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  1. A Pluralist Account of Spiritual Exemplarity.Ian James Kidd - forthcoming - In Tyler McNabb & Victoria S. Harrison (eds.), Philosophy and the Spiritual Life. Routledge.
    This Chapter sketches a pluralist account of spiritual exemplarity. Starting from recent work by Linda Zagzebski, three main kinds of spiritual exemplarity are described, distinguished by their underlying aspiration. I name these the aspirations to allegiance, enlightened insight, and emulation, illustrated with examples from the Western and South and East Asian spiritual dispensations. The Chapter concludes by warning against tendencies either to occlude this plurality or to illicitly privilege one of these aspirations by nominating it alone as the 'authentic' form (...)
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  2. Happiness for a Fish: Zhuāngzǐ and Huizi at the Hao River.Ian James Kidd - forthcoming - In Helen De Cruz (ed.), Philosophy Illustrated: Forty-two Thought Experiments to Broaden your Mind. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    I discuss the famous 'happiness for a fish' exchange between Zhuāngzǐ and Huizi.
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  3. On Becoming a Rooster: Zhuangzian Conventionalism and the Survival of Death.Michael Longenecker - forthcoming - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy.
    The Zhuangzi 莊子depicts persons as surviving their deaths through the natural transformations of the world into very different forms—such as roosters, cart-wheels, rat livers, etc. It's common to interpret these passages metaphorically. But in this paper, I suggest employing a “Conventionalist” view of persons that says whether a person survives some event is not merely determined by the world, but is partly determined by our own attitudes. On this reading, Zhuangzi's many teachings urging us to embrace transformation are not merely (...)
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  4. Skill and Expertise in Three Schools of Classical Chinese Thought.Hagop Sarkissian - forthcoming - In Ellen Fridland & Carlotta Pavese (eds.), Routledge Handbook of Skill and Expertise. Routledge.
    The classical Chinese philosophical tradition (ca. 6th to 3rd centuries BCE) contains rich discussion of skill and expertise. Various texts exalt skilled exemplars (whether historical persons or fictional figures) who guide and inspire those seeking virtuosity within a particular dao (guiding teaching or way of life). These texts share a preoccupation with flourishing, or uncovering and articulating the constituents of an exemplary life. Some core features thought requisite to leading such a life included spontaneity, naturalness, and effortless ease. However, there (...)
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  5. Daoism, Humanity, and the Way of Heaven.Ian James Kidd - 2020 - Religious Studies 56:111-126.
    I argue that Zhuangist Daoism manifests what I label the spiritual aspiration to emulation, and then use this to challenge some of John Cottingham's attempts to confine authentic spiritual experience to theistic traditions.
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  6. ‘Following the Way of Heaven’: Exemplarism, Emulation, and Daoism.Ian James Kidd - 2020 - Journal of the American Philosophical Association 6 (1):1-15.
    Many ancient traditions recognise certain people as exemplars of virtue. I argue that some of these traditions incorporate a 'cosmic' mode of emulation, where certain of the qualities or aspects of the grounds or source of the world manifest, in human form, as virtues. If so, the ultimate objection of emulation is not a human being. I illustrate this with the forms of Daoist exemplarity found in the Book of Zhuangzi, and end by considering the charge that the aspiration to (...)
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  7. Goblet Words and Moral Knack: Non-Cognitivist Moral Realism in the Zhuangzi?Christopher Kirby - 2019 - In Colin Marshall (ed.), Comparative Metaethics: Neglected Perspectives on the Foundations of Morality. New York: Routledge. pp. 159-178.
    This chapter focuses on Daoist praxeology and language in order to build something of a moral realist position (the contours of which may differ from most western versions insofar as it need not commit to moral cognitivism) that hinges on the seemingly paradoxical notions of ineffable moral truths and non-transferable moral skill.
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  8. The Cicada Catcher: Learning for Life.Karyn L. Lai - 2019 - In Karyn L. Lai & Wai-wai Chiu (eds.), Skill and Mastery Philosophical Stories from the Zhuangzi. UK: Rowman and Littlefield International. pp. 143 - 162.
    The cicada catcher focuses as much on technique as he does on outcomes. In response to Confucius’ question, he articulates in detail the learning he has undertaken to develop techniques at each level of competence. This chapter explains the connection between the cicada catcher’s development of technique and his orientation toward outcomes. It uses details in this story to contribute to recent discussions in epistemology on the cultivation of technique.
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  9. Chai, David, Zhuangzi and the Becoming of Nothingness: Albany: State University of New York Press, 2019, 216 Pages.Eric Nelson - 2019 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 18 (2):291-294.
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  10. Study on Logic Reasoning and Ideological Characteristic of “Equivalence of Life and Death” of Chuang-Tzu. Di Wu - 2017 - Theory Horizon 526 (6):46-51.
    The Concept of Life and Death of Chuang-tzu have inherited and developed Confucianism and Taoism thoughts, establishing Ontological foundation of "Life - Body", distinguishing the transcendental concept of "Dead Heart" and the empirical concept of "Death Body", as well as proposing the thought of "Equivalence of Life and Death" finally. The logic Reasoning of Chuang-tzu "Equivalence of Life and Death", start from constructing the equal status of "Life" and “Death" from ontological argument. Life and Death then are reduced to be (...)
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  11. Naturalism and Moral Expertise in the Zhuangzi.Christopher Kirby - 2017 - Journal of East-West Thought 7 (3):13-27.
    This essay will examine scholarly attempts at distilling a proto-ethical philosophy from the Daoist classic known as the Zhuangzi. In opposition to interpretations of the text which characterize it as amoralistic, I will identify elements of a natural normativity in the Zhuangzi. My examination features passages from the Zhuangzi – commonly known as the “knack” passages – which are often interpreted through some sort of linguistic, skeptical, or relativistic lens. Contra such readings, I believe the Zhuangzi prescribes an art of (...)
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  12. Zhuangzi's Suggestiveness: Skeptical Questions.Karyn L. Lai - 2017 - In Stephen Hetherington (ed.), What Makes a Philosopher Great? London and NY: Routledge. pp. 30-47.
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  13. The Live Creature and The Crooked Tree: Thinking Nature in Dewey and Zhuangzi.Christopher C. Kirby - 2016 - Philosophica 47:61-76.
    This paper will compare the concept of nature as it appears in the philosophies of the American pragmatist John Dewey and the Chinese text known as the Zhuangzi, with an aim towards mapping out a heuristic program which might be used to correct various interpretive difficulties in reading each figure. I shall argue that Dewey and Zhuangzi both held more complex and comprehensive philosophies of nature than for which either is typically credited. Such a view of nature turns on the (...)
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  14. Of Fish, Butterflies and Birds: Relativism and Nonrelative Valuation in the Zhuangzi.Robert Elliott Allinson - 2015 - Asian Philosophy 25 (3):238-252.
    I argue that the main theme of the Zhuangzi is that of spiritual transformation. If there is no such theme in the Zhuangzi, it becomes an obscure text with relativistic viewpoints contradicting statements and stories designed to lead the reader to a state of spiritual transformation. I propose to reveal the coherence of the deep structure of the text by clearly dividing relativistic statements designed to break down fixed viewpoints from statements, anecdotes, paradoxes and metaphors designed to lead the reader (...)
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  15. Ecstatic Language of Early Daoism: A Sufi Point of View.Esmaeil Radpour - 2015 - Transcendent Philosophy Journal 16:213-230.
    Various esoteric traditions apply different modes of expression for the same metaphysical truths. We may name the two most known esoteric languages as ecstatic and scholastic. Early Daoist use of reverse symbolism as for metaphysical truths and its critical way of viewing formalist understanding of traditional teachings, common virtues and popular beliefs show that it applies an ecstatic language, which, being called shaṭḥ in Sufi terminology, has a detailed literature and technical description in Sufism. This article tries, after a short (...)
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  16. Dialogue and Epistemological Humility.Karyn Lai - 2014 - In Jesper Garsdal & Johanna Seibt (eds.), How is Global Dialogue Possible?: Foundational Reseach on Value Conflicts and Perspectives for Global Policy. Berlin: De Gruyter. pp. 69-84.
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  17. The Dao Against the Tyrant: The Limitation of Power in the Political Thought of Ancient China.Daniel Rodríguez Carreiro - 2013 - Libertarian Papers 5:111-152.
    In Chinese history the periods known as Spring and Autumn (770-476 BC) and the Warring States (475-221 BC) were times of conflict and political instability caused by the increasing power of centralized and competing states. During this time of crisis many schools of thought appeared to offer different philosophical doctrines. This paper describes and studies ideas about the limitation of power defended by these different schools of ancient Chinese thought, and suggests some reasons why they failed to prevent the emergence (...)
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  18. Environmental Concern: Can Humans Avoid Being Partial? Epistemological Awareness in the Zhuangzi.Karyn L. Lai - 2013 - In Carmen Meinert (ed.), Nature, Environment and Culture in East Asia: The Challenge of Climate Change. Brill. pp. 69-82.
    Discussions of human partiality—anthropocentrism—in the literature in environmental ethics have sought to locate reasons for unnecessary and thoughtless degradation of the earth’s environment. Many of the debates have focused on metaethical issues, attempting to set out the values appropriate for an environmental ethic not constrained within an anthropocentric framework. In this essay, I propose that the fundamental problem with anthropocentrism arises when it is assumed that that is the only meaningful evaluative perspective. I draw on ideas in the Zhuangzi, a (...)
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  19. “庄子‘道通为一’新探” (A New Interpretation of Zhuangzi’s “Dao as One”).Chenyang Li - 2013 - 哲学研究 2:54-58.
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  20. Snakes and Dragons, Rat’s Liver and Fly’s Leg: The Butterfly Dream Revisited.Robert E. Allinson - 2012 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 11 (4):513-520.
    The Zhuangzi begins with Peng, a soaring bird transformed from a bounded fish, which is the first metaphor that points beyond limited standpoints to a higher point of view. The transformation is one-way and symbolizes that there is a higher viewpoint to attain which affords mental freedom and the clarity and scope of great vision. Under the alternate thesis of constant transformation, values and understandings must ceaselessly transform and collapse. All cyclical transformations must collapse into skeptical relativism and confusion. But (...)
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  21. Inference in the Mengzi 1a: 7.Koji Tanaka - 2011 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 38 (3):444-454.
    In 1A:7 of the Mengzi, Mengzi tries to convince King Xuan of Qi that he is a “true” king. As a reading of Mengzi’s reasoning involved in his attempt at persuasion, David Nivison advances an inferential view, according to which Mengzi’s persuasion involves inferences. In this paper, I consider the assumptions underlying the objections raised against Nivison’s inferential view. I argue that these objections assume a contemporary Western view about the nature of logic and inferences. I propose an alternative characterisation (...)
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  22. A Different Type of Individualism in Zhuangzi.Keqian Xu - 2011 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 10 (4):445-462.
    Although being widely considered as only a Western tradition, individualism is not absent in traditional Chinese philosophy and culture. In some of the classic Chinese philosophic works such as Zhuangzi, we can clearly identify some elements which can be appropriately attributed to “individualism”, such as the awareness of individual “self” as an independent and unique existence, advocating individual freedom and liberty, emphasizing on the value and dignity of individual life, favoring individuals’ autonomy and privacy, pursuing unconstrained development in personality and (...)
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  23. The Darker Side of Daoist Primitivism.Hagop Sarkissian - 2010 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 37 (2):312-329.
    The Primitivist (responsible for chapters 8-11 of the heterogeneous Zhuangzi) has largely been interpreted as just another exponent of the philosophy of the Laozi or Daodejing. This is a shame, because the Primitivist is an idiosyncratic thinker whose theories do not simply reiterate those found in the Laozi. In this essay, I argue that even though the Primitivist embraced some of the values of the Laozi’s brand of Daoism, (e.g. simplicity, harmony with nature, being rid of knowledge, etc.) he would (...)
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  24. On Chuang Tzu as a Deconstructionist with a Difference.Robert E. Allinson - 2003 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 30 (3-4):487-500.
    The common understanding of Chuang-Tzu as one of the earliest deconstructionists is only half true. This article sets out to challenge conventional characterizations of Chuang-Tzu by adding the important caveat that not only is he a philosophical deconstructionist but that his writings also reveal a non-relativistic, transcendental basis to understanding. The road to such understanding, as argued by this author, can be found in Chuang-Tzu’s emphasis on the illusory or dream-like nature of the self and, by extension, the subject-object dichotomy (...)
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  25. 论作为道路与方法的庄子之“道”.Keqian Xu - 2000 - 中国哲学史(The History of Chinese Philosophy) 2000 (4):66-72.
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  26. “存在”、“此在”与“是非”——兼论庄子、海德格尔对人的存在问题观点之异同(“Sein”, “Dasein” and “Shi Fei”: Zhuang Zi and Heidgger’s Opinions on the Issue of Human Existence).Keqian Xu - 1999 - 南京师大学报(Journal of Nanjing Normal University) 1999 (6):25-30.
    The thorny problem, which we are confronted with in translating the term of “Sein”(Being) from western Philosophy into Chinese, highlights the ambiguity, paradoxy and vagueness of the issue of Sein from a specific viewpoint. Although there is no exact equivalent in Chinese for the word of “Sein”, we use several different words to express the meanings consisted in the issue of “Sein”. By comparison we may find that what is discussed by Zhuang Zi using the terms of “Shi” and “Fei” (...)
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  27. On the Question of Relativism in the Chuang-Tzu.Robert E. Allinson - 1989 - Philosophy East and West 39 (1):13-26.
    This article offers a meta-analysis of contemporary approaches aimed at resolving the internal, relativistic-non-relativistic tension within the text of the Chuang-Tzu. In the first section, the four most commonly applied approaches are unpacked and evaluated, ranging from relativistic approaches such as hard relativism and soft relativism, to approaches that acknowledge both relativism and non-relativism, as well as others which acknowledge neither of the two perspectives (relativism and non-relativism). After demonstrating the immanent difficulties these four types of approaches encounter, the latter (...)
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