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  1. Erotetic Search Scenarios and Three-Valued Logic.Dorota Leszczyńska-Jasion & Paweł Łupkowski - 2016 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 25 (1):51-76.
    Our aim is to model the behaviour of a cognitive agent trying to solve a complex problem by dividing it into sub-problems, but failing to solve some of these sub-problems. We use the powerful framework of erotetic search scenarios combined with Kleene’s strong three-valued logic. ESS, defined on the grounds of Inferential Erotetic Logic, has appeared to be a useful logical tool for modelling cognitive goal-directed processes. Using the logical tools of ESS and the three-valued logic, we will show how (...)
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  • An Erotetic Approach to Explanation by Specification.Theo A. F. Kuipers & Andrzej Wiśniewski - 1994 - Erkenntnis 40 (3):377 - 402.
    In earlier publications of the first author it was shown that intentional explanation of actions, functional explanation of biological traits and causal explanation of abnormal events share a common structure. They are called explanation by specification (of a goal, a biological function, an abnormal causal factor, respectively) as opposed to explanation by subsumption under a law. Explanation by specification is guided by a schematic train of thought, of which the argumentative steps not concerning questions were already shown to be logically (...)
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  • Functional Dependencies, Supervenience, and Consequence Relations.I. L. Humberstone - 1993 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 2 (4):309-336.
    An analogy between functional dependencies and implicational formulas of sentential logic has been discussed in the literature. We feel that a somewhat different connexion between dependency theory and sentential logic is suggested by the similarity between Armstrong's axioms for functional dependencies and Tarski's defining conditions for consequence relations, and we pursue aspects of this other analogy here for their theoretical interest. The analogy suggests, for example, a different semantic interpretation of consequence relations: instead of thinking ofB as a consequence of (...)
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  • Valuations: Bi, Tri, and Tetra.Rohan French & David Ripley - 2019 - Studia Logica 107 (6):1313-1346.
    This paper considers some issues to do with valuational presentations of consequence relations, and the Galois connections between spaces of valuations and spaces of consequence relations. Some of what we present is known, and some even well-known; but much is new. The aim is a systematic overview of a range of results applicable to nonreflexive and nontransitive logics, as well as more familiar logics. We conclude by considering some connectives suggested by this approach.
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  • Disjunctive and Conjunctive Multiple-Conclusion Consequence Relations.Marek Nowak - forthcoming - Studia Logica:1-19.
    Two different kinds of multiple-conclusion consequence relations taken from Shoesmith and Smiley and Galatos and Tsinakis or Nowak, called here disjunctive and conjunctive, respectively, defined on a formal language, are considered. They are transferred into a bounded lattice and a complete lattice, respectively. The properties of such abstract consequence relations are presented.
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  • Theory and Reality : Metaphysics as Second Science.Staffan Angere - unknown
    Theory and Reality is about the connection between true theories and the world. A mathematical framefork for such connections is given, and it is shown how that framework can be used to infer facts about the structure of reality from facts about the structure of true theories, The book starts with an overview of various approaches to metaphysics. Beginning with Quine's programmatic "On what there is", the first chapter then discusses the perils involved in going from language to metaphysics. It (...)
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  • Inferentialism.Florian Steinberger & Julien Murzi - 2017 - In Blackwell Companion to Philosophy of Language. Wiley Blackwell. pp. 197-224.
    This article offers an overview of inferential role semantics. We aim to provide a map of the terrain as well as challenging some of the inferentialist’s standard commitments. We begin by introducing inferentialism and placing it into the wider context of contemporary philosophy of language. §2 focuses on what is standardly considered both the most important test case for and the most natural application of inferential role semantics: the case of the logical constants. We discuss some of the (alleged) benefits (...)
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  • Rejection.Timothy Smiley - 1996 - Analysis 56 (1):1–9.
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  • Invitation to Autoepistemology.Lloyd Humberstone - 2002 - Theoria 68 (1):13-51.
    The phrase ‘autoepistemic logic’ was introduced in Moore [1985] to refer to a study inspired in large part by criticisms in Stalnaker [1980] of a particular nonmonotonic logic proposed by McDermott and Doyle.1 Very informative discussions for those who have not encountered this area are provided by Moore [1988] and the wide-ranging survey article Konolige [1994], and the scant remarks in the present introductory section do not pretend to serve in place of those treatments as summaries of the field. A (...)
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  • Aristotle on Circular Proof.Marko Malink - 2013 - Phronesis 58 (3):215-248.
    In Posterior Analytics 1.3, Aristotle advances three arguments against circular proof. The third argument relies on his discussion of circular proof in Prior Analytics 2.5. This is problematic because the two chapters seem to deal with two rather disparate conceptions of circular proof. In Posterior Analytics 1.3, Aristotle gives a purely propositional account of circular proof, whereas in Prior Analytics 2.5 he gives a more complex, syllogistic account. My aim is to show that these problems can be solved, and that (...)
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  • Some Remarks on Axiomatizing Logical Consequence Operations.Jacek Malinowski - 2005 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 14 (1):103-117.
    In this paper we investigate the relation between the axiomatization of a given logical consequence operation and axiom systems defining the class of algebras related to that consequence operation. We show examples which prove that, in general there are no natural relation between both ways of axiomatization.
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  • Ancestor Worship in The Logic of Games. How Foundational Were Aristotle's Contributions?John Woods - 2013 - The Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication 8 (1).
    Notwithstanding their technical virtuosity and growing presence in mainstream thinking, game theoretic logics have attracted a sceptical question: "Granted that logic can be done game theoretically, but what would justify the idea that this is the preferred way to do it?'' A recent suggestion is that at least part of the desired support might be found in the Greek dialectical writings. If so, perhaps we could say that those works possess a kind of foundational significance. The relation of being foundational (...)
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  • Carnap's Problem: What is It Like to Be a Normal Interpretation of Classical Logic?Arnold Koslow - 2010 - Abstracta 6 (1):117-135.
    Carnap in the 1930s discovered that there were non-normal interpretations of classical logic - ones for which negation and conjunction are not truth-functional so that a statement and its negation could have the same truth value, and a disjunction of two false sentences could be true. Church ar-gued that this did not call for a revision of classical logic. More recent writers seem to disa-gree. We provide a definition of "non-normal interpretation" and argue that Church was right, and in fact, (...)
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  • Remarks on the Scott–Lindenbaum Theorem.Gillman Payette & Peter K. Schotch - 2014 - Studia Logica 102 (5):1003-1020.
    In the late 1960s and early 1970s, Dana Scott introduced a kind of generalization (or perhaps simplification would be a better description) of the notion of inference, familiar from Gentzen, in which one may consider multiple conclusions rather than single formulas. Scott used this idea to good effect in a number of projects including the axiomatization of many-valued logics (of various kinds) and a reconsideration of the motivation of C.I. Lewis. Since he left the subject it has been vigorously prosecuted (...)
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  • Why Conclusions Should Remain Single.Florian Steinberger - 2011 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 40 (3):333-355.
    This paper argues that logical inferentialists should reject multiple-conclusion logics. Logical inferentialism is the position that the meanings of the logical constants are determined by the rules of inference they obey. As such, logical inferentialism requires a proof-theoretic framework within which to operate. However, in order to fulfil its semantic duties, a deductive system has to be suitably connected to our inferential practices. I argue that, contrary to an established tradition, multiple-conclusion systems are ill-suited for this purpose because they fail (...)
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  • Replacement in Logic.Lloyd Humberstone - 2013 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 42 (1):49-89.
    We study a range of issues connected with the idea of replacing one formula by another in a fixed context. The replacement core of a consequence relation ⊢ is the relation holding between a set of formulas {A1,..., Am,...} and a formula B when for every context C, we have C,..., C,... ⊢ C. Section 1 looks at some differences between which inferences are lost on passing to the replacement cores of the classical and intuitionistic consequence relations. For example, we (...)
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  • Cut Elimination for Entailment Relations.Davide Rinaldi & Daniel Wessel - 2019 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 58 (5-6):605-625.
    Entailment relations, introduced by Scott in the early 1970s, provide an abstract generalisation of Gentzen’s multi-conclusion logical inference. Originally applied to the study of multi-valued logics, this notion has then found plenty of applications, ranging from computer science to abstract algebra. In particular, an entailment relation can be regarded as a constructive presentation of a distributive lattice and in this guise it has proven to be a useful tool for the constructive reformulation of several classical theorems in commutative algebra. In (...)
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  • Key Notions of Tarski's Methodology of Deductive Systems.Janusz Czelakowski & Grzegorz Malinowski - 1985 - Studia Logica 44 (4):321 - 351.
    The aim of the article is to outline the historical background and the present state of the methodology of deductive systems invented by Alfred Tarski in the thirties. Key notions of Tarski's methodology are presented and discussed through, the recent development of the original concepts and ideas.
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  • Protoalgebraic Logics.W. J. Blok & Don Pigozzi - 1986 - Studia Logica 45 (4):337 - 369.
    There exist important deductive systems, such as the non-normal modal logics, that are not proper subjects of classical algebraic logic in the sense that their metatheory cannot be reduced to the equational metatheory of any particular class of algebras. Nevertheless, most of these systems are amenable to the methods of universal algebra when applied to the matrix models of the system. In the present paper we consider a wide class of deductive systems of this kind called protoalgebraic logics. These include (...)
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  • Erotetic Arguments: A Preliminary Analysis.Andrzej Wiśniewski - 1991 - Studia Logica 50 (2):261 - 274.
    The concept of erotetic argument is introduced. Two relations between sets of declarative sentences and questions are analysed; and two classes of erotetic arguments are characterized.
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  • Some Theorems on Structural Entailment Relations.Janusz Czelakowski - 1983 - Studia Logica 42 (4):417 - 429.
    The classesMatr( ) of all matrices (models) for structural finitistic entailments are investigated. The purpose of the paper is to prove three theorems: Theorem I.7, being the counterpart of the main theorem from Czelakowski [3], and Theorems II.2 and III.2 being the entailment counterparts of Bloom's results [1]. Theorem I.7 states that if a classK of matrices is adequate for , thenMatr( ) is the least class of matrices containingK and closed under the formation of ultraproducts, submatrices, strict homomorphisms and (...)
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  • Socratic Proofs for Quantifiers★.Andrzej Wiśniewski & Vasilyi Shangin - 2006 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 35 (2):147-178.
    First-order logic is formalized by means of tools taken from the logic of questions. A calculus of questions which is a counterpart of the Pure Calculus of Quantifiers is presented. A direct proof of completeness of the calculus is given.
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  • Remarks on a Survey Article on Many Valued Logic by A. Urquhart.Andrzej Wroński - 1987 - Studia Logica 46 (3):275 - 278.
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  • Reduced Products of Logical Matrices.Janusz Czelakowski - 1980 - Studia Logica 39 (1):19 - 43.
    The class Matr(C) of all matrices for a prepositional logic (, C) is investigated. The paper contains general results with no special reference to particular logics. The main theorem (Th. (5.1)) which gives the algebraic characterization of the class Matr(C) states the following. Assume C to be the consequence operation on a prepositional language induced by a class K of matrices. Let m be a regular cardinal not less than the cardinality of C. Then Matr (C) is the least class (...)
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  • On the Reducibility of Questions.Andrzej Wiśniewski - 1994 - Erkenntnis 40 (2):265-284.
    The concepta question is reducible to a non-empty set of questions is defined and examined. The basic results are: (1) each question which is sound relative to some of its presuppositions is reducible to some set of binary (i.e. having exactly two direct answers) questions; (b) each question which has a finite number of direct answers is reducible to some finite set of binary questions; (c) if entailment is compact, then each normal question (i.e. sound relative to its presuppositions) is (...)
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  • Failures of Categoricity and Compositionality for Intuitionistic Disjunction.Jack Woods - 2012 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 1 (4):281-291.
    I show that the model-theoretic meaning that can be read off the natural deduction rules for disjunction fails to have certain desirable properties. I use this result to argue against a modest form of inferentialism which uses natural deduction rules to fix model-theoretic truth-conditions for logical connectives.
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  • What is a Logical Theory? On Theories Containing Assertions and Denials.Carolina Blasio, Carlos Caleiro & João Marcos - forthcoming - Synthese:1-24.
    The standard notion of formal theory, in logic, is in general biased exclusively towards assertion: it commonly refers only to collections of assertions that any agent who accepts the generating axioms of the theory should also be committed to accept. In reviewing the main abstract approaches to the study of logical consequence, we point out why this notion of theory is unsatisfactory at multiple levels, and introduce a novel notion of theory that attacks the shortcomings of the received notion by (...)
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  • An Expressivist Bilateral Meaning-is-Use Analysis of Classical Propositional Logic.John Cantwell - 2015 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 24 (1):27-51.
    The connectives of classical propositional logic are given an analysis in terms of necessary and sufficient conditions of acceptance and rejection, i.e. the connectives are analyzed within an expressivist bilateral meaning-is-use framework. It is explained how such a framework differs from standard inferentialist frameworks and it is argued that it is better suited to address the particular issues raised by the expressivist thesis that the meaning of a sentence is determined by the mental state that it is conventionally used to (...)
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  • Arbitrary Truth-Value Functions and Natural Deduction.Krister Segerberg - 1983 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 29 (11):557-564.
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  • Abstract Logical Constants.Tin Perkov - 2018 - Logica Universalis 12 (3-4):341-350.
    A possibility of defining logical constants within abstract logical frameworks is discussed, in relation to abstract definition of logical consequence. We propose using duals as a general method of applying the idea of invariance under replacement as a criterion for logicality.
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  • On Consequence in Approximate Reasoning.J. L. Castro, E. Trillas & S. Cubillo - 1994 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 4 (1):91-103.
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