Results for 'Jaspers'

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Dany Jaspers
Leiden University
  1. Freedom and Equality in a Liberal Democratic State.Jasper Doomen - 2014
    This study explores freedom and equality as necessary constituents of a liberal democratic state. At the same time, equality and freedom conflict in various respects. It is examined how such conflicts may optimally be resolved while taking seriously the interests involved. These inquiries have far-reaching consequences for the justification of the liberal democratic state. Equal rights are generally considered to be an integral part of a liberal democratic state, but on what foundation are such rights based? Various attempts have been (...)
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  2. Translation of Berkeley, The Principles of Human Knowledge.Jasper Doomen - 2018
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  3.  56
    The Bellwether of Oppression: Anger, Critique, and Resistance.Jasper Friedrich - forthcoming - Hypatia.
    Feminists have long argued that emotions have a rightful place in politics. Anger, specifically, is often said to play a crucial role in alerting people to oppression and motivating resistance. The task of this paper is to elaborate these claims and to outline a conception of the political value of anger. In doing so, I argue against the view that anger is valuable if and because it expresses a sound moral judgment. Instead, we should see rage, in the first place, (...)
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  4. Settling Accounts at the End of History: A Nonideal Approach to State Apologies.Jasper Friedrich - 2022 - Political Theory 50 (5):700-722.
    What are we to make of the fact that world leaders, such as Canada’s Justin Trudeau, have, within the last few decades, offered official apologies for a whole host of past injustices? Scholars have largely dealt with this phenomenon as a moral question, seeing in these expressions of contrition a radical disruption of contemporary neoliberal individualism, a promise of a more humane world. Focusing on Canadian apology politics, this essay instead proposes a nonideal approach to state apologies, sidestepping questions of (...)
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  5. Philosophy from the Texture of Everyday Life: The Critical-Analytic Methods of Foucault and J. L. Austin.Jasper Friedrich - 2022 - Foucault Studies 33.
    In a 1978 lecture in Tokyo, Foucault drew a comparison between his own philosophical methodology and that of ‘Anglo-Saxon analytic philosophy’, claiming the label ‘analytic philosophy of politics’ for his own approach. This may seem like a somewhat surprising comparison given the gulf between contemporary analytic and continental philosophy, but I argue that it is a very productive one which indeed might help us reconsider this gulf. I proceed through a comparison between Foucault and the speech act theory of J. (...)
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  6. Anger and Apology, Recognition and Reconciliation: Managing Emotions in the Wake of Injustice.Jasper Friedrich - 2022 - Global Studies Quarterly 2 (2):ksac023.
    This article treats rituals of apology and reconciliation as responses to social discontent, specifically to expressions of anger and resentment. A standard account of social discontent, found both in the literature on transitional justice and in the social theory of Axel Honneth, has it that these emotional expressions are evidence of an underlying psychic need for recognition. In this framework, the appropriate response to expressions of anger and discontent is a recognitive one that includes victims of injustice in the political (...)
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  7. The Liar Paradox - A Case of Mistaken Truth Attribution.Jasper Doomen - 2023 - Axiomathes 33 (1):1-11.
    A semantic solution to the liar paradox (“This statement is not true”) is presented in this article. Since the liar paradox seems to evince a contradiction, the principle of non-contradiction is preliminarily discussed, in order to determine whether dismissing this principle may be reason enough to stop considering the liar paradox a problem. No conclusive outcome with respect to the value of this principle is aspired to here, so that the inquiry is not concluded at this point and the option (...)
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  8. The Ephemeral Self - The Legitimacy of an Advance Euthanasia Directive.Jasper Doomen - 2023 - Medicine, Science and the Law 63 (1).
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  9. Existential Suffering as a Legitimization of Euthanasia.Jasper Doomen - 2023 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 32 (1):14-25.
    Several countries have legalized euthanasia on the basis of medically diagnosable suffering over the last decennial; the criteria to which they adhere differ. The topic of this article is euthanasia on the basis of existential suffering. This article presents a recent proposal to legalize euthanasia for people who experience such suffering and then discusses the issue of what the value of life may be, and whether the standard that life is normally something positive should be accepted. This provides the foundation (...)
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  10. Laïcité: Ousting Some Religious Elements while Introducing Others.Jasper Doomen - 2022 - Democracy and Security 19 (3):274-290.
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  11.  98
    Salvaging law and economics.Jasper Doomen - 2011 - Quality and Quantity 47.
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  12.  88
    The Problems of Scepticism.Jasper Doomen - 2007 - Logical Analysis and History of Philosophy/Philosophiegeschichte Und Logische Analyse 10.
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  13.  85
    A Veiled Threat.Jasper Doomen - 2017 - Ecclesiastical Law Journal 20 (2).
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  14.  85
    Cornering ''Free Will''.Jasper Doomen - 2011 - Journal of Mind and Behavior 32 (3).
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  15.  81
    On the Labor Front.Jasper Doomen - 2016 - Labor Law Journal 67 (3).
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  16.  78
    Smart en geld.Jasper Doomen - 2008 - Executief 4.
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  17. Spinozan Freedom.Jasper Doomen - 2011 - Archiv für Begriffsgeschichte 53:53-69.
    Spinoza is known for his radical views on freedom. In this article, it is explored to what extent this reputation is justified. He integrates human actions in the necessary development of the universe and seems to leave no room for human freedom. The position of God is relevant, since it is Spinoza's starting-point in general and appears to require an intricate conception of freedom; it may be demanded whether this can be clarified. In the case of man, the difficulty lies (...)
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  18. The Individuality of Meaning.Jasper Doomen - 2006 - Linguistic and Philosophical Investigations 5:121.
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  19. Review of Stuart Elden, The Early Foucault. Cambridge: Polity, 2021. Pp. 281. [REVIEW]Jasper Friedrich - 2022 - Foucault Studies 32:109-113.
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  20.  80
    Review of S. Käufer and A. Chemero, Phenomenology. An Introduction. [REVIEW]Jasper Doomen - 2023 - Philosophy in Review 43 (1):25-26.
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  21. Pandemics - Background paper.Giovanni De Grandis & Jasper Littmann - 2011 - Forward Look Archive.
    The background paper provides an introduction to the concept of pandemics and to the ethical and political issues related with pandemic preparedness.
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  22. Review of J. Cottingham, Cartesian Reflections. [REVIEW]Jasper Doomen - 2011 - History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis 14:203-209.
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  23.  83
    Review of M. Dean & D. Zamora, The Last Man Takes LSD: Foucault and the End of Revolution (London: Verso, 2021). [REVIEW]Jasper Friedrich - 2021 - Foucault Studies 31:257-261.
    The debate about how to interpret Foucault’s writings on neoliberalism has been going on for a while now: where some see in The Birth of Biopolitics a devastating critique of neoliberal reason, others see a laudatory exposition. Mitchell Dean and Daniel Zamora’s recent book The Last Man Takes LSD: Foucault and the End of Revolution is the newest contribution to this dispute. In it, the two authors rearticulate in book-length the position they have previously defended in several articles and book (...)
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  24. Embodying Mental Affordances.Jelle Bruineberg & Jasper van den Herik - 2021 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy:1-21.
    The concept of affordances is rapidly gaining traction in the philosophy of mind and cognitive sciences. Affordances are opportunities for action provided by the environment. An important open question is whether affordances can be used to explain mental action such as attention, counting, and imagination. In this paper, we critically discuss McClelland’s (‘The Mental Affordance Hypothesis’, 2020, Mind, 129(514), pp. 401–427) mental affordance hypothesis. While we agree that the affordance concept can be fruitfully employed to explain mental action, we argue (...)
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  25. Jaspers on explaining and understanding in psychiatry.Christoph Hoerl - 2013 - In Thomas Fuchs & Giovanni Stanghellini (eds.), One Hundred Years of Karl Jaspers' General Psychopathology. Oxford University Press. pp. 107-120.
    This chapter offers an interpretation of Jaspers’ distinction between explaining and understanding, which relates this distinction to that between general and singular causal claims. Put briefly, I suggest that when Jaspers talks about (mere) explanation, what he has in mind are general causal claims linking types of events. Understanding, by contrast, is concerned with singular causation in the psychological domain. Furthermore, I also suggest that Jaspers thinks that only understanding makes manifest what causation between one element of (...)
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  26. Jaspers' Dilemma: The Psychopathological Challenge to Subjectivity Theories of Consciousness.Alexandre Billon & Uriah Kriegel - 2015 - In R. Gennaro (ed.), Disturbed Consciousness. MIT Press. pp. 29-54.
    According to what we will call subjectivity theories of consciousness, there is a constitutive connection between phenomenal consciousness and subjectivity: there is something it is like for a subject to have mental state M only if M is characterized by a certain mine-ness or for-me-ness. Such theories appear to face certain psychopathological counterexamples: patients appear to report conscious experiences that lack this subjective element. A subsidiary goal of this chapter is to articulate with greater precision both subjectivity theories and the (...)
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  27. Jaspers and Ortega on the Historicity of Being Human.Marnie Binder - 2019 - Existenz 14 (1):28-34.
    Spanish philosopher José Ortega y Gasset and German philosopher Karl Jaspers were both born in 1883, and they both maintained the position that humans are principally historical beings. Therefore, as attested by this notion itself, there are points in which their philosophy coincides. Ortega argued that human beings have no nature, only history. His argument is that history as such is human nature; what is most natural about being human is the fact of being historical and thus always having (...)
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  28. Karl Jaspers: From Selfhood to Being.Ronny Miron - 2006 - Bar Ilan University Press.
    This is a study of the work of the German philosopher Karl Jaspers (1883-1969), from his beginnings as a young psychiatrist to his mature days as an existentialist philosopher. This critical study of Jasper's philosophy traces his effort to instill meaning into the human quest for self-understanding and reveals the difficulties and frustrations inherent in this search. The book presents to the reader Jasper's attempts to deal with these difficulties by means of a philosophical approach to the concept of (...)
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  29. Entre Jaspers e o "jovem Foucault": Antropologia, Loucura, Obra e Civilização.Marcio Miotto - 2022 - Araripe 3 (2):30-114.
    O presente trabalho pretende analisar as relações entre loucura e obra no jovem Foucault, isto é, no Foucault dos anos 1950 que realiza seu curso sobre antropologia (La Question Anthropologique) em Lille e na ENS entre 1952 (ou 1951) e 1955. Para estabelecer o problema, o texto começa com uma contextualização inicial sobre os inéditos de Foucault disponibilizados desde 2013 na BNF. Então o texto constrói o problema a partir de comentadores (especiamente Jean-Baptiste Vuillerod) e encontra na figura de Karl (...)
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  30. Jaspers’ Existenzerhellung der Freiheit.Ulrich Diehl - 2013 - In Thomas Fuchs, Stefano Micali & Boris Wandruszka (eds.), Karl Jaspers - Phänomenologie und Psychopathologie. Karl Alber.
    In seiner ‘Existenzerhellung der Freiheit’ reflektiert Jaspers, das Problemfeld der Freiheit in einem Kontrast zu den Begriffen, Phänomenen und Bedingungen der Unfreiheit und der Grenzen der Freiheit. Dem Problemfeld der Freiheit kann man im Denken und Handeln nur dann gerecht werden, wenn man nicht nur zwischen den verschiedenen Begriffen und Phänomenen der Freiheit unterscheidet, sondern auch zwischen den verschiedenen Begriffen und Phänomenen von Grenzen der Freiheit, wie z.B. durch die allgemeine Naturgesetzlichkeit und die menschliche Natur, durch besondere Bedingungen in (...)
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  31. Ist Jaspers ein Kantianer?Ulrich Diehl - 2008 - In K. Eming & Th Fuchs (eds.), Karl Jaspers – Philosophie und Psychopathologie. Universitätsverlag Winter.
    Die Frage, ob Karl Jaspers ein Kantianer ist, wird nicht nur kompetente Jasperskenner überraschen, sondern auch die meisten Philosophiehistoriker, die mit der Geschichte der Philosophie der Neuzeit und Moderne vertraut sind. Denn einerseits werden nicht nur die meisten Jasperskenner, sondern auch die meisten Philosophiehistoriker überhaupt, diese Frage zunächst einmal mit einem gewissen Recht verneinen. Denn der überlieferten Lehrmeinung zufolge, war Jaspers kein Kantianer, sondern ein Existenzphilosoph. Andererseits werden vermutlich die meisten Jasperskenner und Philosophiehistoriker zugestehen, dass Kant für (...) zumindest einer der wichtigsten Philosophen war, wenn nicht sogar der wichtigste Philosoph überhaupt. Das alleine reicht aber kaum aus, um Jaspers als einen Kantianer aufzufassen. Denn wer Jaspers als einen Kantianer bezeichnet, wird damit nicht nur meinen, dass Jaspers unter allen großen Philosophen immer noch Kant am nächsten stand und ihn am meisten schätze, sondern auch dass er selbst philosophische Auffassungen und Überzeugungen vertreten hat, die dem überlieferten Idealtypus eines Kantianers entsprechen. In diesem idealtypischen Sinne können und dürfen wir zumindest aus heuristischen Gründen z.B. Augustinus, Plotin und Bonaventura als Platoniker sowie Thomas von Aquin, Trendelenburg und Brentano als Aristoteliker bezeichnen. In diesem idealtypischen Sinne können und dürfen wir auch fragen, in welchem Sinne man Jaspers eher als einen Platoniker oder als einen Aristoteliker verstehen kann. Und in diesem Sinne kann man dann auch mit gewissen Fug und Recht fragen, ob Jaspers den wesentlichen Grundzügen seines Philosophierens zufolge ein Kantianer ist. (shrink)
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  32. Karl Jaspers und die Vernunft.Ulrich Diehl - 2011 - In Hamid Reza Yousefi, Werner Schüßler, Reinhard Schulz & Ulrich Diehl (eds.), Karl Jaspers - Grundbegriffe seines Denkens. Lau Verlag.
    Der Begriff der Vernunft gehört zu den Begriffen, die für Jaspers‘ philosophisches Denken und schriftliche verfaßte Philosophie eine besonders wichtige Rolle spielen. Gleichwohl kann es im Folgenden nicht um Jaspers‘ ganze Philosophie gehen, sondern nur um seinen Begriff der Vernunft. Sein Begriff der Vernunft ist jedoch für die wesentlichen Grundzüge seiner Philosophie konstitutiv und charakteristisch. Im ersten Teil werde ich kurz auf die Entwicklung der Schriften eingehen, in denen Jaspers hauptsächlich sein Verständnis von Vernunft dargelegt hat. Im (...)
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  33. Jaspers on Drives, Wants and Volitions.Ulrich Diehl - 2012 - Jahrbuch der Österreichischen Karl-Jaspers-Gesellschaft 25:101-125.
    In § 6 of his General Psychopathology (1st edition 1913) Jaspers distinguished between drives, wants and volitions as three different and irreducible kinds of motivational phenomena which are involved in human decision making and which may lead to successful actions. He has characterized the qualitative differences between volitions in comparison with basic vital drives and emotional wants such as being (a.) intentional, (b.) content-specific and (b.) directed towards concrete objects and actions as goals. Furthermore, Jaspers has presented and (...)
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  34. Jaspers, Husserl, Kant: boundary situations as a " turning point".Gladys L. Portuondo - manuscript
    Abstract: The article summarizes some comments -as discussed in my book La existencia en busca de la razón. Apuntes sobre la filosofía de Karl Jaspers (Existence in search of Reason. Notes on Karl Jaspers' Philosophy), Editorial Académica Española, LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing GmbH&Co. KG, Alemania, 2012- about the meaning of the boundary situations in the philosophy of Karl Jaspers, as a turning point regarding Husserl's phenomenology and Kant's transcendental philosophy. For Jaspers, the meaning of the boundary (...)
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  35. La psicopatologia di Karl Jaspers e i disturbi dell'ordo amoris nella prospettiva di Max Scheler (2017).Guido Cusinato - 2017 - In «STUDI JASPERSIANI» , vol. 2017 , n. 20. pp. 35-39.
    Scheler, like Jaspers, gives a key importance to the relations with alterity and grounds both the individual formation and social ontology on the practices of “sharing emotions”. My work attempts to interpret the impairments related to the capacities of communication – that Jaspers places at the roots of psychopathology and that the Japanese psychiatrist Bin Kimura has more recently argued to be the core of schizophrenia – as impairment of what Scheler calls ordo amoris, that is the “order (...)
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  36. Karl Jaspers y la filosofía de la comunicación.Gladys L. Portuondo - 2012 - Dikaiosyne 27:107-122.
    Resumen No hay ningún tema fundamental en la fi losofía de Karl Jaspers que no se encuentre vinculado al pensamiento de la comunicación: este pensamiento descansa en la base de la concepción jaspersiana de la verdad, de la razón; de la libertad; de la trascendencia; de la fe fi losófi ca; de la autenticidad existencial; del fi losofar como “conversión” radical del pensamiento con vistas a la posible existencia y de la propia concepción de la aclaración existencial. El presente (...)
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  37. Jaspers, Husserl, Kant: las situaciones-límite como "punto de giro".Gladys L. Portuondo - 2014 - Revista Filosofía 25.
    Resumen: El artículo resume algunos comentarios - como se han expuesto en mi libro La Existencia en busca de la razón. Apuntes sobre la filosofía de Karl Jaspers, Editorial Académica Española, LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing GmbH & Co. KG, Alemania , 2012- sobre el significado de las situaciones-límite en la filosofía de Karl Jaspers, como un punto de giro con respecto a la fenomenología de Husserl y a la filosofía trascendental de Kant . Para Jaspers, el significado (...)
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  38. Jaspers, Husserl, Kant: boundary situations as a " turning point".Gladys L. Portuondo - 2017 - Existenz 11 (1):51-56.
    Abstract: The essay addresses the meaning of boundary situations in the philosophy of Karl Jaspers, as a turning point drawing on Edmund Husserl's phenomenology and Immanuel Kant's transcendental philosophy, and as a key for the comprehension of some of the differences in Karl Jaspers' philosophy regarding the thought of Husserl and Kant, respectively. For Jaspers, the meaning of boundary situations as a structure of Existenz underlines the possibility of risk in the individual historicity. Taking risks breaks the (...)
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  39. Comprehending the Whole Person: On Expanding Jaspers' Notion of Empathy.Anthony Vincent Fernandez - forthcoming - In Aaron Mishara, Philip Corlett, Alexander Kranjec, Michael A. Schwartz & Marcin Moskalewicz (eds.), Phenomenological Neuropsychiatry: How Patient Experience Bridges Clinic with Clinical Practice. Springer.
    In this chapter, we explain how Karl Jaspers’ concept of empathy can be expanded by drawing upon the tradition of philosophical phenomenology. In the first section, we offer an account of Jaspers' concepts of empathy and incomprehensibility as he develops them in General Psychopathology and “The Phenomenological Approach in Psychopathology.” In the second section, we survey the recent literature on overcoming Jaspers' notion of incomprehensibility and expanding his concept of empathy. In the third section, we outline the (...)
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  40. A contemporary approach to Jaspers’ static understanding.Angeliki Zoumpouli - 2012 - Dialogues in Philosophy, Mental and Neuro Sciences 5 (2):48-50.
    Karl Jaspers was the first major author who emphasized empathy as the proper method of the phenomenological approach to human psychopathology (“static understanding”). He divided mental symptoms into subjective and objective ones, stressing the crucial importance of the former. Subjective symptoms are mainly those expressing patients’ emotions as well as those experienced by them and verbally communicated during the diagnostic interview. Whereas the expressive symptoms can be grasped immediately by clinicians, the understanding of the experienced ones is mediated by (...)
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  41. Origine e senso dell'umanità. La metafisica di Karl Jaspers negli anni successivi alla Seconda Guerra Mondiale (1946-1949).Gianmaria Avellino - 2023 - Phronein. Rivista Semestrale di Filosofia 9 (1):109-118.
    The article highlights the metaphysical approach that lies beneath Karl Jaspers' conception of history as an unstoppable flow of individual states into a world unity. The analysis is based on a reading of Jaspers' contribution to the Geneva conference of 1946 and his 1949 book "The Origin and Goal of History".
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  42. Was Jaspers really Kantian?Ronny Miron - 2006 - Yearbook of the Austrian Karl Jaspers’ Society 19:73-106.
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  43. The concept of understanding in Jaspers and contemporary epistemology.M. Ashraf Adeel - 2015 - Existenz 10 (1).
    In the General Psychopathology Jaspers famously draws a distinction between the understandable and explainable. Meaningful connections between psychic events, he argues, can only be understood empathetically and cannot be explained causally. The idea behind this distinction, according to some interpreters at least, seems to be that psychic events do not fall under any general causal rules whereas ordinary events do fall under such rules. Also Jaspers distinguishes empathetic understanding of the connection between two psychic events from a mere (...)
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  44. From the Axial Age to the Moral Revolution: John Stuart-Glennie, Karl Jaspers, and a New Understanding of the Idea.Eugene Halton - 2014 - New York, NY, USA: Palgrave Macmillan.
    The revolutionary outbreak in a variety of civilizations centered around 600 B.C.E., a period in which the great world religions as well as philosophy emerged, from Hebrew scriptures and the teachings of Buddha to the works of Greek and Chinese philosophers, has been named the Axial Age by Karl Jaspers. Yet 75 years earlier, in 1873, unknown to Jaspers and still unknown to the world, John Stuart Stuart-Glennie elaborated a fully developed and more nuanced theory of what he (...)
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  45. Evil, Unintelligiblity, Radicality: Footnotes to a Correspondence between Hannah Arendt and Karl Jaspers.Andrew Chignell - 2019 - In Evil: A History (Oxford Philosophical Concepts). New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 18-42.
    This chapter articulates two concerns that Karl Jaspers raised (with Hannah Arendt) about the common practice of viewing moral evil as unintelligible. The first is that this involves exoticizing the act and/or perpetrator in such a way that moral condemnation becomes difficult. The second is that it can lead us to treat the perpetrator, place, or victim as tainted or stained by a force whose motives we cannot grasp; this in turn can lead to magical thinking about evil as (...)
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  46. From Opposition to Reciprocity: Karl Jaspers on Science, Philosophy, and What Lies Between Them.Ronny Miron - 2004 - International Philosophical Quarterly 44 (2):147-163.
    This article deals with the relationship between philosophy and science in the writings of Karl Jaspers and with its reception in the wider scholarly literature. The problem discussed is how to characterize the relationship that exists between science—defined on pure Kantian grounds as a universally valid knowledge of phenomenal objects—and philosophy—conceived by Jaspers as the transcending mode of thinking of personal Existenz rising towards the totality and unity of Being. Two solutions to that problem arise from Jaspers’s (...)
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  47. Max Weber: A Profile from Karl Jaspers’ Perspective.Songul Kose - 2021 - Temasa 16:94-101.
    Max Weber, who was a well-known sociologist both of his own time and of today, has been one of the most influential names – besides, Immanuel Kant, Søren Kierkegaard, and Friedrich Nietzsche - for Karl Jaspers, who is one of the original names that come into minds when the 20th-century existential philosophy is mentioned. In fact, it can easily be asserted that Weber had a huge personal role in Jaspers’ carrier as a philosopher. Karl Jaspers is known (...)
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  48. Zur Frage nach dem Leiblichen bei Karl Jaspers.Ulrich Diehl - 2014 - Jahrbuch der Karl-Jaspers-Gesellschaft, Austria 27.
    Obwohl Jaspers in seiner Philosophie Methoden und Motive der Phänomenologie Husserls und der Hermeneutik Diltheys aufgenommen hatte, hat er sich nicht besonders für die Leibphilosophie interessiert. Das bedeutet jedoch nicht, dass der menschliche Leib in seinem Denken gar nicht vorkommt. Aber es handelt sich bei ihm jedoch nicht um ein Schlüsselthema, sondern um ein randständiges Phänomen. Der menschliche Leib ist bei Jaspers die vitale Basis der überlieferten Trias von Leib, Seele und Geist. Damit steht Jaspers in der (...)
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  49. On Cheerfulness and Seriousness in Nietzsche and Jaspers.Ruth Burch - 2022 - Existenz 15 (2):65-72.
    Cheerfulness and seriousness are an integral part of philosophizing in Friedrich Nietzsche and Karl Jaspers. The main reason for this lies in the fact that both regard philosophers as being inseparable from their respective philosophies. Yet also the fact that their respective philosophies have multiple meanings shifts the focus away from truth toward style and rhetoric, that is, from the true and false to mood and laughter as well as to passionate interpretation and playful conversation.
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  50. The Theme of Existence in the Philosophy of Karl Jaspers.Onyenuru Okechukwu P. - manuscript
    Karl Jasper is one of the greatest German existentialists. His philosophy of existence is both immanent and transcendental, making self realization not just a thing of the individual alone, but communal and dependent on a being that transcends material world. We exist to actualize our full potentials not by preying on others, but by coexisting peacefully.
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