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  1. Promoting Fairness in Sport Through Performance-Enhancing Substances: An Argument for Why Sport Referees Ought to ‘Be on Drugs’.Thomas Søbirk Petersen & Francisco Javier Lopez Frias - forthcoming - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy:1-9.
    The debate on the use of performance-enhancing substances or methods to improve refereeing is underdeveloped in the sport philosophical literature. This contrast with the attention scholars have de...
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  • The Epistemology of Cognitive Enhancement.J. Adam Carter & Duncan Pritchard - 2016 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy (2):220-242.
    A common epistemological assumption in contemporary bioethics held b y both proponents and critics of non-traditional forms of cognitive enhancement is that cognitive enhancement aims at the facilitation of the accumulation of human knowledge. This paper does three central things. First, drawing from recent work in epistemology, a rival account of cognitive enhancement, framed in terms of the notion of cognitive achievement rather than knowledge, is proposed. Second, we outline and respond to an axiological objection to our proposal that draws (...)
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  • Why is Cognitive Enhancement Deemed Unacceptable? The Role of Fairness, Deservingness, and Hollow Achievements.Nadira S. Faber, Julian Savulescu & Thomas Douglas - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
    We ask why pharmacological cognitive enhancement (PCE) is generally deemed morally unacceptable by lay people. Our approach to this question has two core elements. First, we employ an interdisciplinary perspective, using philosophical rationales as base for generating psychological models. Second, by testing these models we investigate how different normative judgments on PCE are related to each other. Based on an analysis of the relevant philosophical literature, we derive two psychological models that can potentially explain the judgment that PCE is unacceptable: (...)
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  • Cognitive Biases Can Affect Moral Intuitions About Cognitive Enhancement.Lucius Caviola, Adriano Mannino, Julian Savulescu & Nadira Faber - unknown
    Research into cognitive biases that impair human judgment has mostly been applied to the area of economic decision-making. Ethical decision-making has been comparatively neglected. Since ethical decisions often involve very high individual as well as collective stakes, analyzing how cognitive biases affect them can be expected to yield important results. In this theoretical article, we consider the ethical debate about cognitive enhancement and suggest a number of cognitive biases that are likely to affect moral intuitions and judgments about CE: status (...)
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  • Bottom Up Ethics - Neuroenhancement in Education and Employment.Imre Bard, George Gaskell, Agnes Allansdottir, Rui Vieira da Cunha, Peter Eduard, Juergen Hampel, Elisabeth Hildt, Christian Hofmaier, Nicole Kronberger, Sheena Laursen, Anna Meijknecht, Salvör Nordal, Alexandre Quintanilha, Gema Revuelta, Núria Saladié, Judit Sándor, Júlio Borlido Santos, Simone Seyringer, Ilina Singh, Han Somsen, Winnie Toonders, Helge Torgersen, Vincent Torre, Márton Varju & Hub Zwart - 2018 - Neuroethics 11 (3):309-322.
    Neuroenhancement involves the use of neurotechnologies to improve cognitive, affective or behavioural functioning, where these are not judged to be clinically impaired. Questions about enhancement have become one of the key topics of neuroethics over the past decade. The current study draws on in-depth public engagement activities in ten European countries giving a bottom-up perspective on the ethics and desirability of enhancement. This informed the design of an online contrastive vignette experiment that was administered to representative samples of 1000 respondents (...)
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  • Noninvasive Brain Stimulation and Personal Identity: Ethical Considerations.Jonathan Iwry, David B. Yaden & Andrew B. Newberg - 2017 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 11.
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  • Playing with the “Playing God”.Hossein Dabbagh & E. Andreeva - 2017 - In V. Menuz, J. Roduit, D. Roiz, A. Erler & N. Stepanovan (eds.), Future-Human. Life. Geneva, Switzerland: neohumanitas. org. pp. 72-78.
    Some philosophers and theologians have argued against the idea of Human Enhancement, saying that human beings should not play God. A closer look, however, might reveal that the question of who is playing Whom is far from being so clear-cut. This chapter will address the idea of human enhancement from the standpoint of theistic theology, arguing that human enhancement and theistic theology may not be so very incompatible, after all.
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  • Cognitive Enhancement Vs. Plagiarism: A Quantitative Study on the Attitudes of an Italian Sample.Lorenzo Palamenghi & Claudia Bonfiglioli - 2019 - Neuroethics 12 (3):279-292.
    Irrespective of the presence of formal norms, behaviours such as plagiarism, data fabrication and falsification are commonly regarded as unethical and unfair. Almost unanimously, they are considered forms of academic misconduct. Is this the case also for newer behaviours that technology is making possible and are now entering the academic scenario?In the current paper we focus on cognitive enhancement, the use of drugs to enhance cognitive skills of an otherwise healthy individual. At present, there are no formal rules forbidding its (...)
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  • Reasons for Comfort and Discomfort with Pharmacological Enhancement of Cognitive, Affective, and Social Domains.Laura Y. Cabrera, Nicholas S. Fitz & Peter B. Reiner - 2015 - Neuroethics 8 (2):93-106.
    The debate over the propriety of cognitive enhancement evokes both enthusiasm and worry. To gain further insight into the reasons that people may have for endorsing or eschewing pharmacological enhancement, we used empirical tools to explore public attitudes towards PE of twelve cognitive, affective, and social domains. Participants from Canada and the United States were recruited using Mechanical Turk and were randomly assigned to read one vignette that described an individual who uses a pill to enhance a single domain. After (...)
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  • Empirical Support for the Moral Salience of the Therapy-Enhancement Distinction in the Debate Over Cognitive, Affective and Social Enhancement.Laura Y. Cabrera, Nicholas S. Fitz & Peter B. Reiner - 2015 - Neuroethics 8 (3):243-256.
    The ambiguity regarding whether a given intervention is perceived as enhancement or as therapy might contribute to the angst that the public expresses with respect to endorsement of enhancement. We set out to develop empirical data that explored this. We used Amazon Mechanical Turk to recruit participants from Canada and the United States. Each individual was randomly assigned to read one vignette describing the use of a pill to enhance one of 12 cognitive, affective or social domains. The vignettes described (...)
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  • tDCS for Memory Enhancement: Analysis of the Speculative Aspects of Ethical Issues.Nathalie Voarino, Veljko Dubljević & Eric Racine - 2017 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 10.
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  • The is and Ought of the Ethics of Neuroenhancement: Mind the Gap.Cynthia Forlini & Wayne Hall - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • Enhancement, Ethics and Society: Towards an Empirical Research Agenda for the Medical Humanities and Social Sciences.Martyn Pickersgill & Linda Hogle - 2015 - Medical Humanities 41 (2):136-142.
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  • From ‘Hard’ Neuro-Tools to ‘Soft’ Neuro-Toys? Refocussing the Neuro-Enhancement Debate.Jonna Brenninkmeijer & Hub Zwart - 2017 - Neuroethics 10 (3):337-348.
    Since the 1990’s, the debate concerning the ethical, legal and societal aspects of ‘neuro-enhancement’ has evolved into a massive discourse, both in the public realm and in the academic arena. This ethical debate, however, tends to repeat the same sets of arguments over and over again. Normative disagreements between transhumanists and bioconservatives on invasive or radical brain stimulators, and uncertainties regarding the use and effectivity of nootropic pharmaceuticals dominate the field. Building on the results of an extensive European project on (...)
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  • Attitudes Toward Cognitive Enhancement: The Role of Metaphor and Context.Erin C. Conrad, Stacey Humphries & Anjan Chatterjee - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 10 (1):35-47.
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  • Toward a Method for Exposing and Elucidating Ethical Issues with Human Cognitive Enhancement Technologies.Bjørn Hofmann - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (2):413-429.
    To develop a method for exposing and elucidating ethical issues with human cognitive enhancement. The intended use of the method is to support and facilitate open and transparent deliberation and decision making with respect to this emerging technology with great potential formative implications for individuals and society. Literature search to identify relevant approaches. Conventional content analysis of the identified papers and methods in order to assess their suitability for assessing HCE according to four selection criteria. Method development. Amendment after pilot (...)
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  • Introduction: Critiquing Technologies of the Mind: Enhancement, Alteration, and Anthropotechnology.Darian Meacham - 2017 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 16 (1):1-16.
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  • Towards a Moral Ecology of Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement in British Universities.Meghana Kasturi Vagwala, Aude Bicquelet, Gabija Didziokaite, Ross Coomber, Oonagh Corrigan & Ilina Singh - 2017 - Neuroethics 10 (3):389-403.
    Few empirical studies in the UK have examined the complex social patterns and values behind quantitative estimates of the prevalence of pharmacological cognitive enhancement. We conducted a qualitative investigation of the social dynamics and moral attitudes that shape PCE practices among university students in two major metropolitan areas in the UK. Our thematic analysis of eight focus groups suggests a moral ecology that operates within the social infrastructure of the university. We find that PCE resilience among UK university students is (...)
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  • Understanding Human Enhancement Technologies Through Critical Phenomenology.Pierre Pariseau-Legault, Dave Holmes & Stuart J. Murray - 2019 - Nursing Philosophy 20 (1):e12229.
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  • Quantitative Anticipatory Ethical Analysis Should Inform Neurotechnology Development.Gidon Felsen & Peter B. Reiner - 2017 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 8 (2):75-77.
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  • Associations Between the Big Five Personality Traits and the Non-Medical Use of Prescription Drugs for Cognitive Enhancement.Sebastian Sattler & Reinhard Schunck - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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