causes its bearer a significant degree of impairment. We should accept the medical model, I argue, because it succeeds in capturing our judgments about what conditions do and do not qualify as disabilities, because it offers a compelling explanation for what makes a condition count as a disability, and because it justifies why the federal (...)
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  2. The Medical Model of “Obesity” and the Values Behind the Guise of Health.Kayla R. Mehl - forthcoming - Synthese 201 (6):1-28.
    Assumptions about obesity—e.g., its connection to ill health, its causes, etc.—are still prevalent today, and they make up what I call the medical model of fatness. In this paper, I argue that the medical model was established on the basis of insufficient evidence and has nevertheless continued to be relied upon to justify methodological choices that further entrench the assumptions of the medical model. These choices are illegitimate in so far as they conflict with (...)
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  3. The new medical model: a renewed challenge for biomedicine.Jonathan Fuller - 2017 - Canadian Medical Association Journal 189:E640-1.
    Over the past 25 years, several new “medicines” have come screeching onto health care’s various platforms, including narrative medicine, personalized medicine, precision medicine and person-centred medicine. Philosopher Miriam Solomon calls the first three of these movements different “ways of knowing” or “methods,” and argues that they are each a response to shortcomings of methods that came before them. They should also be understood as reactions to the current dominant model of medicine. In this article, I will describe our dominant (...)
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  4. Medical Models of Addiction.Harold Kincaid & Jacqueline Anne Sullivan - 2010 - In Don Ross, Harold Kincaid & David Spurrett (eds.), What Is Addiction? The MIT Press.
    Biomedical science has been remarkably successful in explaining illness by categorizing diseases and then by identifying localizable lesions such as a virus and neoplasm in the body that cause those diseases. Not surprisingly, researchers have aspired to apply this powerful paradigm to addiction. So, for example, in a review of the neuroscience of addiction literature, Hyman and Malenka (2001, p. 695) acknowledge a general consensus among addiction researchers that “[a]ddiction can appropriately be considered as a chronic medical illness.” Like (...)
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  5. Integration, Community, and the Medical Model of Social Injustice.Alex Madva - 2019 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 37 (2):211-232.
    I defend an empirically-oriented approach to the analysis and remediation of social injustice. My springboard for this argument is a debate—principally represented here between Tommie Shelby and Elizabeth Anderson, but with much deeper historical roots and many flowering branches—about whether racial-justice advocacy should prioritize integration (bringing different groups together) or community development (building wealth and political power within the black community). Although I incline toward something closer to Shelby’s “egalitarian pluralist” approach over Anderson’s single-minded emphasis on integration, many of Shelby’s (...)
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  6. What’s Right About the Medical Model in Human Subjects Research Regulation.Heidi Li Feldman - unknown
    Critics of Institutional Review Board (IRB) practices often base their charges on the claim that IRB review began with and is premised upon a "medical model" of research, and hence a "medical model" of risk. Based on this claim, they charge that IRB review, especially in the institutional Reviw boardsocial and behavioral sciences, has experienced "mission creep". This paper argues that this line of critique is fundamentally misguided. While it remains unclear what critics mean by " (...) model", the point of contemporary human research subjects regulation remains the same across all domains of research. That point is to protect the autonomy of human subjects, primarily through the use of informed consent. In fields as different as biomedical self-experimentation and ethnography there is the danger of losing sight of subjects' autonomy. Critiques of the so-called medical model are sometimes libertarian and sometimes utilitarian in spirit. Either way, such critiques have not yet demonstrated that these philosophical schools of thought have the resources to guard against the potential risk of harm that lexically prioritizing the autonomy of human subjects does. Precisely because IRB review recognizes that human subjects research occurs in different fields using different research methods, IRB review requires researchers to explain their particular methods, the particular risks of harm created by these methods, and the implementation of procedures by which subjects may autonomously consent to precisely those risks. (shrink)
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  7. Teaching medical ethics and law within medical education: a model for the UK core curriculum.Richard Ashcroft & Donna Dickenson - 1998 - Journal of Medical Ethics 24:188-192.
    Consensus statement by UK teachers of medical ethics and law.
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  8. Models of Mental Illness.Jacqueline Sullivan - 2016 - In Miriam Solomon, Jeremy R. Simon & Harold Kincaid (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Medicine. New York, NY: Routledge. pp. 455-464.
    This chapter has two aims. The first aim is to compare and contrast three different conceptual-explanatory models for thinking about mental illness with an eye towards identifying the assumptions upon which each model is based, and exploring the model’s advantages and limitations in clinical contexts. Major Depressive Disorder is used as an example to illustrate these points. The second aim is to address the question of what conceptual-theoretical framework for thinking about mental illness is most likely to facilitate (...)
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  9. Trust and professionalism in science: medical codes as a model for scientific negligence?Hugh Desmond & Kris Dierickx - 2021 - BMC Medical Ethics 22 (1):1-11.
    Background Professional communities such as the medical community are acutely concerned with negligence: the category of misconduct where a professional does not live up to the standards expected of a professional of similar qualifications. Since science is currently strengthening its structures of self-regulation in parallel to the professions, this raises the question to what extent the scientific community is concerned with negligence, and if not, whether it should be. By means of comparative analysis of medical and scientific codes (...)
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  10. Liberty, Fairness and the ‘Contribution Model’ for Non-medical Vaccine Exemption Policies: A Reply to Navin and Largent.Giubilini Alberto, Douglas Thomas & Savulescu Julian - 2017 - Public Health Ethics 10 (3).
    In a paper recently published in this journal, Navin and Largent argue in favour of a type of policy to regulate non-medical exemptions from childhood vaccination which they call ‘Inconvenience’. This policy makes it burdensome for parents to obtain an exemption to child vaccination, for example, by requiring parents to attend immunization education sessions and to complete an application form to receive a waiver. Navin and Largent argue that this policy is preferable to ‘Eliminationism’, i.e. to policies that do (...)
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  11. Medicalization of Sexual Desire.Jacob Stegenga - 2021 - European Journal of Analytic Philosophy 17 (2):(SI5)5-34.
    Medicalisation is a social phenomenon in which conditions that were once under legal, religious, personal or other jurisdictions are brought into the domain of medical authority. Low sexual desire in females has been medicalised, pathologised as a disease, and intervened upon with a range of pharmaceuticals. There are two polarised positions on the medicalisation of low female sexual desire: I call these the mainstream view and the critical view. I assess the central arguments for both positions. Dividing the two (...)
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  12. Medical Image Classification with Machine Learning Classifier.Destiny Agboro - forthcoming - Journal of Computer Science.
    In contemporary healthcare, medical image categorization is essential for illness prediction, diagnosis, and therapy planning. The emergence of digital imaging technology has led to a significant increase in research into the use of machine learning (ML) techniques for the categorization of images in medical data. We provide a thorough summary of recent developments in this area in this review, using knowledge from the most recent research and cutting-edge methods.We begin by discussing the unique challenges and opportunities associated with (...)
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  13. Speech acts and medical records: The ontological nexus.Lowell Vizenor & Barry Smith - 2004 - In Jana Zvárová (ed.), Proceedings of the International Joint Meeting EuroMISE 2004.
    Despite the recent advances in information and communication technology that have increased our ability to store and circulate information, the task of ensuring that the right sorts of information gets to the right sorts of people remains. We argue that the many efforts underway to develop efficient means for sharing information across healthcare systems and organizations would benefit from a careful analysis of human action in healthcare organizations. This in turn requires that the management of information and knowledge within healthcare (...)
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  14. AI-Based Medical Solutions Can Threaten Physicians’ Ethical Obligations Only If Allowed to Do So.Benjamin Gregg - 2023 - American Journal of Bioethics 23 (9):84-86.
    Mildred Cho and Nicole Martinez-Martin (2023) distinguish between two of the ways in which humans can be represented in medical contexts. One is technical: a digital model of aspects of a person’s...
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  15. How do medical researchers make causal inferences?Olaf Dammann, Ted Poston & Paul Thagard - 2019 - In Kevin McCain (ed.), What is Scientific Knowledge?: An Introduction to Contemporary Epistemology of Science. New York: Routledge.
    Bradford Hill (1965) highlighted nine aspects of the complex evidential situation a medical researcher faces when determining whether a causal relation exists between a disease and various conditions associated with it. These aspects are widely cited in the literature on epidemiological inference as justifying an inference to a causal claim, but the epistemological basis of the Hill aspects is not understood. We offer an explanatory coherentist interpretation, explicated by Thagard's ECHO model of explanatory coherence. The ECHO model (...)
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  16. The GEM Model of Health: Parts 1-4.Patrick Daly - 2019 - European Journal for Person Centered Healthcare 3 (7):421-442.
    In this four part essay I present a comprehensive model of health based on the generalized empirical method of Bernard Lonergan, which integrates the empirical method of natural science and the phenomenological method of historical and related human sciences in a way that is unique among contemporary thinkers. The GEM model, in turn, offers a unique framework - a higher viewpoint - for integrating the manifold viewpoints of clinical practice, the humanities (the drama and narrative of human living), (...)
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  17. Modelling Principles and Methodologies: Relations in Anatomical Ontologies.Fabian Neuhaus & Barry Smith - 2007 - In Albert Burger, Duncan Davidson & Richard Baldock (eds.), Anatomy Ontologies for Bioinformatics: Principles and Practice. Springer. pp. 289--306.
    It is now increasingly accepted that many existing biological and medical ontologies can be improved by adopting tools and methods that bring a greater degree of logical and ontological rigor. In this chapter we will focus on the merits of a logically sound approach to ontologies from a methodological point of view. As we shall see, one crucial feature of a logically sound approach is that we have clear and functional definitions of the relational expressions such as ‘is a’ (...)
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  18. ANN for Predicting Medical Expenses.Khaled Salah & Ahmed Altalla - 2016 - International Journal of Engineering and Information Systems (IJEAIS) 2 (10):11-16.
    Abstract: In this research, the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model was developed and tested to predict the rate of treatment expenditure on an individual or family in a country. A number of factors have been identified that may affect treatment expenses. Factors such as age, grade level such as primary, preparatory, secondary or college, sex, size of disability, social status, and annual medical expenses in fixed dollars excluding dental and outpatient clinics among others, as input variables for the (...)
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  19. Consent: Historical Perspectives in Medical Ethics.Tom O'Shea - 2018 - In Peter Schaber & Andreas Müller (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of the Ethics of Consent. New York, NY: Routledge. pp. 261-271.
    This chapter provides an outline of consent in the history of medical ethics. In doing so, it ranges over attitudes towards consent in medicine in ancient Greece, medieval Europe and the Middle East, as well as the history of Western law and medical ethics from the early modern period onwards. It considers the relationship between consent and both the disclosure of information to patients and the need to indemnify physicians, while attempting to avoid an anachronistic projection of concern (...)
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  20. The impact of national comprehensive medical reform on residents' medical expenses: Evidence from China.Changfei Nie & Yuan Feng - 2023 - Frontiers in Public Health 10:1038543.
    Residents' high medical expenses is the core challenge that needs to be solved urgently in China's medical reform for a long time. Based on the panel data of 30 provinces in Chinese Mainland during 2011–2019, we evaluate the impact of China's national comprehensive medical reform pilot policy on residents' medical expenses by using the difference-in-differences model. The results show that the pilot policy was generally conducive to reducing residents' medical expenses, resulting in a reduction (...)
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  21. A generic model of consciousness.Mark J. Hadley - 2023 - Journal of Artificial Intelligence and Consciousness 10 (2):291--308.
    This is a model of consciousness. The hard problem of consciousness, what it feels like, is answered. The work builds on medical research analyzing the source and mechanisms associated with our feelings. It goes further by describing a generic model with wide applicability. The model is fully consistent with medical pathways in humans, but easily extends to animals and AI. The essence of the model is the interplay between associative memory and physiology. The (...) is a clear and concrete counterexample to the famous philosophical objections to a scientific explanation. (shrink)
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  22. Modelle und Grenzen der Leistungssteigerung im Sport: Enhancement, Doping, Therapie aus philosophischer Sicht.Christoph Asmuth, Benedetta Bisol & Patrick Grüneberg - 2010 - Leipziger Sportwissenschaftliche Beiträge 51 (2):8-43.
    Enhancement is a basic principle of modern sport. Their increase of achievement is usually attributed to the sportsmen’s natural assessment, their health, their training methods and their employment. In contrast, increase in output by pharmacological means is outlawed. The modern medical techniques created a whole range, by which sportsmen are supported. Consequently, sometimes difficult decisions with concrete medications develop. It is not always clearly to be differentiated whether something is a pharmacological interference, which serves the therapy or leads however (...)
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    Giving Moral Competence High Priority in Medical Education. New MCT-based Research Findings from the Polish Context.Ewa Nowak, Anna-Maria Barciszewska, Kay Hemmerling, Georg Lind & Sunčana Kukolja Taradi - 2021 - Ethics in Progress 12:104-133.
    Nowadays, healthcare and medical education is qualified by test scores and competitiveness. This article considers its quality in terms of improving the moral competence of future healthcare providers. Objectives. Examining the relevance of moral competence in medico-clinical decision-making despite the paradigm shift and discussing the up-to-date findings on healthcare students. Design and method. N=115 participants were surveyed with a standard Moral Competence Test to examine how their moral competence development was affected by the learning environment and further important factors. (...)
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  24. Free Will Skepticism and Criminal Behavior: A Public Health-Quarantine Model.Gregg D. Caruso - 2016 - Southwest Philosophy Review 32 (1):25-48.
    One of the most frequently voiced criticisms of free will skepticism is that it is unable to adequately deal with criminal behavior and that the responses it would permit as justified are insufficient for acceptable social policy. This concern is fueled by two factors. The first is that one of the most prominent justifications for punishing criminals, retributivism, is incompatible with free will skepticism. The second concern is that alternative justifications that are not ruled out by the skeptical view per (...)
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  25. Faculty of responsibility: a key concept to cope with the ethical challenges medical students face.Orhan Onder & Aasim I. Padela - 2020 - Journal of the British Islamic Medical Association 4 (2):23-26.
    During their educational life, medical students encounter several challenges, the origins and causes of which vary. This paper explores and attempts to scrutinize two of these challenges, before eventually introducing the concept of responsibility. First, this paper describes the general characteristics of medical schools, medical students, and medical education. Second, two different ethical challenges that medical students confront are then delineated: the anxiety of continuously questioning ‘while being trained, do I cause patients to receive suboptimal (...)
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  26. Cognitive biases and the predictable perils of the patient‐centric free‐market model of medicine.Michael J. Shaffer - 2022 - Metaphilosophy 53 (4):446-456.
    This paper addresses the recent rise of the use of alternative medicine in Western countries. It offers a novel explanation of that phenomenon in terms of cognitive and economic factors related to the free-market and patient-centric approach to medicine that is currently in place in those countries, in contrast to some alternative explanations of this phenomenon. Moreover, the paper addresses this troubling trend in terms of the serious harms associated with the use of alternative medical modalities. The explanatory theory (...)
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  27. Impact of COVID-19 on liver transplantation in Hong Kong and Singapore: A modelling study.Eunice Tan, Wei Liang Quek, Haroun Chahed, Shridhar Ganpathi Iyer, Prema Raj Jeyaraj, Guan-Huei Lee, Albert Chan, Stephanie Cheng, Jan Hoe, Ek Khoon Tan, Lock Yue Chew, James Fung, Melvin Chen, Mark Muthiah & Daniel Huang - 2021 - The Lancet Regional Health-Western Pacific 16:100262.
    Liver transplantation (LT) activities during the COVID-19 pandemic have been curtailed in many countries. The impact of various policies restricting LT on outcomes of potential LT candidates is unclear. We studied all patients on the nationwide LT waitlists in Hong Kong and Singapore between January 2016 and May 2020. We used continuous time Markov chains to model the effects of different scenarios and varying durations of disruption on LT candidates.
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  28. Formalizing UMLS Relations Using Semantic Partitions in the Context of a Task-Based Clinical Guidelines Model.Anand Kumar, Matteo Piazza, Barry Smith, Silvana Quaglini & Mario Stefanelli - 2004 - In Anand Kumar, Matteo Piazza, Barry Smith, Silvana Quaglini & Mario Stefanelli (eds.), Formalizing UMLS Relations Using Semantic Partitions in the Context of a Task-Based Clinical Guidelines Model. Saarbrücken: IFOMIS.
    An important part of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) is its Semantic Network, consisting of 134 Semantic Types connected to each other by edges formed by one or more of 54 distinct Relation Types. This Network is however for many purposes overcomplex, and various groups have thus made attempts at simplification. Here we take this work further by simplifying the relations which involve the three Semantic Types – Diagnostic Procedure, Laboratory Procedure and Therapeutic or Preventive Procedure. We define (...)
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  29. Philosophy as Therapy - A Review of Konrad Banicki's Conceptual Model.Bruno Contestabile & Michael Hampe - manuscript
    In his article Banicki proposes a universal model for all forms of philosophical therapy. He is guided by works of Martha Nussbaum, who in turn makes recourse to Aristotle. As compared to Nussbaum’s approach, Banicki’s model is more medical and less based on ethical argument. He mentions Foucault’s vision to apply the same theoretical analysis for the ailments of the body and the soul and to use the same kind of approach in treating and curing them. In (...)
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  30. Professional culture and security: an innovative approach to implementing a medical facility.Daria Hromtseva & Oleksandr P. Krupskyi - 2015 - European Journal of Management Issues 23 (5):15-23.
    This article suggests different approaches to the definition of the nature, types, and component elements of safety culture (SC) in the organization; given the possible method of evaluation; formulated the concept of professional safety culture by taking into account the features of the medical industry; suggested innovative ways to implement the SC and strengthen it to improve the efficiency of hospitals. -/- Запропоновано окремі підходи до трактування сутності, видів і складових елементів культури безпеки (КБ) в організації; надано можливий метод (...)
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  31. The Consumer Protection Model of Decisional Capacity Evaluation.Daniel D. Moseley & Gary J. Gala - 2013 - Southwest Philosophy Review 29 (1):241-248.
    Decisional capacity evaluations (DCEs) occur in clinical settings where it is unclear whether a consumer of medical services has the capacity to make an informed decision about the relevant medical options. DCEs are localized interventions, not the global loss of competence, that assign a surrogate decision maker to make the decision on behalf of the medical consumer. We maintain that one important necessary condition for a DCE to be morally justified, in cases of medical necessity, is (...)
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  32. Conducting Controlled human infection model studies in India is an ethical obligation.Saumil Dholakia & S. Y. Dholakia - 2018 - Indian Journal of Medical Ethics 3 (4).
    Weighing competing obligations and achieving the “greatest balance” of right over wrong guides an individual, an agency or a country in determining what ought to be done in an ethically challenging situation. Conducting controlled human infection model (CHIM) studies in India is one such situation. The ethical challenge in conducting a CHIM study lies in completing the difficult task of introducing standardised, attenuated strains of micro-organisms into normal healthy volunteers, at the same time ensuring the safety of these healthy (...)
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  33. Impact of perceived ease of use, organizational support mechanism, and industry competitive pressure on physicians’ use of liver cancer screening technology in medical alliances.Junhong Lu, Qingwen Deng, Yuehua Chen & Wenbin Liu - 2023 - Frontiers in Public Health 11:1174334.
    Background: Liver cancer is one of the malignant tumors worldwide, while the prevention and control situation is grim at present, and the diffusion of its early screening technology still faces some challenges. This study aims to investigate the influencing mechanism of perceived ease of use, organizational support mechanism, and industry competitive pressure on hepatic early screening technologies use by physicians, so as to promote the wider use of corresponding technologies. -/- Methods: Under the theoretical guidance of technology-organization-environment framework and mindsponge (...)
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  34. Mental Model of Mothers of Adolescent Girls and Health Service Providers on HPV Vaccination in Urban Slum Areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh: A Mixed-Method Study.Fariha Haseen, Hridi, Sadia Akther Sony, Dilip Kumar Basak, Md Monirul Islam, Sharlin Akther & Syed Shariful Islam - 2022 - Journal of Health and Medical Sciences 5 (4):1-11.
    Background: The study aimed to explore the perception of mothers of adolescent girls and health service providers in urban slums toward HPV vaccination. Methodology: A cross-sectional mixed-method study in the slums of Rayer Bazaar, Kamlapur and Mohakhali was conducted. The quantitative part included a household survey of mothers (n=150) and service providers (n=30) through a semi-structured pre-tested questionnaire and qualitative interviews included in-depth interviews (IDI) with mothers (n=10) and key-informant interviews (KII) with service providers (n=10). Results: Around 96% of mothers (...)
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  35. Human Action in the Healthcare Domain: A Critical Analysis of HL7’s Reference Information Model.Barry Smith, Lowell Vizenor & Werner Ceusters - 2013 - In Barry Smith, Lowell Vizenor & Werner Ceusters (eds.), Human Action in the Healthcare Domain: A Critical Analysis of HL7’s Reference Information Model. Ontos Verlag. pp. 554--573.
    If we are to develop efficient, reliable and secure means for sharing information across healthcare systems and organizations, then a careful analysis of human actions will be needed. To address this need, the HL7 organization has proposed its Reference Information Model (RIM), which is designed to provide a comprehensive representation of the entire domain of healthcare centered around the phenomenon of human action. Taking the Basic Formal Ontology as our starting point, we examine the RIM from an ontological point (...)
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  36. Etiology of phantom limb syndrome: Insights from a 3D default space consciousness model.Jerath Ravinder, Molly W. Crawford & Mike Jensen - 2015 - Medical Hypotheses 85 (2):153-259.
    In this article, we examine phantom limb syndrome to gain insights into how the brain functions as the mind and how consciousness arises. We further explore our previously proposed consciousness model in which consciousness and body schema arise when information from throughout the body is processed by corticothalamic feedback loops and integrated by the thalamus. The parietal lobe spatially maps visual and non-visual information and the thalamus integrates and recreates this processed sensory information within a three-dimensional space termed the (...)
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  37. “I’d Rather Be Dead Than Disabled”—The Ableist Conflation and the Meanings of Disability.Joel Michael Reynolds - 2017 - Review of Communication 17 (3):149-63.
    Despite being assailed for decades by disability activists and disability studies scholars spanning the humanities and social sciences, the medical model of disability—which conceptualizes disability as an individual tragedy or misfortune due to genetic or environmental insult—still today structures many cases of patient–practitioner communication. Synthesizing and recasting work done across critical disability studies and philosophy of disability, I argue that the reason the medical model of disability remains so gallingly entrenched is due to what I call (...)
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  38. Addiction, compulsion, and weakness of the will: A dual process perspective.Edmund Henden - 2016 - In Nick Heather & Gabriel Segal (eds.), Addiction and Choice: Rethinking the Relationship. Oxford University Press. pp. 116-132.
    How should addictive behavior be explained? In terms of neurobiological illness and compulsion, or as a choice made freely, even rationally, in the face of harmful social or psychological circumstances? Some of the disagreement between proponents of the prevailing medical models and choice models in the science of addiction centres on the notion of “loss of control” as a normative characterization of addiction. In this article I examine two of the standard interpretations of loss of control in addiction, one (...)
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  39. Therapeutic Arguments, Spiritual Exercises, or the Care of the Self. Martha Nussbaum, Pierre Hadot and Michel Foucault on Ancient Philosophy.Konrad Banicki - 2015 - Ethical Perspectives 22 (4):601-634.
    The practical aspect of ancient philosophy has been recently made a focus of renewed metaphilosophical investigation. After a brief presentation of three accounts of this kind developed by Martha Nussbaum, Pierre Hadot, and Michel Foucault, the model of the therapeutic argument developed by Nussbaum is called into question from the perspectives offered by her French colleagues, who emphasize spiritual exercise (Hadot) or the care of the self (Foucault). The ways in which the account of Nussbaum can be defended are (...)
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  40. Evidence based or person centered? An ontological debate.Rani Lill Anjum - 2016 - European Journal for Person Centered Healthcare 4 (2):421-429.
    Evidence based medicine (EBM) is under critical debate, and person centered healthcare (PCH) has been proposed as an improvement. But is PCH offered as a supplement or as a replacement of EBM? Prima facie PCH only concerns the practice of medicine, while the contended features of EBM also include methods and medical model. I here argue that there are good philosophical reasons to see PCH as a radical alternative to the existing medical paradigm of EBM, since the (...)
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  41. Functional representation of vision within the mind: A visual consciousness model based in 3D default space.Jerath Ravinder, Molly W. Crawford & Vernon A. Barnes - 2015 - Journal of Medical Hypotheses and Ideas 9:45-56.
    The human eyes and brain, which have finite boundaries, create a ‘‘virtual’’ space within our central nervous system that interprets and perceives a space that appears boundless and infinite. Using insights from studies on the visual system, we propose a novel fast processing mechanism involving the eyes, visual pathways, and cortex where external vision is imperceptibly processed in our brain in real time creating an internal representation of external space that appears as an external view. We introduce the existence of (...)
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  42. Autism and ‘disease’: The semantics of an ill-posed question.Christopher Mole - 2017 - Philosophical Psychology 30 (8):1126-1140.
    It often seems incorrect to say that psychiatric conditions are diseases, and equally incorrect to say that they are not. This results in what would seem to be an unsatisfactory stalemate. The present essay examines the considerations that have brought us to such a stalemate in our discussions of autism. It argues that the stalemate in this particular case is a reflection of the fact that we need to find the logical space for a position that rejects both positive and (...)
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  43. A new path for humanistic medicine.Juliette Ferry-Danini - 2018 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 39 (1):57-77.
    According to recent approaches in the philosophy of medicine, biomedicine should be replaced or complemented by a humanistic medical model. Two humanistic approaches, narrative medicine and the phenomenology of medicine, have grown particularly popular in recent decades. This paper first suggests that these humanistic criticisms of biomedicine are insufficient. A central problem is that both approaches seem to offer a straw man definition of biomedicine. It then argues that the subsequent definition of humanism found in these approaches is (...)
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  44. Addiction: choice or compulsion?Edmund Henden, Hans Olav Melberg & Ole Rogeberg - 2013 - Frontiers in Psychiatry 4 (77):11.
    Normative thinking about addiction has traditionally been divided between, on the one hand, a medical model which sees addiction as a disease characterized by compulsive and relapsing drug use over which the addict has little or no control and, on the other, a moral model which sees addiction as a choice characterized by voluntary behaviour under the control of the addict. Proponents of the former appeal to evidence showing that regular consumption of drugs causes persistent changes in (...)
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  45. The Humanistic Paradigm and Bio-Psyhco-Social Approach as a Basis of Social Support for People with Mental Health Problems.Nataliia Bondarenko - 2018 - Psychology and Psychosocial Interventions 1:8-14.
    The article discusses the actual problem of social support for people with mental health problems, which has an important place in the study field of social psychology and social work.The article also deals with the definition of the concept of “mental health”, the problem of introducing the term “mental health problems” as a way to avoid stigmatization, and the spread of a humanistic attitude to persons with a psychiatric diagnosis. It also discussed modern theoretical approaches that offer an understanding of (...)
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  46. Gestures of Belonging: Disability and Postcoloniality in Bessie Head's A Question of Power.Liam Kruger - 2019 - Modern Fiction Studies 65 (1):132-151.
    This essay identifies and intervenes in the limitations of both the social and the medical models of disability in the postcolonial context, suggesting that those limitations may apply to theorizations of disability more broadly. It suggests that Bessie Head's novel A Question of Power, which represents mental illness and disability without positing a stable etiology for them, illustrates the inapplicability of these ways of thinking about disability under instances of extreme precarity. As such, Head offers a test case for (...)
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  47. La equidad educativa y las personas con discapacidad. Una propuesta para pensar la educación especial desde el modelo del umbral educativo o adequacy educacional.Manuel Francisco Serrano - 2021 - RevID, Revista de Investigación y Disciplinas 4:102 - 129.
    There is a close relationship between education and citizenship. Liberal political theorists tend to spend much of their work justifying the role of educational institutions in political communities. However, the development of these proposals is usually thought for subjects who do not have disabilities, arbitrarily excluding a significant proportion of society. This not only happens at an educational level, it is replicated in various areas of social life. In this sense, in the present work I am going to propose that (...)
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  48. Too similar, too different? The paradoxical dualism of psychiatric stigma.Tania Gergel - 2014 - The Psychiatric Bulletin 38 (4):148-151.
    Challenges to psychiatric stigma fall between a rock and a hard place. Decreasing one prejudice may inadvertently increase another. Emphasising similarities between mental illness and ‘ordinary’ experience to escape the fear-related prejudices associated with the imagined ‘otherness’ of persons with mental illness risks conclusions that mental illness indicates moral weakness and the loss of any benefits of a medical model. An emphasis on illness and difference from normal experience risks a response of fear of the alien. Thus, a (...)
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  49. The dental anomaly: how and why dental caries and periodontitis are phenomenologically atypical.Dylan Rakhra - 2019 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 14 (1):1-7.
    Despite their shared origins, medicine and dentistry are not always two sides of the same coin. There is a long history in medical philosophy of defining disease and various medical models have come into existence. Hitherto, little philosophical and phenomenological work has been done considering dental caries and periodontitis as examples of disease and illness. A philosophical methodology is employed to explore how we might define dental caries and periodontitis using classical medical models of disease – the (...)
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  50. Choice, Compulsion, and Capacity in Addiction’ - A commentary on Charland, L. ‘Consent and Capacity in the Age of the Opioid Epidemic: The Drug Dealer’s Point of View’.Tania Gergel - 2021 - Bulletin of the Association for the Advancement of Philosophy and Psychiatry 27 (2).
    Charland's article suggests that we need to think more about whether decision-making capacity is impaired in severe addiction, working from the idea that drug dealers rely on this understanding of addiction to draw in their clients. Charland argues that it is possible to make a choice without being in control (to make decisions without having decision-making capacity). I argue in support of Charland's ideas by examining the reasons supporting a medical model of addiction and its importance. (For Charland's (...)
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