Results for 'animism'

52 found
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  1. Ancient animistic beliefs live on in our intimacy with tech.Stephen Asma - 2020 - Aeon.
    Animistic cognition has adaptive value in domains of social and physical niche prediction. This argument is extended to our contemporary relationship with digital and AI technology.
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  2. Animism and Natural Teleology from Avicenna to Boyle.Jeff Kochan - 2021 - Science in Context 34 (1):1-23.
    Historians have claimed that the two closely related concepts of animism and natural teleology were both decisively rejected in the Scientific Revolution. They tout Robert Boyle as an early modern warden against pre-modern animism. Discussing Avicenna, Aquinas, and Buridan, as well as Renaissance psychology, I instead suggest that teleology went through a slow and uneven process of rationalization. As Neoplatonic theology gained influence over Aristotelian natural philosophy, the meaning of animism likewise grew obscure. Boyle, as some historians (...)
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  3. Animism: Its Scope and Limits.Graham Oppy - 2022 - In Tiddy Smith (ed.), Animism and Philosophy of Religion. Springer Verlag. pp. 199-226.
    What should we be animists about? This chapter aims to answer that question. I begin by distinguishing between ontological and ideological formulations of animism. I suggest that plausible forms of animism will be merely ideological, and I distinguish between full-strength and less-than-full-strength animism. Next, I consider the extent to which idealism, pantheism and panpsychism might be taken to support some sort of universal animism. I conclude that there is no plausible form of full-strength universal animism. (...)
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  4. Peircean Animism and the End of Civilization.Eugene Halton - 2005 - Contemporary Pragmatism 2 (1):135-166.
    Charles Peirce claimed that logically "every true universal, every continuum, is a living and conscious being." Such a claim is precisely what hunter-gatherers believe: a world-view depicted as animism. Suppose animism represents a sophisticated world-view, ineradicably embodied in our physical bodies, and that Peirce's philosophy points toward a new kind of civilization, inclusive of what I term animate mind. We are wired to marvel in nature, and this reverencing attunement does not require a concept of God. Marveling in (...)
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  5. Aesthetic Animism.Ryan P. Doran - 2022 - Philosophical Studies 179 (11):3365-3400.
    I argue that the main existing accounts of the relationship between the beauty of environmental entities and their moral standing are mistaken in important ways. Beauty does not, as has been suggested by optimists, confer intrinsic moral standing. Nor is it the case, as has been suggested by pessimists, that beauty at best provides an anthropocentric source of moral standing that is commensurate with other sources of pleasure. I present arguments and evidence that show that the appreciation of beauty tends (...)
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  6. Animism as an Approach to Arda.Woody Evans - 2019 - IJALEL 4 (8):116-119.
    Here we examine qualities of what would be thought of as inanimate beings that lend evidence to the position that J.R.R. Tolkien’s fictional universe is animistic. Arda is full of life, and natural things in it, such as mountains and rivers, are often alive or conscious. A close look at the qualities of the stars in particular yields further evidence in favor of animism as a foundational ontology of Arda.
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  7. Ingold, Hermeneutics, and Hylomorphic Animism.Jeff Kochan - 2024 - Anthropological Theory 24 (1):88-108.
    Tim Ingold draws a sharp line between animism and hylomorphism, that is, between his relational ontology and a rival genealogical ontology. He argues that genealogical hylomorphism collapses under a fallacy of circularity, while his relationism does not. Yet Ingold fails to distinguish between vicious or fallacious circles, on the one hand, and virtuous or hermeneutic circles, on the other. I demonstrate that hylomorphism and Ingold’s relational animism are both virtuously circular. Hence, there is no difference between them on (...)
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  8. How to Debunk Animism.Perry Hendricks - 2021 - Philosophia 50 (2):543-550.
    Tiddy Smith argues that common consent amongst geographically and historically isolated communities provides strong evidence for animism―the view that there are nature spirits. In this article, I argue that the problem of animistic hiddenness―the lack of widespread belief in nature spirits―is at least as strong evidence against animism that common consent is evidence for it, meaning that the evidence for animism that Smith provides is neutralized.
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  9. Scientific Animism.Lorenzo Sleakes - manuscript
    Conscious beings are efficacious and that is how we can know where they exist. They are able to sense their environment and interact with it in a dynamic flexible goal oriented way. They interact with their immediate surroundings in their own characteristic manner. They are self movers but require the use of energy to move. Where would we find such fundamental mental beings, monads or natural individuals? I use science to speculate as to the answer to that question and arrive (...)
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  10. Techno-animism and the Pygmalion effect.Emanuele Arielli & Lev Manovich - forthcoming - Http://Manovich.Net/Index.Php/Projects/Artificial-Aesthetics.
    Chapter 3 of the ongoing publication "Artificial Aesthetics" Book information: Assume you're a designer, an architect, a photographer, a videographer, a curator, an art historian, a musician, a writer, an artist, or any other creative professional or student. Perhaps you're a digital content creator who works across multiple platforms. Alternatively, you could be an art historian, curator, or museum professional. -/- You may be wondering how AI will affect your professional area in general and your work and career. Our book (...)
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  11. Societies Within: Selfhood through Dividualism & Relational Epistemology.Jonathan Morgan - manuscript
    Most see having their individuality stifled as equivalent to the terrible forced conformity found within speculative fiction like George Orwell's 1984. However, the oppression of others by those in power has often been justified through ideologies of individualism. If we look to animistic traditions, could we bridge the gap between these extremes? What effect would such a reevaluation of identity have on the modern understanding of selfhood? The term ' in-dividual' suggests an irreducible unit of identity carried underneath all of (...)
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  12. Animisms: Practical Indigenous Philosophies.Johan De Smedt & Helen De Cruz - 2022 - In Tiddy Smith (ed.), Animism and Philosophy of Religion. Springer Verlag. pp. 95-122.
    In this chapter, we focus on animism and how it is studied in the cognitive science of religion and cultural anthropology. We argue that philosophers of religion still use (outdated) normative notions from early scientific studies of religion that go back at least a century and that have since been abandoned in other disciplines. Our argument is programmatic: we call for an expansion of philosophy of religion in order to include traditions that are currently underrepresented. The failure of philosophy (...)
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  13. Sociality and Magical Language: Nietzsche and Psychoanalysis.Jeffrey Jackson - 2019 - Language and Psychoanalysis 1 (8):83-97.
    On a certain reading, the respective theories of Freud and Nietzsche might be described as exploring the suffered relational histories of the subject, who is driven by need; these histories might also be understood as histories of language. This suggests a view of language as a complicated mode of identifying-with, which obliges linguistic subjects to identify the non-identical, but also enables them to simultaneously identify with each other in the psychoanalytic sense. This ambivalent space of psychoanalytic identification would be conditioned (...)
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  14. Meaning and Modernity: Social Theory in the Pragmatic Attitude.Eugene Rochberg-Halton - 1986 - Chicago, IL, USA: University of Chicago Press.
    The twentieth-century obsession with meaning often fails to address the central questions: Why are we here? Where are we going? In this radical critique of modernity, Eugene (Rochberg-) Halton resurrects pragmatism, pushing it beyond its traditional formulations to meet these questions head on. Drawing on the works of the early pragmatists such as John Dewey, George Herbert Mead, and particularly C.S. Peirce, Meaning and Modernity is an ambitious attempt to reconstruct concepts from philosophical pragmatism for contemporary social theory. Through a (...)
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  15. Halton’s Original Theory of the Extended Self Versus Russell Belk’s Use of It.Eugene Halton - manuscript
    Notes on and excerpted quotations from Eugene Halton’s theory of the self (and mind) as continuous with and involved in its objective surroundings as extensions of the self. These notes provide evidence for Halton’s multiple works as the earlier basis for what Russell Belk later called "the extended self" in 1988, for which he got credit while Halton’s original ideas were marginalized or excluded. In addition, Halton also developed some of these ideas as "critical animism," (see text) a predecessor (...)
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  16. What if the Dead Are Never Really Dead?Victoria S. Harrison - 2021 - The Monist 104 (3):337-351.
    This paper argues for the value of the ‘strange’ as a hermeneutical tool to open fresh perspectives on an issue of widespread human concern, specifically how to deal with and relate to the dead. Traditional Chinese folk religion and the animistic ghost culture found within it is introduced and the role of gods, ancestors, and ghosts explained. The view that death is not the end of life but the transition to a new relationship with the living raises questions about our (...)
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  17. John Stuart-Glennie’s Lost Legacy.Eugene Halton - 2019 - In Christopher T. Conner, Nicholas M. Baxter & David R. Dickens (eds.), Forgotten Founders and Other Neglected Social Theorists. pp. 11-26.
    This chapter examines the lost legacy of John Stuart-Glennie (1841-1910), a contributor to the founding of sociology and a major theorist, whose work was known in his lifetime but disappeared after his death. Stuart-Glennie was praised by philosopher John Stuart Mill, was a friend of and influence upon playwright George Bernard Shaw, and was an active contributor to the fledgling Sociological Society in London in the first decade of the twentieth century. Stuart-Glennie’s most significant idea in hindsight was his theory (...)
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  18. The Fetishism of Signs.Eugene Halton - 1984 - In Eugene Rochberg-Halton & Eugene (eds.), Semiotics 1984. pp. 409-418.
    The tendency in semiotics toward unnecessary abstractionism and antinaturalism is criticized. More broadly, a transformation is proposed from abstractionism, with its fetishism of signs, to an animism of signs in which the imagination and the signs it gives birth to not only reconnect with the biocultural heritage, but also animate an idea of culture as involving living purpose, not simply inert code. See the revised version of this chapter in my book, Meaning and Modernity.
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  19. Book Review: A Critique of the Moral Defense of Vegetarianism. [REVIEW]Paul Bali - unknown
    Smith makes his case against V-ism by appeals to (i) plant sentience, and (ii) the Transitivity of Eating principle [by which V-ans eat animals, since plants feed on decomposed animals]. By (i), V-ans are inconsistent in their prohibitions; by (ii) V-ism is impossible. -/- But, I argue, Smith and his beloved omnivore animists face similar pressures, insofar as they prohibit cannibalism.
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  20. In Defence of Plant Personhood.Matthew Hall - 2019 - Religions 10 (5):317.
    The philosopher Michael Marder has asserted that animist engagement with plants involves a projection of human purposes and goals leading to veneration. He has also argued that an extension of a categorical concept of personhood underpins my previous work on plant personhood. This paper draws on the growing scholarship of animist traditions following the work of Hallowell to reject Marder’s characterization of a naïve animist approach to plants. It draws on these insights from animist traditions to outline a relational plant (...)
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  21. Adaptive Imagination: Toward a Mythopoetic Cognitive Science.Stephen Asma - 2021 - Evolutionary Studies in Imaginative Culture 5 (2):1-32.
    A mythopoetic paradigm or perspective sees the world primarily as a dramatic story of competing personal intentions, rather than a system of objective impersonal laws. Asma argued that our contemporary imaginative cognition is evolutionarily conserved-it has structural and functional similarities to premodern Homo sapiens’s cognition. This article will outline the essential features of mythopoetic cognition or adaptive imagination, delineate the adaptive sociocultural advantages of mythopoetic cognition, explain the phylogenetic and ontogenetic mechanisms that give rise to human mythopoetic mind, show how (...)
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  22. The Machine Conception of the Organism in Development and Evolution: A Critical Analysis.Daniel J. Nicholson - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 48:162-174.
    This article critically examines one of the most prevalent metaphors in modern biology, namely the machine conception of the organism (MCO). Although the fundamental differences between organisms and machines make the MCO an inadequate metaphor for conceptualizing living systems, many biologists and philosophers continue to draw upon the MCO or tacitly accept it as the standard model of the organism. This paper analyses the specific difficulties that arise when the MCO is invoked in the study of development and evolution. In (...)
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  23. Vital anti-mathematicism and the ontology of the emerging life sciences: from Mandeville to Diderot.Charles T. Wolfe - 2017 - Synthese:1-22.
    Intellectual history still quite commonly distinguishes between the episode we know as the Scientific Revolution, and its successor era, the Enlightenment, in terms of the calculatory and quantifying zeal of the former—the age of mechanics—and the rather scientifically lackadaisical mood of the latter, more concerned with freedom, public space and aesthetics. It is possible to challenge this distinction in a variety of ways, but the approach I examine here, in which the focus on an emerging scientific field or cluster of (...)
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  24. Do organisms have an ontological status?Charles T. Wolfe - 2010 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 32 (2-3):195-232.
    The category of ‘organism’ has an ambiguous status: is it scientific or is it philosophical? Or, if one looks at it from within the relatively recent field or sub-field of philosophy of biology, is it a central, or at least legitimate category therein, or should it be dispensed with? In any case, it has long served as a kind of scientific “bolstering” for a philosophical train of argument which seeks to refute the “mechanistic” or “reductionist” trend, which has been perceived (...)
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  25. Out-of-body experiences as the origin of the concept of a 'soul '.Thomas Metzinger - 2005 - Mind and Matter 3 (1):57-84.
    Contemporary philosophical and scienti .c discussions of mind developed from a 'proto-concept of mind ',a mythical,tradition- alistic,animistic and quasi-sensory theory about what it means to have a mind. It can be found in many di .erent cultures and has a semantic core corresponding to the folk-phenomenological notion of a 'soul '.It will be argued that this notion originates in accurate and truthful .rst-person reports about the experiential content of a special neurophenomenological state-class called 'out-of-body experiences '.They can be undergone by (...)
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  26. Religious Belief is not Natural. Why cognitive science of religion does not show that religious belief is rational.Hans Van Eyghen - 2016 - Studia Humana 5 (4):34-44.
    It is widely acknowledged that the new emerging discipline cognitive science of religion has a bearing on how to think about the epistemic status of religious beliefs. Both defenders and opponents of the rationality of religious belief have used cognitive theories of religion to argue for their point. This paper will look at the defender-side of the debate. I will discuss an often used argument in favor of the trustworthiness of religious beliefs, stating that cognitive science of religion shows that (...)
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  27. A Modern Polytheism? Nietzsche and James.Jordan Rodgers - 2020 - Journal of Speculative Philosophy 34 (1):69-96.
    Polytheism is a strange view to hold in modernity. Connected as it is in the popular imagination with archaic, animistic, magical, prescientific systems of thought, we don’t hesitate much before casting it into the dustbin of history. Even if we are not monotheists, we are likely to think of monotheism as the obviously more plausible position. The traditional arguments for the existence of God, which have been enormously influential in Western philosophy of religion, do not necessarily rule out polytheism but (...)
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  28. How to create a life or mind as the explanation of our consciousness, intelligence and language.Xinyan Zhang - 2022 - Journal of Neurophilosophy (No. 2 (2022)).
    Against ideas of dualism, logocentrism, anthropocentrism, animism, panpsychism, biocentrism, neurocentrism, foundationalism, computationalism, especially substantialism, reductionism and even physicalism, the author argues that life may be the only non-reductive concept, even the only ontological concept, with which we may explain our consciousness, intelligence and language. Life, as defined in this article, explains but not only human brains, and even not only biological organisms. Still, the mind, also as defined in this article, is the only one it explains. No mind may (...)
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  29. Why was there no controversy over Life in the Scientific Revolution?Charles T. Wolfe - 2011 - In Victor Boantza Marcelo Dascal (ed.), Controversies in the Scientific Revolution. John Benjamins.
    Well prior to the invention of the term ‘biology’ in the early 1800s by Lamarck and Treviranus, and also prior to the appearance of terms such as ‘organism’ under the pen of Leibniz in the early 1700s, the question of ‘Life’, that is, the status of living organisms within the broader physico-mechanical universe, agitated different corners of the European intellectual scene. From modern Epicureanism to medical Newtonianism, from Stahlian animism to the discourse on the ‘animal economy’ in vitalist medicine, (...)
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  30. Editorial, Cosmopolis. Spirituality, religion and politics.Paul Ghils - 2015 - Cosmopolis. A Journal of Cosmopolitics 7 (3-4).
    Cosmopolis A Review of Cosmopolitics -/- 2015/3-4 -/- Editorial Dominique de Courcelles & Paul Ghils -/- This issue addresses the general concept of “spirituality” as it appears in various cultural contexts and timeframes, through contrasting ideological views. Without necessarily going back to artistic and religious remains of primitive men, which unquestionably show pursuits beyond the biophysical dimension and illustrate practices seeking to unveil the hidden significance of life and death, the following papers deal with a number of interpretations covering a (...)
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  31. Sand Talk: Process Philosophy and Indigenous Knowledges.Julien Tempone-Wiltshire - 2024 - Journal of Process Studies 53 (1):42–68.
    Yunkaporta’s 2019 text Sand Talk carves out a language of resistance to the McDonaldisation of Indigenous research. While historic scholarly engagement with Aboriginal culture has overemphasized content, Yunkaporta demonstrates how this has occurred to the exclusion of the processes of Indigenous knowledge transmission and creation. Yet a process view requires engagement with the how not only the what. Such knowledge transmission is discerned in daily lived relationship between land, spirit, and people; binding epistemology to participation in a specific landscape embedded (...)
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  32. The Bright Lights on Self Identity and Positive Reciprocity: Spinoza’s Ethics of the Other Focusing on Competency, Sustainability and the Divine Love.Ignace Haaz - 2018 - Journal of Dharma 43 (3):261-284.
    The claim of this paper is to present Spinoza’s view on self-esteem and positive reciprocity, which replaces the human being in a monistic psycho-dynamical affective framework, instead of a dualistic pedestal above nature. Without naturalising the human being in an eliminative materialistic view as many recent neuro-scientific conceptions of the mind do, Spinoza finds an important entry point in a panpsychist and holistic perspective, presenting the complexity of the human being, which is not reducible to the psycho-physiological conditions of life. (...)
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  33. Cultural distortions of self-and reality-perception.Charles Whitehead - 2010 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 17 (7-8):7-8.
    This essay explores the cultural and political processes which shape human worldviews. I examine the functions, mechanisms, and consequences of cultural distortions of perception, and the evolution of the western scientific worldview from its ancient animistic roots. From the evidence reviewed here I infer that collective deceptions are endemic in human culture, that physicalism is a collective deception and that the 'hard problem' of consciousness, defined in physicalist terms, is a false problem.
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  34. Mind Matters.Eugene Halton - 2008 - Symbolic Interaction 31 (2):119-141.
    The great divide of modern thought is whether mind is real or naught. The conceit that either mind is reducible to matter or that mind is utterly ethereal is rooted in a mind-versus-matter dichotomy that can be characterized as the modern error, a fatally flawed fallacy rooted in the philosophy and culture of nominalism. A Peircean semiotic outlook, applied to an understanding of social life, provides a new and full-bodied understanding of semiosis as the bridge between mind and matter, and (...)
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  35. Death - Cultural, philosophical and religious aspects.Nicolae Sfetcu - 2016 - Drobeta Turnu Severin: MultiMedia Publishing.
    About death, grief, mourning, life after death and immortality. Why should we die like humans to survive as a species. -/- "No one wants to die. Even people who want to go to heaven don't want to die to get there. And yet death is the destination we all share. No one has ever escaped it. And that is as it should be, because Death is very likely the single best invention of Life. It is Life's change agent. It clears (...)
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  36. Avenarius: The Beginning of the Experience of Knowledge (5th edition).Gaidabrus Natalia - 2020 - «Modern Science: Actual Problems of Theory and Practice» 4 (Avenarius: erroneous bifurcation):75-78.
    In the act of knowing consciousness, the experience (experience) of a thing by another individual is put into it. All the components of the environment that manifest themselves in movement, sound, light, resistance, etc. become a source of introjection in the experience. As a result of animism, what exists outside of man is divided into an external world and an extra-world existence, and knowledge is differentiated into sensuous and non-empirical. The original naive empirical duality becomes a metaphysical dualism.
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  37. Moral Archetypes - Ethics in Prehistory.Roberto Arruda - 2019 - Terra à Vista - ISBN-10: 1698168292 ISBN-13: 978-1698168296.
    ABSTRACT The philosophical tradition approaches to morals have their grounds predominantly on metaphysical and theological concepts and theories. Among the traditional ethics concepts, the most prominent is the Divine Command Theory (DCT). As per the DCT, God gives moral foundations to the humankind by its creation and through Revelation. Morality and Divinity are inseparable since the most remote civilization. These concepts submerge in a theological framework and are largely accepted by most followers of the three Abrahamic traditions: Judaism, Christianity, and (...)
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  38. Andrew F. Smith, A Critique of the Moral Defense of Vegetarianism. Reviewed by.Patrick Clipsham - 2016 - Philosophy in Review 36 (4):179-181.
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  39. Disassembling the System: A Reply to Paolo Palladino and Adam Riggio.Jeff Kochan - 2018 - Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective 7 (12):29-38.
    Final instalment of a book-review symposium on: Jeff Kochan (2017), Science as Social Existence: Heidegger and the Sociology of Scientific Knowledge (Cambridge UK: Open Book Publishers). -- Author's response to: Paolo Palladino (2018), 'Heidegger Today: On Jeff Kochan’s Science and Social Existence,' Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective 7(8): 41-46; and Adam Riggio (2018), 'The Very Being of a Conceptual Scheme: Disciplinary and Conceptual Critiques,' Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective 7(11): 53-59.
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  40. Pensées Magiques: Retour sur le 'Retour du Religieux'.Thomas Clément Mercier - 2019 - Revue ITER 1.
    Dans cet essai, j'analyse les présuppositions du récit dudit « retour du religieux », du point de vue de la psychanalyse (Freud) et de la déconstruction (Derrida). Après avoir mis à jour l'eurocentrisme et le colonialisme inhérents aux concepts de « magie », « animisme », « religion » et « croyance » chez Freud (avec une attention particulière portée à Totem et tabou), j’offre une lecture déconstructrice des discours politiques contemporains sur le sécularisme, la foi et le savoir.
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  41. Breaking Out of One's Head (& Awakening to the World).Gregory Nixon - 2011 - Journal of Consciousness Exploration and Research 2 (7):1006-1022.
    Herein, I review the moment in my life when I awoke from the dream of self to find being as part of the living world. It was a sudden, momentous event that is difficult to explain since transcending the self ultimately requires transcending the language structures of which the self consists. Since awakening to the world took place beyond the enclosure of self-speech, it also took place outside our symbolic construction of time. It is strange to place this event and (...)
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  42. Philosophie de la religion et spiritualité japonaise.Pierre Bonneels & Baudouin Decharneux - 2019 - Paris: Classiques Garnier.
    Résumé: Fruit du colloque "Spiritualité japonaise - Perceptions et représentations, entre tradition et occidentalisation" organisé par les Universités Libre de Bruxelles et Catholique de Louvain, cet ouvrage propose des recherches en philosophie de la religion sur le Japon comparativement à l’Occident.
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  43. Whitehead's unique approach to the topic of consciousness.Anderson Weekes - 2010 - In Michel Weber & Anderson Weekes (eds.), Process Approaches to Consciousness in Psychology, Neuroscience, and Philosophy of Mind. Albany: State University of New York Press. pp. 137-172.
    Conventional approaches to consciousness assume that our current science tells us within tolerable limits what physical nature is. Because nature so understood cannot explain consciousness as we seem to experience it ourselves, explaining consciousness becomes a problem. One solution is to rethink what consciousness is so that it becomes the sort of thing our current natural science could in principle explain. Whitehead takes the opposite approach, using the existence of consciousness as a clue to what nature must be if it (...)
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  44. Archetipi morali: etica nella preistoria.Roberto Thomas Arruda - 2024 - São Paulo: Terra à Vista.
    Gli approcci della tradizione filosofica alla morale si fondano prevalentemente su concetti e teorie metafisiche e teologiche. Tra i concetti etici tradizionali, il più importante è la Teoria del Comando Divino (DCT). Secondo la DCT, Dio dà fondamenti morali all’umanità attraverso la sua creazione e attraverso la Rivelazione. Moralità e Divinità sono inseparabili fin dalle civiltà più remote. Questi concetti si inseriscono in un quadro teologico e sono accettati principalmente dalla maggior parte dei seguaci delle tre tradizioni abramitiche: ebraismo, cristianesimo (...)
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  45. Cosmovisioni e realtà: la filosofia di ciascuno.Roberto Thomas Arruda - 2024 - São Paulo: Terra à Vista.
    Cosmovisione è un termine che dovrebbe significare un insieme di fondamenti da cui emerge una comprensione sistemica dell'Universo, delle sue componenti come la vita, il mondo in cui viviamo, la natura, il fenomeno umano e le sue relazioni. Si tratta, quindi, di un campo della filosofia analitica alimentato dalle scienze, il cui obiettivo è questa conoscenza aggregata ed epistemologicamente sostenibile su tutto ciò che siamo e conteniamo, che ci circonda e che in qualche modo si relaziona con noi. È qualcosa (...)
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  46. 道德原型:史前伦理.Roberto Thomas Arruda - 2024 - São Paulo: Terra à vista.
    哲学传统的道德观念主要基于形而上学和神学的观念和理论。最突出的传统道德概念是神圣命令理论(DCT)。 根据DCT,上帝通过创造和启示为人类奠定了道德基础。 从人类文明的早期开始,道德与神性就密不可分。 这些概念基于神学框架。它们被三大亚伯拉罕传统中的大多数人类信徒所接受:犹太教,基督教和伊斯兰教。DCT理论仅基于信仰和启示,并没有提供严格的科学 示范。 几个世纪以来,"DCT"道德概念的反对者试图淡化其重要性(尽管没有成功),理由是其形而上学和宗教假设无法得到证实。 。这只是一种信念,应该这样理解。 除了这些极端对立之外,还有许多其他概念部分或完全与DCT理论相矛盾。 从古希腊哲学到今天,许多哲学家和社会科学家都坚持认为道德是一种建构,因此在文化上是相对的和确定性的。然而,这也引发了许多其他讨论,并提出了一些棘手的问题,例如文化的意义是什么,文化中的哪些因素在道德上 是决定性的,这种相对论的局限性是什么。 道德决定论者反过来声称,一旦自由意志不存在,包括道德在内的人类行为的一切都是确定性的。 最近,现代思想家认为道德是一门严谨的科学。然而,科学的方法虽然可以解释一些事实和证据,但它本身并不能揭示道德的内涵和意义。理解道德需要更广泛的理解,需要哲学家达成共识,这是他们从未实现过的。 只要许多问题相互冲突,就会产生复杂的分析和无休止的争论。 参与这项研究的宇宙和大气是所有这些概念冲突的主题,也是客观和进化观察的结果。 尽管存在这种情况及其固有的重要性,但这些问题远远没有讨论客观伦理分析的方法论,这是这项工作的目的和范围。 我们应该简要地重新审视这些众所周知的传统理论,因为这项工作是一项比较研究,其假设与至少所有传统理论都有很大不同。 -/- 因此,有必要为读者提供直接和具体的比较要素,以便在不进行广泛研究的情况下进行有效的批评。 这项工作的目的是证明和展示史前道德原型的存在和意义,这些原型直接源于最基本的社会需求和生存努力。这些原型定义了道德的本质基础,将其聚合到集体无意识中,并用相应的逻辑组织起来。 这种逻辑被传递到人类基因组的进化阶段和不同的时空关系,无论任何当代的个人经验。这些原型定义的系统构成了人类社会的进化模型。 这是一个元伦理立场吗? 是的,是的。 此外,在任何元伦理推理中,我们都应该仔细寻找最佳和最连贯的路径,分析哲学提供了这样的路径。 因此,这项工作应该合理地证明道德不是文明人或现代社会的文化产物。虽然它经历了许多文化的相对聚集和缺失,但它的基础是原型,从未经历过结构变化。这种推理表明,道德是智人的第一个社会建构。 它不是一种属性或偶然现象:它与人的本质融为一体,是人体的特征。 人类现象是随机决定和自由意志之间不断演绎的过程。 我们需要质疑道德是如何开始的,以及它是如何来到我们身边的。 -/- .
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  47. Космовидения и реальности - философия каждого (3rd edition).Roberto Arruda - 2023 - São Paulo: Terra à Vista.
    Космовидение - термин, под которым следует понимать совокупность оснований, из которых возникает системное понимание Вселенной, таких ее составляющих, как жизнь, мир, в котором мы живем, природа, феномен человека, и их взаимосвязей. таким образом, это область аналитической философии, питаемая науками, целью которой является совокупное и эпистемологически устойчивое знание обо всем, чем мы являемся и что в нас содержится, что нас окружает и что так или иначе с нами связано. это старое, как человеческая мысль, понятие, которое не только использует элементы научной космологии, (...)
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  48. Cosmovisions and Realities - the each one's philosophy (3rd edition).Roberto Thomas Arruda (ed.) - 2023 - S.Paulo: Terra à Vista - ISBN 9798376963418.
    It is not by thinking that we create worlds. It is by understanding the world that we learn to think. Cosmovision is a term that should mean a set of foundations from which emerges a systemic understanding of the Universe, its components as life, the world we live in, nature, human phenomena, and their relationships. It is, therefore, a field of analytical philosophy fed by the sciences, whose objective is this aggregated and epistemologically sustainable knowledge about everything that we are (...)
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  49.  94
    Kosmovisi dan Realitas: filosofi masing-masing.Roberto Thomas Arruda - 2024 - Terra à Vista.
    Kosmovisi Adalah Istilah yang seharusnya berarti seperangkat fondasi yang darinya muncul pemahaman sistemik tentang Alam Semesta, komponen-komponennya sebagai kehidupan, dunia tempat kita hidup, alam, fenomena manusia, dan hubungan mereka. Oleh karena itu, ini adalah bidang filsafat analitis yang disuplai oleh ilmu pengetahuan, yang tujuannya adalah pengetahuan yang terkumpul dan berkelanjutan secara epistemologis tentang segala sesuatu yang ada dan terkandung dalam diri kita, yang mengelilingi kita, dan yang berhubungan dengan kita dengan cara apa pun. Ini adalah sesuatu yang sama tuanya dengan (...)
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  50. Космовізії та реалії - А філософія кожного.Roberto Thomas Arruda - 2023 - São Paulo: Terra à Vista.
    Космовізі — це термін, який має означати набір основ, з яких виникає системне розуміння Всесвіту, його складових як життя, світу, в якому ми живемо, природи, людського феномену та їхніх взаємозв’язків. Таким чином, це галузь аналітичної філософії, що живиться науками, метою якої є це сукупне та епістемологічно стійке знання про все, що ми є і що містить у собі, що оточує нас і що будь-яким чином до нас відноситься. Це щось таке ж давнє, як людська думка, і, окрім використання елементів наукової (...)
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