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African Philosophy: Topics
  1. African Morality: With or Without God.Stephen Nkansah Morgan - 2018 - All Nations University Journal of Applied Thought 6 (1):160-173.
    Traditional African societies are noted for their religiosity and so one would naturally expect that when it comes to matters of morality they will appeal to some divinities or gods for their moral jurisdiction and interpretation of their moral codes. Yet, according to Wiredu (1992) and Gyekye (1996), this is not true of traditional African societies when it comes to finding the source of their moral codes. For the two, an appeal to religion as a source of African moral values (...)
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  2. Dukor's African Unfreedom and Moral Responsibility.John Ezenwankwor - 2013 - Open Journal of Philosophy 3 (1):213.
    It is axiomatic for most African scholars that the colonizers are responsible for the present problems facing the African continent. This is given much credence by Maduabuchi Dukor citing a barrage of issues which in summary pointed to the fact that the legacy of the colonizers to the African continent was ill willed to create chaos and therefore to make the African perpetually dependent on the colonizers. This paper accepts this fact but insists that the African as a human being (...)
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African Philosophy: Epistemology
  1. Review of "Paulin Hountondji: African Philosophy as Critical Universalism" by Franziska Dübgen and Stefan Skupien. [REVIEW]Zeyad El Nabolsy - 2020 - Marx and Philosophy Review of Books 2020:1-7.
    Franziska Dübgen and Stefan Skupien have written a much needed overview of Paulin Hountondji’s work. While Hountondji is quite well known for his critique of ethnophilosophy, his later intellectual work on scientific dependency and his political writings are not as well known to non-specialist Anglophone readers. This partially stems from the fact that while his later work on scientific dependency has been translated into English, it has been published in the form of short articles or through transcribed interviews, which makes (...)
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  2. Sophie Oluwole: een politiek filosoof.Louise Muller - 2012 - In Vrouwelijke Filosofen. Amsterdam, Nederland: pp. 441-446.
    Politiek filosofe en kritisch traditionaliste, onderzocht Afrikaanse orale literaire tradities op hun filosofische betekenis. Maakt zich sterk voor een authentieke Afrikaanse filosofie. Sophie Oluwoles ouders waren beiden afkomstig uit de staat Edo in het zuidwesten van Nigeria. Oluwole zelf werd geboren in het dorp Igbara Oke in de naburige staat Ondo, waar zij ook haar lagere en middelbare school doorliep. In 1964 trouwde zij met een eveneens Nigeriaanse wetenschapper. Ze vertrok nog in hetzelfde jaar naar Moskou, waar haar man een (...)
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  3. African Identities.Kwame Anthony Appiah - 1992 - In Bernard Boxill (ed.), Constructions Identitaires: Questionnements Theoriques Et Etudes de Cas. Actes du Celat 6 (May). Universite Laval.
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  4. Race.Kwame Anthony Appiah - 1989 - In Frank Lentricchia & Tom McLaughlin (eds.), Critical Terms for Literary Study. University of Chicago. pp. 274-87.
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  5. Engaging with the Philosophy of D A Masolo.Thaddeus Metz - 2013 - Quest 25:7-15.
    This is an introduction to the special issue of Quest devoted to D. A. Masolo’s latest book, Self and Community in a Changing World. It situates this book in relation to not only Masolo’s earlier research on African philosophy but also the field more generally, sketches the central positions of the contributions to the journal issue, and in light of them makes some critical recommendations for future reflection.
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  6. Construyendo la Verdad Yorùbá. Una Lectura Afroepistemológica Del Sistema de Ifá.Antonio de Diego González - 2012 - Humania Del Sur. Revista de Estudios Latinoamericanos, Africanos y Asiáticos 12:107-122.
    This paper proposes an Afroepistemological reading of the Ifá system. The policies of Western academic epistemology have disdained the traditiona African knowledge. Ifá has not been an exception. However, through this method a great deal of the socio-cultural and epistemological codes of Yorùbá society. So, Ifá becomes more important than a divination rite, because it represents socio-political and epistemological cohesion of a great proportion of the peoples of West Africa. This work vindicates this role and try to show epistemological complexity (...)
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African Philosophy: Ethics
  1. Personhood and a Meaningful Life in African Philosophy.Motsamai Molefe - 2020 - South African Journal of Philosophy 39 (2): 194-207.
    This article proffers a personhood-based conception of a meaningful life. I look into the ethical structure of the salient idea of personhood in African philosophy to develop an account of a meaningful life. In my view, the ethics of personhood is constituted by three components, namely (1) the fact of being human, which informs (2) a view of moral status qua the capacity for moral virtue, and (3) which specifies the final good of achieving or developing a morally virtuous character. (...)
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  2. 與非洲相比在中國的價值.Thaddeus Metz - 2018 - In Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (ed.), 汉学与当代中国座谈会文集(2017). China Social Sciences Press. pp. 612-619.
    Chinese (character) translation of part of an article that appeared in Philosophy East and West (2017).
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  3. Przyszłość wieloetnicznego państwa w Afryce. Perspektywa Ifeanyiego A. Menkitiego.Krzysztof Trzcinski - 2011 - In B. Nowak, M. Nagielski & J. Pysiak (eds.), Europejczycy, Afrykanie, Inni. Studia ofiarowane Profesorowi Michałowi Tymowskiemu. Warszawa: pp. 595-619.
    W artykule tym przedstawiam i krytycznie analizuję główne wątki rozważań nigeryjskiego filozofa Ifeanyiego A. Menkitiego o przyszłości afrykańskiego państwa. Menkiti jest w pełni świadomy historycznej, etnicznej i terytorialnej specyfiki typowego pokolonialnego państwa w Afryce. Powstało ono w XX w. jako organizm charakteryzujący się bardzo głębokimi podziałami etnokulturowymi. Przebieg jego granic został jeszcze w czasach kolonialnych arbitralnie ustanowiony przez Europejczyków. W konsekwencji ich decyzji większość afrykańskich granic dzieli dziś członków wielu ludów na nominalnych obywateli różnych państw. Z drugiej strony, w granicach (...)
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  4. What Does an African Ethic of Social Cohesion Entail for Social Distancing?Thaddeus Metz - 2020 - Developing World Bioethics 20 (2):1-10.
    The most prominent strand of moral thought in the African philosophical tradition is relational and cohesive, roughly demanding that we enter into community with each other. Familiar is the view that being a real person means sharing a way of life with others, perhaps even in their fate. What does such a communal ethic prescribe for the coronavirus pandemic? Might it forbid one from social distancing, at least away from intimates? Or would it entail that social distancing is wrong to (...)
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  5. Kilka uwag o koncepcji prezydentury rotacyjnej w państwie afrykańskim.Krzysztof Trzcinski - 2010 - Afryka 31 (32):29-44.
    Krzysztof Trzciński, ‘Some Remarks on the Idea of Rotational Presidency in an African State.’ The article has been published in “Afryka” 31-32, 2010, pp. 29-44. The main aim of this article is to explain and analyze in a critical way the concept of the rotational presidency, proposed for a multiethnic African state by a Ghanaian philosopher Kwame Gyekye. In his opinion, the presidency in an African state should be rotated between all ethnic groups. According to Gyekye, this system would allow (...)
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  6. Legitimacy and Importance of the Traditional Authority in Africa: K.A. Appiah's Approach and Its Critique.Krzysztof Trzcinski - 2010 - Africana Bulletin 58:47-74.
    In many African states, numerous different pre-colonial systems of power – such as kingships, sultanates or chieftaincies – which have a traditional legitimacy often confirmed in colonial and post-colonial times, have survived till our day. Their role in the contemporary republican state has been studied by many African intellectuals, and the views of Kwame Anthony Appiah, a thinker originating from Ghana, are of particular interest. He believes that in order to understand the significance of traditional authority and the phenomenon of (...)
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  7. Why is Globalization a Threat to Africa? A Study of the Thought of Claude Ake on African Migration to the City and Some of Its Consequences.Krzysztof Trzcinski - 2011 - In M. Czerny & J. Tapia Quevedo (eds.), Metropolitan Areas in Transition. Warsaw: pp. 311-323.
    Globalization is seen positively by those to whose societies it brings measurable benefits. Claude Ake, one of the most outstanding African thinkers of the second half of the 20th century and a great advocate for constructing democracy in Africa, primarily viewed the progress of globalization in terms of its numerous dangers. In Ake's opinion, globalization negatively affects the condition of contemporary societies, whose members place increasing importance on market values and principles. He thought that when consumer identity finally triumphs over (...)
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  8. On the Demonization and Discrimination of Akan and Yoruba Women in Ghanaian and Nigerian Video Movies.Louise Muller - 2014 - Research in African Literatures 45 (4):104-120.
    This article focuses on the religious information inside Ghanaian and Nigerian video movies regarding Akan and Yoruba women. More specifically, it focuses on the indigenous religious, Christian, and Islamic messages inside these movies in relation to women. The article demonstrates that Akan and Yoruba filmmakers, who dominate the Ghanaian and Nigerian video movie industries, are part of networks of religious institutions, predominantly Pentecostal-Charismatic Christian and modest Islamic ones. These organizations sponsor filmmakers to spread religious messages that promote hierarchical gender relations (...)
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  9. Ubuntu and Development: An African Conception of Development.Motsamai Molefe - 2019 - Africa Today 66:97 - 115.
    This article articulates an African conception of development. I call such an account African insofar as it is based on the moral worldview of ubuntu, which is salient largely among the Bantu peoples. To articulate a conception of development, I rely on the paradigm of development ethics, which construes development as an ethical or philosophical enterprise constituted by three questions: what is a good life? what is a just society? and what duties do we owe to the environment? Answers to (...)
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  10. Pursuing Knowledge for Its Own Sake Amidst a World of Poverty: Reconsidering Balogun on Philosophy’s Relevance.Thaddeus Metz - 2019 - Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and Religions 8 (2):1-18.
    In this article I critically discuss Professor Oladele Abiodun Balogun’s reflections on the proper final ends of doing philosophy and related sorts of abstract, speculative, or theoretical inquiry. Professor Balogun appears to argue that one should undertake philosophical studies only insofar as they are likely to make a practical difference to people’s lives, particularly by contributing to politico-economic development, or, in other words, that one should eschew seeking knowledge for its own sake. However, there is one line of thought from (...)
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  11. On Dishonesty and Racism in Philosophy - Some Notes on Van den Berg’s Critique of ‘Philosophy From Africa’.Pieter Coetzee - manuscript
    I examine Dr. van den Berg’s review article of ‘’Philosophy from Africa –a text with readings’’, with a view to setting aside the false allegation concerning the racist intentions of the editors.
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  12. Consciencism, Ubuntu, and Justice.Martin Ajei & Richmond Kwesi - 2018 - Nigerian Journal of Philosophy 26:61-90.
    Mkhwanazi (2017) has argued that Consciencism is an “expression of ubuntu” and that it “represents the essential elements of ubuntu”. Both Consciencism and ubuntu, according to him, are engaged with the re-humanization of African society for they both advocate for the restitution of humanist and egalitarian principles found in traditional African societies. In this paper, we argue that while Consciencism and ubuntu share common principles, the one cannot be understood as an expression or representation of the other. Rather, the principles (...)
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  13. An African Theory of Good Leadership.Thaddeus Metz - 2018 - African Journal of Business Ethics 12 (2):36-53.
    This article draws on the indigenous African tradition of philosophy to ground a moral-philosophical theory of leadership that is intended to rival accounts in the East Asian and Western traditions. After providing an interpretation of the characteristically sub-Saharan value of communion, the article advances a philosophical account of a good leader as one who creates, sustains, and enriches communal relationships and enables others to do so. The article then applies this account to a variety of topics, including what the proper (...)
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  14. African Communitarianism and Difference.Thaddeus Metz - 2020 - In Elvis Imafidon (ed.), Handbook of the African Philosophy of Difference. Springer. pp. 31-51.
    There has been the recurrent suspicion that community, harmony, cohesion, and similar relational goods as understood in the African ethical tradition threaten to occlude difference. Often, it has been Western defenders of liberty who have raised the concern that these characteristically sub-Saharan values fail to account adequately for individuality, although some contemporary African thinkers have expressed the same concern. In this chapter, I provide a certain understanding of the sub-Saharan value of communal relationship and demonstrate that it entails a substantial (...)
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  15. Humility and the African Ethic of Ubuntu.Thaddeus Metz - 2020 - In Mark Alfano, Michael Lynch & Alessandra Tanesini (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of the Philosophy of Humility. Routledge. pp. 257-267.
    This chapter explores prominent respects in which humility figures into ubuntu, the southern African (and specifically Nguni) term for humanness often used to capture moral philosophies and cultures indigenous to the sub-Saharan region. The chapter considers respects in which humility is prescribed by ubuntu, understood not just as a relational normative ethic, but also as a moral epistemology. Focusing specifically on philosophical ideas published in academic fora over the past 50 years or so, the chapter contends that, although the concept (...)
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  16. Relational Ethics and Partiality: A Critique of Thad Metz’s ‘Towards an African Moral Theory’.Motsamai Molefe - 2017 - Theoria: A Journal of Social and Political Theory 64 (152):53-76.
    In this article, I question the plausibility of Metz’s African moral theory from an oft-neglected moral topic of partiality. Metz defends an Afro-communitarian moral theory that posits that the rightness of actions is entirely definable by relationships of identity and solidarity (or, friendship). I offer two objections to this relational moral theory. First, I argue that justifying partiality strictly by invoking relationships (of friendship) ultimately fails to properly value the individual for her own sake – this is called the ‘focus (...)
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  17. Ubuntu, Christianity and Two Kinds of Reconciliation.Thaddeus Metz - 2018 - In Mohammed Girma (ed.), The Healing of Memories: African Christian Responses to Politically Induced Trauma. Rowman and Littlefield Publishers. pp. 137-157.
    I consider the implications of two globally influential love-centred value systems for how to respond to painful memories that are a consequence of large-scale social conflict. More specifically, I articulate a moral-philosophical interpretation of the sub-Saharan worldview of ubuntu, and consider what it entails for responding to such trauma. According to this ethic, one should strive to become a real person, which one can do insofar as one honours those capable of communal (or broadly loving) relationships, ones of identity and (...)
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  18. Confucianism and African Conceptions of Value, Reality and Knowledge (儒家思想与非洲的价值观、现实 观与知识观).Thaddeus Metz - 2016 - International Social Science Journal (Chinese Edition 国际社会科学杂志) 33 (4):159-170.
    This article, translated into Chinese by Tian Kaifang, summarizes and critically reflects on the current state of the literature that has recently begun to put Chinese Confucianism into dialogue with characteristically African conceptions of what is good, what fundamentally exists, and how to obtain knowledge. As most of this literature has addressed value theory, this article focuses largely on it, too. It first illustrates how similar the foundational values are between the two cultural traditions; central to both traditional China and (...)
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  19. Climate Change in Africa and the Middle East in Light of Health, Ubuntu and Islam (Repr.).Thaddeus Metz - 2016 - South African Journal of Bioethics and Law 9 (2):88-92.
    Reprint of a chapter initially published in _Bioethical Insights into Values and Policy: Climate Change and Health_ (2016).
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  20. Ancillary Care Obligations in Light of an African Bioethic: From Entrustment to Communion.Thaddeus Metz - 2017 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 38 (2):111–126.
    Henry Richardson has recently published the first book ever devoted to ancillary care obligations, which roughly concern what medical researchers are morally required to provide to participants beyond what safety requires. In it Richardson notes that he has presented the ‘only fully elaborated view out there’ on this topic, which he calls the ‘partial-entrustment model’. In this article, I provide a new theory of ancillary care obligations, one that is grounded on ideals of communion salient in the African philosophical tradition (...)
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  21. Auf Dem Weg Zu Einer Afrikanischen Moraltheorie.Thaddeus Metz - 2015 - In Franziska Dübgen & Stefan Skupien (eds.), Afrikanische politische Philosophie - Postkoloniale Positionen. Suhrkamp. pp. 295-329.
    German translation by Andreas Rauhut of a mildly revised version of 'Toward an African Moral Theory' (Journal of Political Philosophy 2007).
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  22. Just the Beginning for Ubuntu: Reply to Matolino and Kwindingwi.Thaddeus Metz - 2014 - South African Journal of Philosophy 33 (1):65-72.
    In an article titled ‘The end of ubuntu’ recently published in this journal, Bernard Matolino and Wenceslaus Kwindingwi argue that contemporary conditions in (South) Africa are such that there is no justification for appealing to an ethic associated with talk of ‘ubuntu’. They argue that political elites who invoke ubuntu do so in ways that serve nefarious functions, such as unreasonably narrowing discourse about how best to live, while the moral ideals of ubuntu are appropriate only for a bygone, pre-modern (...)
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  23. Ubuntu as the African Ethical Vision.Augustine Shutte - 2009 - In Munyaradzi Felix Murove (ed.), African Ethics: An Anthology for Comparative and Applied Ethics. University of Kwazulu-Natal Press. pp. 85--99.
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  24. Engaging with the Philosophy of D A Masolo.Thaddeus Metz - 2013 - Quest 25:7-15.
    This is an introduction to the special issue of Quest devoted to D. A. Masolo’s latest book, Self and Community in a Changing World. It situates this book in relation to not only Masolo’s earlier research on African philosophy but also the field more generally, sketches the central positions of the contributions to the journal issue, and in light of them makes some critical recommendations for future reflection.
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  25. Two Conceptions of African Ethics.Thaddeus Metz - 2013 - Quest 25:141-61.
    I focus on D A Masolo’s discussion of morality as characteristically understood by African philosophers. My goals are both historical and substantive, meaning that I use reflection on Masolo’s book as an occasion to shed light not only on the nature of recent debates about African ethics, but also on African ethics itself. With regard to history, I argue that Masolo’s discussion of sub-Saharan morality suggests at least two major ways that the field has construed it, depending on which value (...)
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  26. Managerialism as Anti-Social: Some Implications of Ubuntu for Knowledge Production.Thaddeus Metz - 2017 - In Michael Cross & Amasa Ndofirepi (eds.), Knowledge and Change in African Universities, Volume 2. Sense Publishers. pp. 139-154.
    Given the myriad ways in which managerialism in higher education, and especially research undertaken there, is undesirable, is there a moral theory that plausibly explains why they all are and prescribes some realistic alternatives? In this contribution, I answer ‘yes’ to this overarching question. Specifically, I argue that the various respects in which managerialism is unjustified, particularly with regard to knowledge production, are well captured by an ethical philosophy grounded on salient ideas about communal relationship associated with the southern African (...)
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  27. Ethics in Aristotle and in Africa: Some Points of Contrast.Thaddeus Metz - 2012 - Phronimon 13 (2):99-117.
    In this article I compare and, especially, contrast Aristotle’s conception of virtue with one typical of sub-Saharan philosophers. I point out that the latter is strictly other-regarding, and specifically communitarian, and contend that the former, while including such elements, also includes some self-regarding or individualist virtues, such as temperance and knowledge. I also argue that Aristotle’s conception of human excellence is more attractive than the sub-Saharan view as a complete account of how to live, but that the African conception is (...)
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  28. Ubuntu as a Moral Theory and Human Rights in South Africa.Thaddeus Metz - 2011 - African Human Rights Law Journal 11 (2):532-559.
    There are three major reasons that ideas associated with ubuntu are often deemed to be an inappropriate basis for a public morality. One is that they are too vague, a second is that they fail to acknowledge the value of individual freedom, and a third is that they a fit traditional, small-scale culture more than a modern, industrial society. In this article, I provide a philosophical interpretation of ubuntu that is not vulnerable to these three objections. Specifically, I construct a (...)
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  29. An African Theory of Dignity and a Relational Conception of Poverty.Thaddeus Metz - 2011 - In John de Gruchy (ed.), The Humanist Imperative in South Africa. African Sun Media. pp. 233-242.
    I have two major aims in this chapter, which is philosophical in nature. One is to draw upon values that are salient in the southern African region in order to construct a novel and attractive conception of human dignity. Specifically, I articulate the idea that human beings have a dignity in virtue of their communal nature, or their capacity for what I call ‘identity’ and ‘solidarity’, which contrasts the most influential conception in the West, according to which our dignity inheres (...)
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  30. The Reach of Amnesty for Political Crimes: Which Extra-Legal Burdens on the Guilty Does National Reconciliation Permit?Thaddeus Metz - 2011 - Constitutional Court Review 3:243-270.
    Suppose that it can be right to grant amnesty from criminal and civil liability to those guilty of political crimes in exchange for full disclosure about them. There remains this important question to ask about the proper form that amnesty should take: Which additional burdens, if any, should the state lift from wrongdoers in the wake of according them freedom from judicial liability? I answer this question in the context of a recent South African Constitutional Court case that considered whether (...)
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  31. The South African Constitution Requires Men to Be Feminist.H. P. P. Lotter - 2000 - Koers 65 (4).
    Can a man be a feminist? If so, what would it mean? I want to participate in a dialogue between women and men on how to accommodate women’s moral concerns. I propose that the fundamental values of justice embodied in the South African constitutional democracy require men to be feminist. These values provide the best safeguard of the important interests and values of both women and men. Men who accept these values can support the main concerns of feminism. The implications (...)
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  32. Ubuntu as a Moral Theory: Reply to Four Critics.Thaddeus Metz - 2007 - South African Journal of Philosophy 26 (4):369-87.
    In this article, I respond to questions about, and criticisms of, my article “Towardan African Moral Theory” that have been put forth by Allen Wood, Mogobe Ramose, Douglas Farland and Jason van Niekerk. The major topicsI address include: what bearing the objectivity of moral value should have on cross-cultural moral differences between Africans and Westerners; whether a harmonious relationship is a good candidate for having final moral value; whether consequentialism exhausts the proper way to respond to the value of a (...)
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  33. The Motivation for “Toward an African Moral Theory”.Thaddeus Metz - 2007 - South African Journal of Philosophy 26 (26):331-335.
    Here I introduce the symposium issue of the South African Journal of Philosophy that is devoted to critically analysing my article “Toward an AfricanMoral Theory.” In that article, I use the techniques of analytic moral philosophy to articulate and defend a moral theory that both is grounded on the values of peoples living in sub-Saharan Africa and differs from what is influential in contemporary Western ethics. Here, I not only present a précis of the article, but also provide a sketch (...)
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African Philosophy: Logic
  1. The Logic of Consciencism.Richmond Kwesi - 2017 - In Martin Ajei (ed.), Disentangling Consciencism: Essays on Kwame Nkrumah's Philosophy. pp. 185-198.
    According to Kwame Nkrumah, the conscience of the African society is plagued with three strands of influences which have competing and conflicting ideologies: “African society has one segment which comprises our traditional way of life; it has a second segment which is filled by the presence of the Islamic tradition in Africa; it has a final segment which represents the infiltration of the Christian tradition and culture of Western Europe into Africa, using colonialism and neocolonialism as its primary vehicles.” When (...)
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  2. Questions of Race in J. S. Mill’s Contributions to Logic.Joshua M. Hall - 2014 - Philosophia Africana 16 (2):73-93.
    This article is part of a larger project in which I attempt to show that Western formal logic, from its inception in Aristotle onward, has both been partially constituted by, and partially constitutive of, what has become known as racism. In contrast to this trend, the present article concerns the major philosopher whose contribution to logic has been perhaps the most derided and marginalized, and yet whose character and politics are, from a contemporary perspective, drastically superior—John Stuart Mill. My approach (...)
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African Philosophy: Metaphysics
  1. Review of "Paulin Hountondji: African Philosophy as Critical Universalism" by Franziska Dübgen and Stefan Skupien. [REVIEW]Zeyad El Nabolsy - 2020 - Marx and Philosophy Review of Books 2020:1-7.
    Franziska Dübgen and Stefan Skupien have written a much needed overview of Paulin Hountondji’s work. While Hountondji is quite well known for his critique of ethnophilosophy, his later intellectual work on scientific dependency and his political writings are not as well known to non-specialist Anglophone readers. This partially stems from the fact that while his later work on scientific dependency has been translated into English, it has been published in the form of short articles or through transcribed interviews, which makes (...)
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  2. Sophie Oluwole: een politiek filosoof.Louise Muller - 2012 - In Vrouwelijke Filosofen. Amsterdam, Nederland: pp. 441-446.
    Politiek filosofe en kritisch traditionaliste, onderzocht Afrikaanse orale literaire tradities op hun filosofische betekenis. Maakt zich sterk voor een authentieke Afrikaanse filosofie. Sophie Oluwoles ouders waren beiden afkomstig uit de staat Edo in het zuidwesten van Nigeria. Oluwole zelf werd geboren in het dorp Igbara Oke in de naburige staat Ondo, waar zij ook haar lagere en middelbare school doorliep. In 1964 trouwde zij met een eveneens Nigeriaanse wetenschapper. Ze vertrok nog in hetzelfde jaar naar Moskou, waar haar man een (...)
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  3. Review of "Rebirth and the Stream of Life" by Mikel Burley. [REVIEW]Lloyd Strickland - 2018 - Numen 65:617-619.
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  4. What Is the Essence of an Essence? Comparing Afro-Relational and Western-Individualist Ontologies.Thaddeus Metz - 2018 - Synthesis Philosophica 65 (1):209-224.
    The dominant view amongst contemporary Western philosophers about the essence of a natu­ ral object is that it is constituted by its intrinsic properties. The ontological approach salient in the African philosophical tradition, in contrast, accounts for a thing’s essence by appeal to its relational properties. The Afro­relational ontology is under­developed, with the primary aim of this article being to help rectify that weakness. Specifically, this article’s aims are: to articulate an African approach to understanding the essence of a concrete, (...)
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  5. THE WORD IN AFRICAN ONTOLOGY.Ebo Socrates - 2014 - Nnamdi Azikiwe Journal of Philosophy 12 (1):1-9.
    THE WORD IN AFRICAN ONTOLOGY Socrates Ebo, PhD ABSTRACT The word in African ontology is more than mere expression of sounds. It is a being which is intra-mental and extra-mental. It is a creation of human mind and the human lips. But it is also an independent entity with enormous causal powers in the African universe of forces. It is an art as well as a means of communication. It is the embodiment of the history of the African community. Embedded (...)
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African Philosophy: Methodology
  1. Review of "Paulin Hountondji: African Philosophy as Critical Universalism" by Franziska Dübgen and Stefan Skupien. [REVIEW]Zeyad El Nabolsy - 2020 - Marx and Philosophy Review of Books 2020:1-7.
    Franziska Dübgen and Stefan Skupien have written a much needed overview of Paulin Hountondji’s work. While Hountondji is quite well known for his critique of ethnophilosophy, his later intellectual work on scientific dependency and his political writings are not as well known to non-specialist Anglophone readers. This partially stems from the fact that while his later work on scientific dependency has been translated into English, it has been published in the form of short articles or through transcribed interviews, which makes (...)
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  2. Ways in Which Oral Philosophy is Superior to Written Philosophy: A Look at Odera Oruka’s Rural Sages.Gail Presbey - 1996 - APA Newsletter on Philosophy and the Black Experience 1996 (Fall):6-10.
    The paper is about H. Odera Oruka's Sage Philosophy project. Oruka interviewed rural sages of Kenya, saying that like Socrates, these wise elders had been philosophizing without writing anything down. Paulin Hountondji (at the time) criticized efforts of oral philosophizing, saying that Africa needed a written tradition of philosophizing. Some philosophers were representatives of an "individualist" position which says that philosophical ideas must be attributed to specific named individuals. Kwame Gyekye instead argued that anonymous community wisdom of Africans had indeed (...)
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