Results for 'welfare'

503 found
Order:
  1. Utilitarianism, Welfare, Children.Anthony Skelton - 2014 - In Alexander Bagattini & Colin Macleod (eds.), The Nature of Children's Well-Being: Theory and Practice. Springer. pp. 85-103.
    Utilitarianism is the view according to which the only basic requirement of morality is to maximize net aggregate welfare. This position has implications for the ethics of creating and rearing children. Most discussions of these implications focus either on the ethics of procreation and in particular on how many and whom it is right to create, or on whether utilitarianism permits the kind of partiality that child rearing requires. Despite its importance to creating and raising children, there are, by (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   12 citations  
  2. Animal Welfare at Home and in the Wild.Kyle Johannsen - 2016 - Animal Sentience 1 (7/10).
    In recent work, economist Yew-Kwang Ng suggests strategies for improving animal welfare within the confines of institutions such as the meat industry. Although I argue that Ng is wrong not to advocate abolition, I do find his position concerning wild animals to be compelling. Anyone who takes the interests of animals seriously should also accept a cautious commitment to intervention in the wild.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  3. Social Welfare: An approach to the concept from a multidimensional perspective.Carlos Medel-Ramírez & Hilario Medel-López - manuscript
    Winds of change, from the political perspective in Mexico, invite us to reformulate the methodological vision for the direction of public policy in the field of social development, directing their actions towards the construction of a methodological proposal that allows us to direct ourselves towards achieving higher levels of Well-being Social in our country, as a desirable objective of public policy and which is expected to be inclusive, participatory and democratic. -/- In this sense, it is important to recognize that (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  4.  68
    Epistemic Welfare Bads and Other Failures of Reason.Antti Kauppinen - forthcoming - Midwest Studies in Philosophy.
    Very plausibly, there is something important missing in our lives if we are thoroughly ignorant or misled about reality – even if, as in a kind of Truman Show scenario, intervention or fantastic luck prevents unhappiness and practical failure. But why? I argue that perfectionism about well-being offers the most promising explanation. My version says, roughly, that we flourish when we exercise our self-defining capacities successfully according to their constitutive standards. One of these self-defining capacities, or capacities whose exercise reveals (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  5. Freedom and animal welfare.Heather Browning & Walter Veit - 2021 - Animals 4 (11):1148.
    The keeping of captive animals in zoos and aquariums has long been controversial. Many take freedom to be a crucial part of animal welfare and, on these grounds, criticise all forms of animal captivity as harmful to animal welfare, regardless of their provisions. Here, we analyse what it might mean for freedom to matter to welfare, distinguishing between the role of freedom as an intrinsic good, valued for its own sake and an instrumental good, its value arising (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  6. Assessing Measures of Animal Welfare.Heather Browning - manuscript
    When making decisions about action to improve animal lives, it is important that we have accurate estimates of how much animals are suffering under different conditions. The current frameworks for making comparative estimates of suffering all fall along the lines of multiplying numbers of animals used by length of life and amount of suffering experienced. However, the numbers used to quantify suffering are usually generated through unreliable and subjective processes which make them unlikely to be correct. In this paper, I (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  7. Should Animal Welfare Be Defined in Terms of Consciousness?Jonathan Birch - 2022 - Philosophy of Science 89 (5):1114-1123.
    Definitions of animal welfare often invoke consciousness or sentience. Marian Stamp Dawkins has argued that to define animal welfare this way is a mistake. In Dawkins’s alternative view, an animal with good welfare is one that is healthy and “has what it wants.” The dispute highlights a source of strain on the concept of animal welfare: consciousness-involving definitions are better able to capture the normative significance of welfare, whereas consciousness-free definitions facilitate the validation of (...) indicators. I reflect on how the field should respond to this strain, ultimately recommending against splitting the concept and in favor of consciousness-involving definitions. (shrink)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  8. The Welfare-Nihilist Arguments against Judgment Subjectivism.Anthony Bernard Kelley - 2021 - Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 19 (3):291-310.
    Judgment subjectivism is the view that x is good for S if and only if, because, and to the extent that S believes, under the proper conditions, that x is good for S. In this paper, I offer three related arguments against the theory. The arguments are about what judgment subjectivism implies about the well-being of welfare nihilists, people who believe there are no welfare properties, or at least that none are instantiated. I maintain that welfare nihilists (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  9. Improving invertebrate welfare.Heather Browning & Walter Veit - 2020 - Animal Sentience 29 (4).
    Mikhalevich & Powell (2020) argue that it is wrong, both scientifically and morally, to dismiss the evidence for sentience in invertebrates. They do not offer any examples, however, of how their welfare should be considered or improved. We draw on animal welfare science to suggest some ways that would not be excessively demanding.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  10. Public Welfare Offenses under Criminal Law: A Brief Note.Deepa Kansra - 2012 - Legal News and Views 2 (26):10-14.
    The state has always authoritatively used criminal law to give effect to its policy of condemning acts either antisocial or unacceptable to the conscience of the law and society. The existence of criminal law is well justified on grounds of ‘social welfare’ or “reinforcement of those values most basic to proper social functioning”. This initiates or sustains the process of criminalization. The relativity of ‘social welfare’ makes law ‘dynamic’ as well as ‘varying’, vis-à-vis its ambit and scope. Current (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  11. Welfare Economics and the Welfare State in Historical Perspective.Karen Knight - manuscript
    Although the economic thought of Marshall and Pigou was united by ethical positions broadly considered utilitarian, differences in their intellectual milieu led to degrees of difference between their respective philosophical visions. This change in milieu includes the influence of the little understood period of transition from the early idealist period in Great Britain, which provided the context to Marshall’s intellectual formation, and the late British Idealist period, which provided the context to Pigou’s intellectual formation. During this latter period, the pervading (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  12.  36
    Welfare State.Andrzej Klimczuk - 2017 - In Bryan Turner (ed.), The Wiley-Blackwell Encyclopedia of Social Theory. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 1--5.
    The welfare state refers to a concept of a state that focuses on ensuring that a broad range of social rights is provided for all citizens by acting on the social mechanisms and consequences of the market economy. In such a state government plays a vital role in balancing social inequalities by providing or subsidizing social benefits and services. This activity is called social policy. Individual countries are characterized by different welfare state models, goals, values, and groups of (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  13.  47
    The Greenhouse: A Welfare Assessment and Some Morals.Christoph Lumer - 2002 - Lanham, MD; New York; Oxford: University Press of America.
    In this book some options concerning the greenhouse effect are assessed from a welfarist point of view: business as usual, stabilization of greenhouse gas emissions and reduction by 25% and by 60%. Up to today only economic analyses of such options are available, which monetize welfare losses. Because this is found to be wanting from a moral point of view, the present study welfarizes (among others) monetary losses on the basis of a hedonistic utilitarianism and other, justice incorporating, (...) ethics. For these welfarist evaluations information about the social consequences of the four options are collected from the literature and eventually corrected; then the consequences for individual well-being are assessed based on psychological research about well-being dependent on the social situation of the individual; finally the aggregation formulas of the respective welfare ethics are applied to these data. Assessments by other types of ethics, e.g. Kantian ethic, are included. The strongest abatement option is found to be optimum with great unanimity. - In addition a cost-welfare analysis of greenhouse gas abatement is undertaken revealing efficient cost-welfare ratios for these measures and the most efficient ratio for the strongest option. - A final, more theoretical part discusses the moral obligations following from such evaluations. The notion of 'moral obligation' is explained in a way that, apart from moral goodness of the required act, reinforcement by formal or informal sanctions is another necessary condition for moral obligations. This leads to a conception of a historical morality according to which the demands of morality rise in the long run. Applying this conception to the greenhouse effect implies that presently we have the moral duty to raise the standards of greenhouse gas abatement as much as is politically feasible. (shrink)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  14.  54
    The problem of interspecies welfare comparisons (preprint).Heather Browning - manuscript
    One of the biggest problems in applications of animal welfare science is our ability to make comparisons between different individuals, particularly different species. Although welfare science provides methods for measuring the welfare of individual animals, there’s no established method for comparing measures between individuals. This problem occurs because of the underdetermination of the conclusions given the data, arising from two sources of variation that we cannot distinguish – variation in the underlying target variable (welfare experience) and (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  15.  59
    Welfare, Meaning, and Worth. [REVIEW]Hrishikesh Joshi - forthcoming - Journal of Moral Philosophy.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  16.  72
    Personhood, Welfare, and Enhancement.Hugh Desmond - 2022 - American Journal of Bioethics 22 (9):37-39.
    The debate on enhancement ethics cannot escape some of the deeper questions troubling the concept of personhood. That is, in a sentence, my reading of Robert Sparrow’s target article (Sparrow 2022)...
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  17. `Welfare Dependence': The Power of a Concept.Marion Smiley - 2001 - Thesis Eleven (64):21-38.
    This essay argues that the concept of dependence now invoked in noramtive discussions of the welfare state is both incoherent and biased as a result of its conflation of four distinctly different notions of dependence, ranging from the purely causal to that associated with lower class identities.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  18. If I Could Talk to the Animals: Measuring Subjective Animal Welfare.Heather Browning - 2019 - Dissertation, Australian National University
    Animal welfare is a concept that plays a role within both our moral deliberations and the relevant areas of science. The study of animal welfare has impacts on decisions made by legislators, producers and consumers with regards to housing and treatment of animals. Our ethical deliberations in these domains need to consider our impact on animals, and the study of animal welfare provides the information that allows us to make informed decisions. This thesis focusses on taking a (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   13 citations  
  19. Animal Culture and Animal Welfare.Simon Fitzpatrick & Kristin Andrews - 2022 - Philosophy of Science 89 (5):1104-1113.
    Following recent arguments that cultural practices in wild animal populations have important conservation implications, we argue that recognizing captive animals as cultural has important welfare implications. Having a culture is of deep importance for cultural animals, wherever they live. Without understanding the cultural capacities of captive animals, we will be left with a deeply impoverished view of what they need to flourish. Best practices for welfare should therefore require concern for animals’ cultural needs, but the relationship between culture (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  20. Classifying theories of welfare.Christopher Woodard - 2013 - Philosophical Studies 165 (3):787-803.
    This paper argues that we should replace the common classification of theories of welfare into the categories of hedonism, desire theories, and objective list theories. The tripartite classification is objectionable because it is unduly narrow and it is confusing: it excludes theories of welfare that are worthy of discussion, and it obscures important distinctions. In its place, the paper proposes two independent classifications corresponding to a distinction emphasised by Roger Crisp: a four-category classification of enumerative theories (about which (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   26 citations  
  21.  2
    Beyond Welfare: A Preliminary Bahá’í Normative Framework for Economic Rights and Responsibilities.Vargha Bolodo-Taefi - 2021 - Journal of Bahá’Í Studies 31 (1-2):45-71.
    Invoking a broad catalog of applicable Bahá’í principles, this paper presents the conceptual and theoretical underpinnings of a Bahá’í approach to economic growth and disparity and then maps these concepts onto an applied framework of economic rights and responsibilities. The framework that emerges thus both conceptualizes the underlying virtues that govern economic prosperity in a Bahá’í model and shows how these principles might lead to normative prescriptions for economic rights and responsibilities. The paper concludes that the Bahá’í principles dealing with (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  22.  68
    The Family in the Welfare State.Alan Tapper - 1990 - Melbourne, Australia: Allen and Unwin.
    This book is a critical analysis of Australian family policy issues. The argument of the book rests on three cardinal principles. The first is that the family is a miniature society, a social unit. The second is that in producing, caring for, and educating children the family contributes to the good of the wider society. The third is that in caring for dependants – young or old – the family is a welfare institution. The general thrust of the book (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  23.  74
    Animal Welfare: Ends and Means.Roger Cryan - 1997 - Dissertation, University of Florida
    The social side of the animal welfare debate has been inadequately informed by economic science. This work examines the philosophical debate over animal welfare and proposes an alternative approach. It examines the prospects of the animal welfare/rights movement in the context of public choice theory. An economic theory of animal welfare is developed. Finally, a case study is used to demonstrate one methodology for estimating the direct human costs of animal welfare restrictions.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  24. The All too Human Welfare State: Freedom between Gift and Corruption.Paolo Silvestri - 2019 - Teoria E Critica Della Regolazione Sociale 19 (2):123-145.
    Can taxation and the redistribution of wealth through the welfare state be conceived as a modern system of circulation of the gift? But once such a gift is institutionalized, regulated and sanctioned through legal mechanisms, does it not risk being perverted or corrupted, and/or not leaving room for genuinely altruistic motives? What is more: if the market’s utilitarian logic can corrupt or ‘crowd out’ altruistic feelings or motivations, what makes us think that the welfare state cannot also be (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  25.  86
    Perspectival pluralism for animal welfare.Walter Veit & Heather Browning - 2021 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 11 (1):1-14.
    Animal welfare has a long history of disregard. While in recent decades the study of animal welfare has become a scientific discipline of its own, the difficulty of measuring animal welfare can still be vastly underestimated. There are three primary theories, or perspectives, on animal welfare - biological functioning, natural living and affective state. These come with their own diverse methods of measurement, each providing a limited perspective on an aspect of welfare. This paper describes (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   13 citations  
  26.  71
    Extending animal welfare science to include wild animals.Walter Veit & Heather Browning - forthcoming - Animal Sentience:1-4.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  27. Veganism, Animal Welfare, and Causal Impotence.Samuel Kahn - 2020 - Journal of Animal Ethics 10 (2):161-176.
    Proponents of the utilitarian animal welfare argument (AWA) for veganism maintain that it is reasonable to expect that adopting a vegan diet will decrease animal suffering. In this paper I argue otherwise. I maintain that (i) there are plausible scenarios in which refraining from meat-consumption will not decrease animal suffering; (ii) the utilitarian AWA rests on a false dilemma; and (iii) there are no reasonable grounds for the expectation that adopting a vegan diet will decrease animal suffering. The paper (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  28. The natural behavior debate: Two conceptions of animal welfare.Heather Browning - 2020 - Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 23 (3):325-337.
    The performance of natural behavior is commonly used as a criterion in the determination of animal welfare. This is still true, despite many authors having demonstrated that it is not a necessary component of welfare – some natural behaviors may decrease welfare, while some unnatural behaviors increase it. Here I analyze why this idea persists, and what effects it may have. I argue that the disagreement underlying this debate on natural behavior is not one about which conditions (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   9 citations  
  29.  59
    (Draft) In defence of welfare subjectivism.Benjamin Davies - manuscript
    Subjectivists about welfare face two problems that pull them in opposite directions. The Paradox Problem, outlined by Ben Bradley, is that, for an agent who desires that her life go badly, subjectivist theories are sometimes unable to give a determinate answer about how well her life goes. This problem demands that subjectivists choose a complex mental attitude to ground well-being. The Infant Problem, from Eden Lin, is that many subjective theories end up denying that infants (and some others) have (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  30. Child (Bio)Welfare and Beyond : Intersecting Injustices in Childhoods and Swedish Child Welfare.Zlatana Knezevic - 2020 - Dissertation, Mälardalen University
    The current thesis discusses how tools for analysing power are developed predominately for adults, and thus remain underdeveloped in terms of understanding injustices related to age, ethnicity/race and gender in childhoods. The overall aim of this dissertation is to inscribe a discourse of intersecting social injustices as relevant for childhoods and child welfare, and by interlinking postcolonial, feminist, and critical childhood studies. The dissertation is set empirically within the policy and practice of Swedish child welfare, here exemplified by (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  31.  68
    Mixed Economy of Welfare Emerging in Poland: Outplacement and Non-Governmental Employment Agencies Examples.Andrzej Klimczuk - 2015 - E-Journal of International and Comparative Labour Studies 4 (2):110--134.
    One of the key challenges of social policy in Poland in the early 21st century is to adapt its management to the requirements of a service economy. Essential conditions for the mixed economy of welfare have been already created after adjustments of the subsystems of national social policy during the first years of membership in the European Union since 2004. Labour market policies already include the relationships between providers from the public sector, the commercial sector, and the non-governmental sector. (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  32.  67
    Punishment and Welfare: Defending Offender’s Inclusion as Subjects of State Care.Helen Brown Coverdale - 2018 - Ethics and Social Welfare 12 (2):117-132.
    Many criminal offenders come from disadvantaged backgrounds, which punishment entrenches. Criminal culpability explains some disadvantageous treatment in state-offender interactions; yet offenders remain people, and ‘some mother’s child’, in Eva Kittay’s terms. Offending behaviour neither erases needs, nor fully excuses our responsibility for offenders’ needs. Caring is demanded in principle, recognising the offender’s personhood. Supporting offenders may amplify welfare resources: equipping offenders to provide self-care; to meet caring responsibilities; and enabling offenders’ contribution to shared social life, by providing support and (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  33. Naturalness: Beyond animal welfare.Albert W. Musschenga - 2002 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 15 (2):171-186.
    There is an ongoing debate in animalethics on the meaning and scope of animalwelfare. In certain broader views, leading anatural life through the development of naturalcapabilities is also headed under the conceptof animal welfare. I argue that a concern forthe development of natural capabilities of ananimal such as expressed when living freelyshould be distinguished from the preservationof the naturalness of its behavior andappearance. However, it is not always clearwhere a plea for natural living changes overinto a plea for the (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  34. What should we do about sheep? The role of intelligence in welfare considerations.Heather Browning - 2019 - Animal Sentience 4 (25):23.
    Marino & Merskin (2019) demonstrate that sheep are more cognitively complex than typically thought. We should be cautious in interpreting the implications of these results for welfare considerations to avoid perpetuating mistaken beliefs about the moral value of intelligence as opposed to sentience. There are, however, still important ways in which this work can help improve sheeps’ lives.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  35. Liberty, Property, and Welfare Rights: Brettschneider’s Argument.Jan Narveson - 2013 - Libertarian Papers 5:194-215.
    Brettschneider argues that the granting of property rights to all entails a right of exclusion by acquirer/owners against all others, that this exclusionary right entails a loss on their part, and that to make up for this, property owners owe any nonowners welfare rights. Against this, I argue that exclusion is not in fact a cost. Everyone is to have liberty rights, which are negative: what people are excluded from is the liberty to attack and despoil others. Everyone, whether (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  36.  91
    Distracted Daycare and Child Welfare: An Ethical Analysis.Shane J. Ralston - 2020 - Ethics and Social Welfare 14 (3):315-330.
    Parental overuse of portable technology poses a bonafide threat to the welfare and development of children. In the past decade, researchers have documented this phenomenon whereby parents pay far more attention to handheld electronic devices than to their children's safety and developmental needs. What most studies have failed to examine is the extent to which workers in privately owned and operated daycares also exhibit technology-induced distracted behavior. This article aims to identify the moral harm of caregivers' distracted behaviour in (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  37. Values, Agency, and Welfare.Jason R. Raibley - 2013 - Philosophical Topics 41 (1):187-214.
    The values-based approach to welfare holds that it is good for one to realize goals, activities, and relationships with which one strongly (and stably) identifies. This approach preserves the subjectivity of welfare while affirming that a life well lived must be active, engaged, and subjectively meaningful. As opposed to more objective theories, it is unified, naturalistic, and ontologically parsimonious. However, it faces objections concerning the possibility of self-sacrifice, disinterested and paradoxical values, and values that are out of sync (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  38. Changing higher education and welfare states in postcommunist Central Europe: New contexts leading to new typologies?Marek Kwiek - 2014 - Human Affairs 24 (1):48-67.
    The paper links higher education reforms and welfare states reforms in postcommunist Central European countries. It links current higher education debates and public sector debates, stressing the importance of communist-era legacies in both areas. It refers to existing typologies of both higher education governance and welfare state regimes and concludes that the lack of the inclusion of Central Europe in any of them is a serious theoretical drawback in comparative social research. The region should still, after more than (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  39.  97
    Are Generational Welfare Trades Always Unjust?Walter Veit, Julian Savulescu, David Hunter, Brian D. Earp & Dominic Wilkinson - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (9):70-72.
    In their thoughtful article, Malm and Navin (2020) raise concerns about a potentially unjust generational welfare tradeoff between children and adults when it comes to chicken pox. We share their c...
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  40. Aggregating Rights (A Social Welfare Function Based on Human Rights).Filip Spagnoli - manuscript
    This short paper is my first attempt at a Social Welfare Function based on human rights. I argue that rights, compared to traditional measures of welfare such as preference satisfaction, income etc., have numerous advantages, including interpersonal comparability and measure-ability. The introduction of controversial ethical assumptions in a SWF framework is not, I claim, unheard of, and human rights at least have the advantage of enjoying widespread support.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  41. Gender justice and the welfare state in post-communism.Anca Gheaus - 2008 - Feminist Theory 9 (2):185-206.
    Some Romanian feminist scholars argue that welfare policies of post-communist states are deeply unjust to women and preclude them from reaching economic autonomy. The upshot of this argument is that liberal economic policy would advance feminist goals better than the welfare state. How should we read this dissonance between Western and some Eastern feminist scholarship concerning distributive justice? I identify the problem of dependency at the core of a possible debate about feminism and welfare. Worries about how (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  42. Artificial reproduction, the 'welfare principle', and the common good.David Oderberg & J. A. Laing - unknown
    This article challenges the view most recently expounded by Emily Jackson that ‘decisional privacy’ ought to be respected in the realm of artificial reproduction (AR). On this view, it is considered an unjust infringement of individual liberty for the state to interfere with individual or group freedom artificially to produce a child. It is our contention that a proper evaluation of AR and of the relevance of welfare will be sensitive not only to the rights of ‘commissioning parties’ to (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  43.  20
    Considering the Welfare Impact of a Choice When Assessing Capacity: Always Wrong?Jennifer Hawkins - forthcoming - In E. Ritchie & C. Carrozzo (eds.), Mental Capacity: Psychiatric, Psychological, and Philosophical Perspectives. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  44. Case Comment on Animal Welfare Board of India v. A. Nagaraja (2014).Deepa Kansra - 2014 - ILI Newsletter 16 (2).
    The judgment depicts the strong and compassionate approach taken by the court towards animals, particularly bulls used in bullock cart races and Jallikattu. The case is another addition to the several decisions that have pushed in for a more expansive reading to the expression “life” and “dignity” under the Constitution. With the objective of giving a more inclusive meaning to life and dignity, the case accommodates the duty to preserve the dignity and wellbeing of animals as being a part of (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  45. The natural behavior debate: Two conceptions of animal welfare.Heather Browning - 2019 - Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science:1–13.
    The performance of natural behavior is commonly used as a criterion in the determination of animal welfare. This is still true, despite many authors having demonstrated that it is not a necessary component of welfare –some natural behaviors may decrease welfare, while some unnatural behaviors increase it. Here I analyze why this idea persists, and what effects it may have. I argue that the disagreement underlying this debate on natural behavior is not one about which conditions affect (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  46. The future of the welfare state and democracy: the effects of globalization from a European perspective.Marek Kwiek - 2007 - In Ewa Czerwińska-Schupp (ed.), Values and Norms in the Age of Globalization. Peter Lang. pp. 1--30.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  47. Amoral, im/moral and dis/loyal: Children’s moral status in child welfare.Zlatana Knezevic - 2017 - Childhood 4 (24):470-484.
    This article is a discursive examination of children’s status as knowledgeable moral agents within the Swedish child welfare system and in the widely used assessment framework BBIC. Departing from Fricker’s concept of epistemic injustice, three discursive positions of children’s moral status are identified: amoral, im/moral and dis/loyal. The findings show the undoubtedly moral child as largely missing and children’s agency as diminished, deviant or rendered ambiguous. Epistemic injustice applies particularly to disadvantaged children with difficult experiences who run the risk (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  48. Equal Negative Liberty and Welfare Rights.Peter Vallentyne - 2011 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 25 (2):237-41.
    In Are Equal Liberty and Equality Compatible?, Jan Narveson and James Sterba insightfully debate whether a right to maximum equal negative liberty requires, or at least is compatible with, a right to welfare. Narveson argues that the two rights are incompatible, whereas Sterba argues that the rights are compatible and indeed that the right to maximum equal negative liberty requires a right to welfare. I argue that Sterba is correct that the two rights are conceptually compatible and that (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  49. Formalising trade-offs beyond algorithmic fairness: lessons from ethical philosophy and welfare economics.Michelle Seng Ah Lee, Luciano Floridi & Jatinder Singh - 2021 - AI and Ethics 3.
    There is growing concern that decision-making informed by machine learning (ML) algorithms may unfairly discriminate based on personal demographic attributes, such as race and gender. Scholars have responded by introducing numerous mathematical definitions of fairness to test the algorithm, many of which are in conflict with one another. However, these reductionist representations of fairness often bear little resemblance to real-life fairness considerations, which in practice are highly contextual. Moreover, fairness metrics tend to be implemented in narrow and targeted toolkits that (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  50.  77
    Utilitarianism, And The Genetic Welfare Of Future Generations: A Reply To Salvi.James Hughes - 1997 - Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 7 (2):38-39.
    The utilitarian calculators of genetic therapy would do well to reflect again on Mills' liberal democratic rules of thumb: utility will generally be maximized when people are free to make choices, with good information, good instruments of collective action (democracy), and relative equality. My rule of thumb is that if we give future generations genetic choices, they will generally choose health, happiness, intelligence, and longevity, for themselves and their descendants.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
1 — 50 / 503