Results for 'Wikipedia'

34 found
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  1. Wikipedia et la reconnaissance de la spécialisation.Guillaume Beaulac - 2010 - Cahiers de L’Institut des Sciences Cognitives 1:59-63.
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  2. On Trusting Wikipedia.P. D. Magnus - 2009 - Episteme 6 (1):74-90.
    Given the fact that many people use Wikipedia, we should ask: Can we trust it? The empirical evidence suggests that Wikipedia articles are sometimes quite good but that they vary a great deal. As such, it is wrong to ask for a monolithic verdict on Wikipedia. Interacting with Wikipedia involves assessing where it is likely to be reliable and where not. I identify five strategies that we use to assess claims from other sources and argue that, (...)
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  3.  23
    «Wikipedia: una guía oculta y sin referencia» (resumen).Jesús Miguel Delgado Del Aguila - 2021 - Libro de Resúmenes. Encuentro Científico Internacional 2021 de Verano.
    En este trabajo, se cuestionará la utilidad de Wikipedia para direccionar las pesquisas que se efectúan con respecto a la multiplicidad de tópicos que fluctúan en internet. La sistematización anónima, actualizada y colectiva que plasma esta página web norteamericana desde el 2001 brinda al lector una conceptualización y una taxonomía documentadas, así como fuentes existentes y confiables, que suscitan un abordaje viable para la investigación científica, como también un almacenamiento de información sin fines de lucro[1]. Sin embargo, se ha (...)
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  4. From Open-Source Software to Wikipedia: ‘Backgrounding’ Trust by Collective Monitoring and Reputation Tracking.Paul B. de Laat - 2014 - Ethics and Information Technology 16 (2):157-169.
    Open-content communities that focus on co-creation without requirements for entry have to face the issue of institutional trust in contributors. This research investigates the various ways in which these communities manage this issue. It is shown that communities of open-source software—continue to—rely mainly on hierarchy (reserving write-access for higher echelons), which substitutes (the need for) trust. Encyclopedic communities, though, largely avoid this solution. In the particular case of Wikipedia, which is confronted with persistent vandalism, another arrangement has been pioneered (...)
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  5. The Use of Software Tools and Autonomous Bots Against Vandalism: Eroding Wikipedia’s Moral Order?Paul B. de Laat - 2015 - Ethics and Information Technology 17 (3):175-188.
    English - language Wikipedia is constantly being plagued by vandalistic contributions on a massive scale. In order to fight them its volunteer contributors deploy an array of software tools and autonomous bots. After an analysis of their functioning and the ‘ coactivity ’ in use between humans and bots, this research ‘ discloses ’ the moral issues that emerge from the combined patrolling by humans and bots. Administrators provide the stronger tools only to trusted users, thereby creating a new (...)
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  6.  19
    Even Good Bots Fight: The Case of Wikipedia.Milena Tsvetkova, Ruth García-Gavilanes, Luciano Floridi & Taha Yasseri - 2017 - PLoS ONE 12 (2).
    In recent years, there has been a huge increase in the number of bots online, varying from Web crawlers for search engines, to chatbots for online customer service, spambots on social media, and content-editing bots in online collaboration communities. The online world has turned into an ecosystem of bots. However, our knowledge of how these automated agents are interacting with each other is rather poor. Bots are predictable automatons that do not have the capacity for emotions, meaning-making, creativity, and sociality (...)
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  7. Profiling Vandalism in Wikipedia: A Schauerian Approach to Justification.Paul B. de Laat - 2016 - Ethics and Information Technology 18 (2):131-148.
    In order to fight massive vandalism the English- language Wikipedia has developed a system of surveillance which is carried out by humans and bots, supported by various tools. Central to the selection of edits for inspection is the process of using filters or profiles. Can this profiling be justified? On the basis of a careful reading of Frederick Schauer’s books about rules in general (1991) and profiling in particular (2003) I arrive at several conclusions. The effectiveness, efficiency, and risk-aversion (...)
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  8. Mining Meaning From Wikipedia.David Milne, Catherine Legg, Medelyan Olena & Witten Ian - 2009 - International Journal of Human-Computer Interactions 67 (9):716-754.
    Wikipedia is a goldmine of information; not just for its many readers, but also for the growing community of researchers who recognize it as a resource of exceptional scale and utility. It represents a vast investment of manual effort and judgment: a huge, constantly evolving tapestry of concepts and relations that is being applied to a host of tasks. This article provides a comprehensive description of this work. It focuses on research that extracts and makes use of the concepts, (...)
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  9. Une analyse épistémologique de l’expertise dans Wikipédia.Pierre Willaime - 2015 - In Lionel Barbe, Louise Merzeau & Valérie Schafer (eds.), Wikipedia : objet scientifique non identifié. Presses universitaires de Paris Ouest.
    On peut identifier deux principales caractéristiques de Wikipédia pour expliquer son succès et sa spécificité. La première est sa liberté de modification et d’accès. La deuxième réside dans le système organisationnel ascendant (bottom-up) et égalitaire où les articles ne proviennent plus d’experts sélectionnés pour être ensuite distribués à la foule mais sont, au contraire, produits par une base composée d’amateurs inconnus. Ces deux caractéristiques, associées au succès populaire et qualitatif de l’encyclopédie, laissent peu de place à l’expertise individuelle (en particulier (...)
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  10. From Town-Halls to Wikis: Exploring Wikipedia's Implications for Deliberative Democracy.Nathaniel J. Klemp & Andrew T. Forcehimes - 2010 - Journal of Public Deliberation 6 (2).
    This essay examines the implications Wikipedia holds for theories of deliberative democracy. It argues that while similar in some respects, the mode of interaction within Wikipedia represents a distinctive form of “collaborative editing” that departs from many of the qualities traditionally associated with face-to-face deliberation. This online mode of interaction overcomes many of the problems that distort face-to-face deliberations. By mitigating problems that arise in deliberative practice, such as “group polarization” and “hidden profiles,” the wiki model often realizes (...)
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  11. Our Tactile Brain Computed World and Platonic Brain Web Wikipedia.Jahan N. Schad (ed.) - 2016 - Charleston, USA: CreateSpace.
    It is not likely that we will ever convincingly know how and why we came to be on this planet; of course, this has never prevented inquisitive minds from pushing the frontiers of understanding and discovery further. Our origin is the subject of scientific theories and continuous inquiries with no end in sight, as the shells of related complexities are getting much harder to crack. Paraphrasing philosopher and historian Will Durant, a very few people are getting to know more and (...)
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  12. Extended Cognition and the Explosion of Knowledge.David Ludwig - 2014 - Philosophical Psychology (3):1-14.
    The aim of this article is to show that externalist accounts of cognition such as Clark and Chalmers' (1998) “active externalism” lead to an explosion of knowledge that is caused by online resources such as Wikipedia and Google. I argue that externalist accounts of cognition imply that subjects who integrate mobile Internet access in their cognitive routines have millions of standing beliefs on unexpected issues such as the birth dates of Moroccan politicians or the geographical coordinates of villages in (...)
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  13. Open Source Production of Encyclopedias: Editorial Policies at the Intersection of Organizational and Epistemological Trust.Paul B. de Laat - 2012 - Social Epistemology 26 (1):71-103.
    The ideas behind open source software are currently applied to the production of encyclopedias. A sample of six English text-based, neutral-point-of-view, online encyclopedias of the kind are identified: h2g2, Wikipedia, Scholarpedia, Encyclopedia of Earth, Citizendium and Knol. How do these projects deal with the problem of trusting their participants to behave as competent and loyal encyclopedists? Editorial policies for soliciting and processing content are shown to range from high discretion to low discretion; that is, from granting unlimited trust to (...)
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  14. Extended Cognition in Science Communication.David Ludwig - 2014 - Public Understanding of Science 23 (8):982-995.
    The aim of this article is to propose a methodological externalism that takes knowledge about science to be partly constituted by the environment. My starting point is the debate about extended cognition in contemporary philosophy and cognitive science. Externalists claim that human cognition extends beyond the brain and can be partly constituted by external devices. First, I show that most studies of public knowledge about science are based on an internalist framework that excludes the environment we usually utilize to make (...)
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  15. Bill Gates is Not a Parking Meter: Philosophical Quality Control in Automated Ontology Building.Catherine Legg & Samuel Sarjant - 2012 - Proceedings of the Symposium on Computational Philosophy, AISB/IACAP World Congress 2012 (Birmingham, England, July 2-6).
    The somewhat old-fashioned concept of philosophical categories is revived and put to work in automated ontology building. We describe a project harvesting knowledge from Wikipedia’s category network in which the principled ontological structure of Cyc was leveraged to furnish an extra layer of accuracy-checking over and above more usual corrections which draw on automated measures of semantic relatedness.
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  16. Engaging the Public in Ethical Reasoning About Big Data.Justin Anthony Knapp - 2016 - In Soren Adam Matei & Jeff Collman (eds.), Ethical Reasoning in Big Data: An Exploratory Analysis. Springer. pp. 43-52.
    The public constitutes a major stakeholder in the debate about, and resolution of privacy and ethical The public constitutes a major stakeholder in the debate about, and resolution of privacy and ethical about Big Data research seriously and how to communicate messages designed to build trust in specific big data projects and the institution of science in general. This chapter explores the implications of various examples of engaging the public in online activities such as Wikipedia that contrast with “Notice (...)
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  17. WikiSilo: A Self-Organizing, Crowd Sourcing System for Interdisciplinary Science [Supporting Paper].David Pierre Leibovitz, Robert L. West & Mike Belanger - manuscript
    WikiSilo is a tool for theorizing across interdisciplinary fields such as Cognitive Science, and provides a vocabulary for talking about the problems of doing so. It can be used to demonstrate that a particular cognitive theory is complete and coherent at multiple levels of discourse, and commensurable with and relevant to a wider domain of cognition. WikiSilo is also a minimalist theory and methodology for effectively doing science. WikiSilo is simultaneously similar to and distinct, as well as integrated and separated (...)
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  18. On the Social Nature of Linguistic Prescriptions.Marcin Miłkowski - 2013 - Psychology of Language and Communication 17 (2):175-187.
    The paper proposes an empirical method to investigate linguistic prescriptions as inherent corrective behaviors. The behaviors in question may but need not necessarily be supported by any explicit knowledge of rules. It is possible to gain insight into them, for example by extracting information about corrections from revision histories of texts (or by analyzing speech corpora where users correct themselves or one another). One easily available source of such information is the revision history of Wikipedia. As is shown, the (...)
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  19. Trustworthiness and Truth: The Epistemic Pitfalls of Internet Accountability.Karen Frost-Arnold - 2014 - Episteme 11 (1):63-81.
    Since anonymous agents can spread misinformation with impunity, many people advocate for greater accountability for internet speech. This paper provides a veritistic argument that accountability mechanisms can cause significant epistemic problems for internet encyclopedias and social media communities. I show that accountability mechanisms can undermine both the dissemination of true beliefs and the detection of error. Drawing on social psychology and behavioral economics, I suggest alternative mechanisms for increasing the trustworthiness of internet communication.
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  20. NAVIGATING BETWEEN CHAOS AND BUREAUCRACY: BACKGROUNDING TRUST IN OPEN-CONTENT COMMUNITIES.Paul B. de Laat - 2012 - In Karl Aberer, Andreas Flache, Wander Jager, Ling Liu, Jie Tang & Christophe Guéret (eds.), 4th International Conference, SocInfo 2012, Lausanne, Switzerland, December 5-7, 2012. Proceedings. Springer.
    Many virtual communities that rely on user-generated content (such as social news sites, citizen journals, and encyclopedias in particular) offer unrestricted and immediate ‘write access’ to every contributor. It is argued that these communities do not just assume that the trust granted by that policy is well-placed; they have developed extensive mechanisms that underpin the trust involved (‘backgrounding’). These target contributors (stipulating legal terms of use and developing etiquette, both underscored by sanctions) as well as the contents contributed by them (...)
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  21. Moartea - Aspecte psihologice, ştiinţifice, religioase, culturale şi filozofice.Nicolae Sfetcu - 2015 - Drobeta Turnu Severin: MultiMedia Publishing.
    Despre moarte, durere, doliu, viaţa de după moarte şi nemurire. De ce trebuie să murim ca oameni pentru a trăi ca specie. "Nimeni nu vrea să moară. Chiar și cei care doresc să ajungă în cer, nu ar vrea să moară pentru a ajunge acolo. Și totuși, moartea este destinația pe care o împărtășim cu toții. Nimeni nu a scăpat vreodată. Și aşa şi trebuie, pentru că Moartea este foarte probabil cea mai bună invenție a Vieții. Este agentul de schimbare (...)
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  22.  81
    Hypertext. Eine Schrift für vernetzte, dynamische Schreibmaschinen (1965).Christian Vater - 2017 - In Christian Vater, Ludger Lieb, Christian Witschel & Michaela Böttner (eds.), 5300 Jahre Schrift. Heidelberg: Wunderhorn. pp. 166-169.
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  23. Review of Chinnamastā: The Aweful Buddhist and Hindu Tantric Goddess. [REVIEW]Subhasis Chattopadhyay - 2016 - Prabuddha Bharata or Awakened India 121 (10):720-21.
    Chinnamasta and Tantra are both misunderstood. This review, without being pedantic, looks at Wikipedia, the ten Mahavidyas and Chinnamasta. This review is in continuation of a non-academic article on Tantra published in January, 2016, in Prabuddha Bharata by the same reviewer.
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  24. CRITIQUE OF IMPURE REASON: Horizons of Possibility and Meaning.Steven James Bartlett - 2021 - Salem, USA: Studies in Theory and Behavior.
    PLEASE NOTE: This is the corrected 2nd eBook edition, 2021. ●●●●● _Critique of Impure Reason_ has now also been published in a printed edition. To reduce the otherwise high price of this scholarly, technical book of nearly 900 pages and make it more widely available beyond university libraries to individual readers, the non-profit publisher and the author have agreed to issue the printed edition at cost. ●●●●● The printed edition was released on September 1, 2021 and is now available through (...)
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  25. Reid, Constance. Hilbert (a Biography). Reviewed by Corcoran in Philosophy of Science 39 (1972), 106–08.John Corcoran - 1972 - Philosophy of Science 39 (1):106-108.
    Reid, Constance. Hilbert (a Biography). Reviewed by Corcoran in Philosophy of Science 39 (1972), 106–08. -/- Constance Reid was an insider of the Berkeley-Stanford logic circle. Her San Francisco home was in Ashbury Heights near the homes of logicians such as Dana Scott and John Corcoran. Her sister Julia Robinson was one of the top mathematical logicians of her generation, as was Julia’s husband Raphael Robinson for whom Robinson Arithmetic was named. Julia was a Tarski PhD and, in recognition of (...)
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  26. REVIEW OF 1988. Saccheri, G. Euclides Vindicatus (1733), Edited and Translated by G. B. Halsted, 2nd Ed. (1986), in Mathematical Reviews MR0862448. 88j:01013.John Corcoran - 1988 - MATHEMATICAL REVIEWS 88 (J):88j:01013.
    Girolamo Saccheri (1667--1733) was an Italian Jesuit priest, scholastic philosopher, and mathematician. He earned a permanent place in the history of mathematics by discovering and rigorously deducing an elaborate chain of consequences of an axiom-set for what is now known as hyperbolic (or Lobachevskian) plane geometry. Reviewer's remarks: (1) On two pages of this book Saccheri refers to his previous and equally original book Logica demonstrativa (Turin, 1697) to which 14 of the 16 pages of the editor's "Introduction" are devoted. (...)
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  27.  56
    Shakespeare's Use of Word 'Arden' Goes to Me to Justify 'A-''D''en'.Rituparna Ray Chaudhuri - unknown
    "Men have died from time to time, and worms have eaten them, but not for love."Satyajit Ray Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia 2015 .
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  28. Self-Graphing Equations.Samuel Alexander - manuscript
    Can you find an xy-equation that, when graphed, writes itself on the plane? This idea became internet-famous when a Wikipedia article on Tupper’s self-referential formula went viral in 2012. Under scrutiny, the question has two flaws: it is meaningless (it depends on fonts) and it is trivial. We fix these flaws by formalizing the problem.
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  29.  27
    Anatomia dell’autenticità. [REVIEW]Ferruccio Vigna - 2018 - L'ombra 11.
    E se la nostra verità fosse proprio lì, in quell’imperfezione che ci portiamo dentro e che cerchiamo a tutti i costi di negare? E se fosse solo nel momento in cui rinunciamo alla perfezione che possiamo poi vivere pienamente? -/- Autenticità come verità Quello di autenticità è un concetto che tutti crediamo intuitivamente di capire, ma che poi troviamo difficile definire a parole. È successo anche a me, tanto che ho preferito affrontare la questione rivolgendomi ai moderni depositari del sapere. (...)
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  30.  51
    Anatomia dell’autenticità.Ferruccio Vigna - 2018 - L'ombra 11.
    Quello di autenticità è un concetto che tutti crediamo intuitivamente di capire, ma che poi troviamo difficile definire a parole. È successo anche a me, tanto che ho preferito affrontare la questione rivolgendomi ai moderni depositari del sapere. Secondo Wikipedia, l’autenticità coincide in sintesi con la verità. Autentico è – leggo - ciò che si riferisce alla nostra vera interiorità, al di là di quello che vogliamo apparire o crediamo di essere. Nel concreto, però, di fronte al problema di (...)
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  31. Collaborative Creation of Teaching-Learning Sequences and an Atlas of Knowledge.Nagarjuna G. - 2009 - Mathematics Teaching-Research Journal Online 3 (N3):23-40.
    Our focus in the article is to introduce a simple methodology of generating teaching-learning sequences using the semantic network techinque, followed by the emergent properties of such a network and their implications for the teaching-learning process (didactics) with marginal notes on epistemological implications. A collaborative portal for teachers, which publishes a network of prerequisites for teaching/learning any concept or an activity is introduced. The article ends with an appeal to the global community to contribute prerequisites of any subject to complete (...)
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  32. Collaborative Creation of Teaching Learning Sequences and an Atlas of Knowledgge.Nagarjuna G. - 2009 - Mathematics Teaching-Research Journal Online 3 (3):23.
    The article is about a new online resource, a collaborative portal for teachers, which publishes a network of prerequisites for teaching/learning any concept or an activity. A simple and effective method of collaboratively constructing teaching-learning sequences is presented. The special emergent properties of the dependency network and their didactic and epistemic implications are pointed. The article ends with an appeal to the global teaching community to contribute prerequisites of any subject to complete the global roadmap for an altas being built (...)
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  33. Quantum Filozofi.Ismet Sahin (ed.) - 2018 - Ankara, Turkey: Praksis.
    Bu çalışma kitap olmayan bir kitaptır. Okur klasik kitaplarda alıştığı tamamlanmış metinler, çözümlenmiş bilimsel ve felsefi problemler beklemesin bu çalışmada. Sunduğum şey üzerinde çalıştığım konular ve o konularla ilgili geliştirdiğim düşünceler, aforizmalar yer yer dağınık önermelerdir. Bu iki nedenden dolayı böyledir: Birincisi bilgi kuramsal açıdan tamamlanmış önermeler dizgesinin yanlış olmasıdır. Quantum çağında her gün yeni bir keşif yaptığımız nesneler ile ilgili büyük anlatılar ve tamamlanmış, sistematik görüşler geliştirilemez. Geleneksel tüm kitaplar ilgilendikleri nesneyi tüm bağıntılarıyla çözdükleri iddiasındadır. Örneğin tüm çağdaş fizik (...)
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  34. What an Entangled Web We Weave: An Information-Centric Approach to Time-Evolving Socio-Technical Systems.Markus Luczak-Roesch, Kieron O’Hara, Jesse David Dinneen & Ramine Tinati - 2018 - Minds and Machines 28 (4):709-733.
    A new layer of complexity, constituted of networks of information token recurrence, has been identified in socio-technical systems such as the Wikipedia online community and the Zooniverse citizen science platform. The identification of this complexity reveals that our current understanding of the actual structure of those systems, and consequently the structure of the entire World Wide Web, is incomplete, which raises novel questions for data science research but also from the perspective of social epistemology. Here we establish the principled (...)
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