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  1. Artifacts and Affordances: From Designed Properties to Possibilities for Action.Fabio Tollon - 2021 - AI and Society 2:1-10.
    In this paper I critically evaluate the value neutrality thesis regarding technology, and find it wanting. I then introduce the various ways in which artifacts can come to influence moral value, and our evaluation of moral situations and actions. Here, following van de Poel and Kroes, I introduce the idea of value sensitive design. Specifically, I show how by virtue of their designed properties, artifacts may come to embody values. Such accounts, however, have several shortcomings. In agreement with Michael Klenk, (...)
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  • Responsible Nudging for Social Good: New Healthcare Skills for AI-Driven Digital Personal Assistants.Marianna Capasso & Steven Umbrello - 2022 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 25 (1):11-22.
    Traditional medical practices and relationships are changing given the widespread adoption of AI-driven technologies across the various domains of health and healthcare. In many cases, these new technologies are not specific to the field of healthcare. Still, they are existent, ubiquitous, and commercially available systems upskilled to integrate these novel care practices. Given the widespread adoption, coupled with the dramatic changes in practices, new ethical and social issues emerge due to how these systems nudge users into making decisions and changing (...)
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  • The Ethics of Artificial Intelligence and Robotization in Tourism and Hospitality – A Conceptual Framework and Research Agenda.Stanislav Ivanov & Steven Umbrello - 2021 - Journal of Smart Tourism 1 (2):9-18.
    The impacts that AI and robotics systems can and will have on our everyday lives are already making themselves manifest. However, there is a lack of research on the ethical impacts and means for amelioration regarding AI and robotics within tourism and hospitality. Given the importance of designing technologies that cross national boundaries, and given that the tourism and hospitality industry is fundamentally predicated on multicultural interactions, this is an area of research and application that requires particular attention. Specifically, tourism (...)
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  • A Principle-Based Approach to AI: The Case for European Union and Italy.Francesco Corea, Fabio Fossa, Andrea Loreggia, Stefano Quintarelli & Salvatore Sapienza - forthcoming - AI and Society.
    As Artificial Intelligence becomes more and more pervasive in our everyday life, new questions arise about its ethical and social impacts. Such issues concern all stakeholders involved in or committed to the design, implementation, deployment, and use of the technology. The present document addresses these preoccupations by introducing and discussing a set of practical obligations and recommendations for the development of applications and systems based on AI techniques. With this work we hope to contribute to spreading awareness on the many (...)
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  • Basic Issues in AI Policy.Vincent C. Müller - 2022 - In Maria Amparo Grau-Ruiz (ed.), Interactive robotics: Legal, ethical, social and economic aspects. Cham: Springer. pp. 3-9.
    This extended abstract summarises some of the basic points of AI ethics and policy as they present themselves now. We explain the notion of AI, the main ethical issues in AI and the main policy aims and means.
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  • The Effectiveness of Embedded Values Analysis Modules in Computer Science Education: An Empirical Study.Matthew Kopec, Meica Magnani, Vance Ricks, Roben Torosyan, John Basl, Nicholas Miklaucic, Felix Muzny, Ronald Sandler, Christo Wilson, Adam Wisniewski-Jensen, Cora Lundgren, Kevin Mills & Mark Wells - manuscript
    Embedding ethics modules within computer science courses has become a popular response to the growing recognition that CS programs need to better equip their students to navigate the ethical dimensions of computing technologies like AI, machine learning, and big data analytics. However, the popularity of this approach has outpaced the evidence of its positive outcomes. To help close that gap, this empirical study reports positive results from Northeastern’s program that embeds values analysis modules into CS courses. The resulting data suggest (...)
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  • Leveraging Artificial Intelligence in Marketing for Social Good—An Ethical Perspective.Erik Hermann - 2022 - Journal of Business Ethics 179 (1):43-61.
    Artificial intelligence is shaping strategy, activities, interactions, and relationships in business and specifically in marketing. The drawback of the substantial opportunities AI systems and applications provide in marketing are ethical controversies. Building on the literature on AI ethics, the authors systematically scrutinize the ethical challenges of deploying AI in marketing from a multi-stakeholder perspective. By revealing interdependencies and tensions between ethical principles, the authors shed light on the applicability of a purely principled, deontological approach to AI ethics in marketing. To (...)
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  • Ethical artificial intelligence framework for a good AI society: principles, opportunities and perils.Pradeep Paraman & Sanmugam Anamalah - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-17.
    The justification and rationality of this paper is to present some fundamental principles, theories, and concepts that we believe moulds the nucleus of a good artificial intelligence society. The morally accepted significance and utilitarian concerns that stems from the inception and realisation of an AI’s structural foundation are displayed in this study. This paper scrutinises the structural foundation, fundamentals, and cardinal righteous remonstrations, as well as the gaps in mechanisms towards novel prospects and perils in determining resilient fundamentals, accountability, and (...)
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  • Applying AI for social good: Aligning academic journal ratings with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals.David Steingard, Marcello Balduccini & Akanksha Sinha - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-17.
    This paper offers three contributions to the burgeoning movements of AI for Social Good and AI and the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. First, we introduce the SDG-Intense Evaluation framework that aims to situate variegated automated/AI models in a larger ecosystem of computational approaches to advance the SDGs. To foster knowledge collaboration for solving complex social and environmental problems encompassed by the SDGs, the SDGIE framework details a benchmark structure of data-algorithm-output to effectively standardize AI approaches to the SDGs. Second, (...)
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  • Ethical Principles for Artificial Intelligence in National Defence.Mariarosaria Taddeo, David McNeish, Alexander Blanchard & Elizabeth Edgar - 2021 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (4):1707-1729.
    Defence agencies across the globe identify artificial intelligence as a key technology to maintain an edge over adversaries. As a result, efforts to develop or acquire AI capabilities for defence are growing on a global scale. Unfortunately, they remain unmatched by efforts to define ethical frameworks to guide the use of AI in the defence domain. This article provides one such framework. It identifies five principles—justified and overridable uses, just and transparent systems and processes, human moral responsibility, meaningful human control (...)
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  • Investing in AI for Social Good: An Analysis of European National Strategies.Francesca Foffano, Teresa Scantamburlo & Atia Cortés - forthcoming - AI and Society.
    Artificial Intelligence has become a driving force in modern research, industry and public administration and the European Union is embracing this technology with a view to creating societal, as well as economic, value. This effort has been shared by EU Member States which were all encouraged to develop their own national AI strategies outlining policies and investment levels. This study focuses on how EU Member States are approaching the promise to develop and use AI for the good of society through (...)
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  • Artifacts and Affordances: From Designed Properties to Possibilities for Action.Fabio Tollon - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):239-248.
    In this paper I critically evaluate the value neutrality thesis regarding technology, and find it wanting. I then introduce the various ways in which artifacts can come to influence moral value, and our evaluation of moral situations and actions. Here, following van de Poel and Kroes, I introduce the idea of value sensitive design. Specifically, I show how by virtue of their designed properties, artifacts may come to embody values. Such accounts, however, have several shortcomings. In agreement with Michael Klenk, (...)
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  • The Role of Engineers in Harmonising Human Values for AI Systems Design.Steven Umbrello - 2022 - Journal of Responsible Technology 10 (July):100031.
    Most engineers Fwork within social structures governing and governed by a set of values that primarily emphasise economic concerns. The majority of innovations derive from these loci. Given the effects of these innovations on various communities, it is imperative that the values they embody are aligned with those societies. Like other transformative technologies, artificial intelligence systems can be designed by a single organisation but be diffused globally, demonstrating impacts over time. This paper argues that in order to design for this (...)
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  • The ethics of algorithms: key problems and solutions.Andreas Tsamados, Nikita Aggarwal, Josh Cowls, Jessica Morley, Huw Roberts, Mariarosaria Taddeo & Luciano Floridi - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):215-230.
    Research on the ethics of algorithms has grown substantially over the past decade. Alongside the exponential development and application of machine learning algorithms, new ethical problems and solutions relating to their ubiquitous use in society have been proposed. This article builds on a review of the ethics of algorithms published in 2016, 2016). The goals are to contribute to the debate on the identification and analysis of the ethical implications of algorithms, to provide an updated analysis of epistemic and normative (...)
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  • Inteligencia Artificial para el bien común (AI4SG): IA y los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible.Aníbal Monasterio Astobiza - 2021 - Arbor 197 (802):a629.
    Frente a una narrativa distópica presente en los medios de comunicación y cultura popular que caracteriza el avance y desarrollo de la inteligencia artificial como una amenaza o riesgo existencial quiero valorar de manera crítica y constructiva el rol de la inteligencia artificial para el bien común. La tecnología digital también se puede aplicar para la solución de grandes problemas de la humanidad, como los 17 Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible y sus 169 metas de la agenda 2030. En este artículo, (...)
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  • Putting Values in Context.Mostafa Saket - 2022 - Journal of Ethics and Emerging Technologies 31 (2):1-9.
    It is increasingly recognized that human values play an essential role in engineering design. Recent literature in the ethics of technology has focused on spelling out the role of values in different fields of engineering. Value Sensitive Design, as a well-established approach, aims to systematically integrate human values into technologies and engineering products. Although there is significant attention to stakeholders in VSD, how contexts may affect what stakeholders perceive as values deserves more attention. It seems that there is an implicit (...)
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  • Value Sensitive Design to Achieve the UN SDGs with AI: A Case of Elderly Care Robots.Steven Umbrello, Marianna Capasso, Maurizio Balistreri, Alberto Pirni & Federica Merenda - 2021 - Minds and Machines 31 (3):395-419.
    Healthcare is becoming increasingly automated with the development and deployment of care robots. There are many benefits to care robots but they also pose many challenging ethical issues. This paper takes care robots for the elderly as the subject of analysis, building on previous literature in the domain of the ethics and design of care robots. Using the value sensitive design approach to technology design, this paper extends its application to care robots by integrating the values of care, values that (...)
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  • The Ethics of Algorithms: Key Problems and Solutions.Andreas Tsamados, Nikita Aggarwal, Josh Cowls, Jessica Morley, Huw Roberts, Mariarosaria Taddeo & Luciano Floridi - 2021 - AI and Society.
    Research on the ethics of algorithms has grown substantially over the past decade. Alongside the exponential development and application of machine learning algorithms, new ethical problems and solutions relating to their ubiquitous use in society have been proposed. This article builds on a review of the ethics of algorithms published in 2016, 2016). The goals are to contribute to the debate on the identification and analysis of the ethical implications of algorithms, to provide an updated analysis of epistemic and normative (...)
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  • Three Philosophical Perspectives on the Relation Between Technology and Society, and How They Affect the Current Debate About Artificial Intelligence.Ibo van de Poel - 2020 - Human Affairs 30 (4):499-511.
    Three philosophical perspectives on the relation between technology and society are distinguished and discussed: 1) technology as an autonomous force that determines society; 2) technology as a human construct that can be shaped by human values, and 3) a co-evolutionary perspective on technology and society where neither of them determines the other. The historical evolution of the three perspectives is discussed and it is argued that all three are still present in current debates about technological change and how it may (...)
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  • In the Frame: the Language of AI.Helen Bones, Susan Ford, Rachel Hendery, Kate Richards & Teresa Swist - 2020 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (1):23-44.
    In this article, drawing upon a feminist epistemology, we examine the critical roles that philosophical standpoint, historical usage, gender, and language play in a knowledge arena which is increasingly opaque to the general public. Focussing on the language dimension in particular, in its historical and social dimensions, we explicate how some keywords in use across artificial intelligence discourses inform and misinform non-expert understandings of this area. The insights gained could help to imagine how AI technologies could be better conceptualised, explained, (...)
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  • Ethical Artificial Intelligence in Chemical Research and Development: A Dual Advantage for Sustainability.Erik Hermann, Gunter Hermann & Jean-Christophe Tremblay - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (4):1-16.
    Artificial intelligence can be a game changer to address the global challenge of humanity-threatening climate change by fostering sustainable development. Since chemical research and development lay the foundation for innovative products and solutions, this study presents a novel chemical research and development process backed with artificial intelligence and guiding ethical principles to account for both process- and outcome-related sustainability. Particularly in ethically salient contexts, ethical principles have to accompany research and development powered by artificial intelligence to promote social and environmental (...)
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  • ‘AI for Social Good’: Whose Good and Who’s Good? Introduction to the Special Issue on Artificial Intelligence for Social Good.Josh Cowls - 2021 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (1):1-5.
    This introduction sets out the aims and scope of the Special Issue and provides an overview of each of the research articles and commentaries that follow.
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  • Artificial Intelligence Regulation: A Framework for Governance.Patricia Gomes Rêgo de Almeida, Carlos Denner dos Santos & Josivania Silva Farias - 2021 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (3):505-525.
    This article develops a conceptual framework for regulating Artificial Intelligence that encompasses all stages of modern public policy-making, from the basics to a sustainable governance. Based on a vast systematic review of the literature on Artificial Intelligence Regulation published between 2010 and 2020, a dispersed body of knowledge loosely centred around the “framework” concept was organised, described, and pictured for better understanding. The resulting integrative framework encapsulates 21 prior depictions of the policy-making process, aiming to achieve gold-standard societal values, such (...)
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  • Introduction to the Special Issue on Intercultural Digital Ethics.Nikita Aggarwal - 2020 - Philosophy and Technology 33 (4):547-550.
    Recent advances in the capability of digital information technologies—particularly due to advances in artificial intelligence —have invigorated the debate on the ethical issues surrounding their use. However, this debate has often been dominated by ‘Western’ ethical perspectives, values and interests, to the exclusion of broader ethical and socio-cultural perspectives. This imbalance carries the risk that digital technologies produce ethical harms and lack social acceptance, when the ethical norms and values designed into these technologies collide with those of the communities in (...)
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  • Weak Signal-Oriented Investigation of Ethical Dissonance Applied to Unsuccessful Mobility Experiences Linked to Human–Machine Interactions.F. Vanderhaegen - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (1):1-25.
    Ethical dissonance arises from conflicts between beliefs or behaviors and affects ethical factors such as normality or conformity. This paper proposes a weak signal-oriented framework to investigate ethical dissonance from experiences linked to human–machine interactions. It is based on a systems engineering principle called human-systems inclusion, which considers any experience feedback of weak signals as beneficial to learn. The framework studies weak signal-based scenarios from testimonies of individual experiences and these scenarios are assessed by other people. For this purpose, the (...)
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  • Neuroethics: Fostering Collaborations to Enable Neuroscientific Discovery.Nita Farahany & Khara M. Ramos - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 11 (3):148-154.
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