Results for 'antibiotics'

33 found
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  1. Antibiotics and Animal Agriculture: The need for global collective action.Jonny Anomaly - 2018 - In Michael Selgelid (ed.), Ethics and Antimicrobial Resistance. Oxford University Press. pp. 297-308.
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  2. Ethics, Antibiotics, and Public Policy.Jonny Anomaly - 2017 - Georgetown Journal of Law and Public Policy 15 (2).
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  3.  88
    Property Claims on Antibiotic Effectiveness.Cristian Timmermann - 2021 - Public Health Ethics 14 (3):256–267.
    The scope and type of property rights recognized over the effectiveness of antibiotics have a direct effect on how those claiming ownership engage in the exploitation and stewardship of this scarce resource. We examine the different property claims and rights the four major interest groups are asserting on antibiotics: (i) the inventors, (ii) those demanding that the resource be treated like any other transferable commodity, (iii) those advocating usage restrictions based on good stewardship principles and (iv) those considering (...)
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  4. Love in the Time of Antibiotic Resistance: How Altruism Might Be Our Best Hope.Dien Ho - 2017 - In Philosophical Issues in Pharmaceutics: Development, Dispensing, and Use. Dordrecht: Springer.
    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria pose a serious threat to our health. Our ability to destroy deadly bacteria by using antibiotics have not only improved our lives by curing infections, it also allows us to undertake otherwise dangerous treatments from chemotherapies to invasive surgeries. The emergence of antibiotic resistance, I argue, is a consequence of various iterations of prisoner’s dilemmas. To wit, each participant (from patients to nations) has rational self-interest to pursue a course of action that is suboptimal for all of (...)
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  5. ANN for Predicting Antibiotic Susceptibility.Maaruf Ahmed & Qassas Randa - 2016 - International Journal of Academic Pedagogical Research (IJAPR) 10 (2):1-4.
    Abstract: In this research, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model was developed and tested to predict efficiency of antibiotics in treating various bacteria types. Attributes that were taken in account are: organism name, specimen type, and antibiotic name as input and susceptibility as an output. A model based on one input, one hidden, and one output layers concept topology was developed and trained using a data from Queensland government's website. The evaluation shows that the ANN model is capable of (...)
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  6. Combating Resistance: The Case for a Global Antibiotics Treaty.Jonny Anomaly - 2010 - Public Health Ethics 3 (1):13-22.
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  7. Agents Isolated from Vaginal Cultures in the Reproductive Period and Their Antibiotic Sensitivities (Vaginal Culture and Antibiotic Sensitivitie).Kemal Dinç & Sümeyye Akyüz - 2023 - European Journal of Therapeutics 29 (1):55-59.
    Introduction: In our study, we aimed to examine the strains isolated from vaginal swab samples sent to our laboratory from various clinics with a pre-diagnosis of vulvovaginitis and antibiotic resistance rates, retrospectively.
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  8. Impartiality and infectious disease: Prioritizing individuals versus the collective in antibiotic prescription.Bernadine Dao, Thomas Douglas, Alberto Giubilini, Julian Savulescu, Michael Selgelid & Nadira S. Faber - 2019 - AJOB Empirical Bioethics 10 (1):63-69.
    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global public health disaster driven largely by antibiotic use in human health care. Doctors considering whether to prescribe antibiotics face an ethical conflict between upholding individual patient health and advancing public health aims. Existing literature mainly examines whether patients awaiting consultations desire or expect to receive antibiotic prescriptions, but does not report views of the wider public regarding conditions under which doctors should prescribe antibiotics. It also does not explore the ethical significance of (...)
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  9. Harm to Others: The social cost of antibiotics in agriculture.Jonny Anomaly - 2009 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 22 (5):423-435.
    See "What's Wrong with Factory Farming?" (2015) for an updated treatment of these issues.
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  10. Compensation for Cures: Paying People to Participate in Challenge Studies.Jonathan Anomaly & Julian Savulescu - 2019 - Bioethics 33 (7):792-797.
    Antibiotic resistance is one of the most pressing public health problems humanity faces. Research into new classes of antibiotics and new kinds of treatments – including risky experimental treatments such as phage therapy and vaccines – is an important part of improving our ability to treat infectious diseases. In order to aid this research, we will argue that we should permit researchers to pay people any amount of money to compensate for the risks of participating in clinical trials, including (...)
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  11. Collective Action and Individual Choice.Jonny Anomaly - 2013 - Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (4):752-756.
    Governments across the globe have squandered treasure and imprisoned millions of their own citizens by criminalising the use and sale of recreational drugs. But use of these drugs has remained relatively constant, and the primary victims are the users themselves. Meanwhile, antimicrobial drugs that once had the power to cure infections are losing their ability to do so, compromising the health of people around the world. The thesis of this essay is that policymakers should stop wasting resources trying to fight (...)
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  12. Emergence of Ciprofloxacin Resistance among Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Isolated from Burn Patients [hplimg].M. R. Shakibaie, S. Adeli & Y. Nikian - 2001 - Emergence: Complexity and Organization 26 (3&4).
    Background: Increasing resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to ciprofloxacin in ICU/burn units has created a problem in the treatment of infections caused by this microorganism. -/- Methods: Fifty P. aeruginosa strains were isolated from burn patients hospitalized in the Kerman Hospital during May 1999-April 2000 and were tested for in-vitro sensitivity to different antibiotics by disc diffusion breakpoint assay. The isolates were subjected to minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test by agar dilution method. Existence of the plasmids was also investigated in (...)
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  13. Utilization of Injectable Drugs for Communicable and Non-communicable Diseases in Primary Healthcare: A Retrospective Study in Turkey.Selcan Tülü Çolak, Caner Vızdıklar, Volkan Aydın, Başak Dönertaş Ayaz, Ali Alkan & Ahmet Akıcı - 2023 - European Journal of Therapeutics 29 (1):23-31.
    Objective: Primary care, which is often the first level of contact for patients with various communicable diseases (CDs) and noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), might exhibit patterns of injectable drug utilization different from hospitals. We aimed to examine injection prescribing to adults with CD or NCD in primary care. -/- Methods: In this retrospective study, single-diagnosis injectable drug-containing prescription data from Family Medicine Information System comprising 32 provinces of Turkey were analysed. The prescriptions were grouped by diagnosis as “CD” (n=3848) and “NCD” (...)
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  14. Bacterial Biofilm and its Clinical Implications.Prof Shakibaie - 2018 - Ann Microbiol Res 2 (1):45-50.
    Microbial biofilm created huge burden in treatment of both community and hospital infections. A biofilm is complex communities of bacteria attached to a surface or interface enclosed in an exopolysaccharide matrix and protected from unfavorable conditions such as presence of antibiotics, host defense or oxidative stresses. Biofilms are often considered hot spot for horizontal gene transfer among same or different bacterial species. Furthermore, bacteria with increased hydrophobicity facilitate biofilm formation by reducing repulsion between the extracellular matrix and the bacterium. (...)
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  15. Placebo Use in the United Kingdom: Results from a National Survey of Primary Care Practitioners.Jeremy Howick - 2013 - PLoS 8 (3).
    Objectives -/- Surveys in various countries suggest 17% to 80% of doctors prescribe ‘placebos’ in routine practice, but prevalence of placebo use in UK primary care is unknown. Methods -/- We administered a web-based questionnaire to a representative sample of UK general practitioners. Following surveys conducted in other countries we divided placebos into ‘pure’ and ‘impure’. ‘Impure’ placebos are interventions with clear efficacy for certain conditions but are prescribed for ailments where their efficacy is unknown, such as antibiotics for (...)
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  16. Bio-ethics and one health: a case study approach to building reflexive governance.Antoine Boudreau LeBlanc, Bryn Williams-Jones & Cécile Aenishaenslin - 2022 - Frontiers in Public Health 10 (648593).
    Surveillance programs supporting the management of One Health issues such as antibiotic resistance are complex systems in themselves. Designing ethical surveillance systems is thus a complex task (retroactive and iterative), yet one that is also complicated to implement and evaluate (e.g., sharing, collaboration, and governance). The governance of health surveillance requires attention to ethical concerns about data and knowledge (e.g., performance, trust, accountability, and transparency) and empowerment ethics, also referred to as a form of responsible self-governance. Ethics in reflexive governance (...)
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  17. Bacteria are small but not stupid: cognition, natural genetic engineering and socio-bacteriology.J. A. Shapiro - 2007 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 38 (4):807-819.
    Forty years’ experience as a bacterial geneticist has taught me that bacteria possess many cognitive, computational and evolutionary capabilities unimaginable in the first six decades of the twentieth century. Analysis of cellular processes such as metabolism, regulation of protein synthesis, and DNA repair established that bacteria continually monitor their external and internal environments and compute functional outputs based on information provided by their sensory apparatus. Studies of genetic recombination, lysogeny, antibiotic resistance and my own work on transposable elements revealed multiple (...)
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  18. Towards an Ontological Representation of Resistance: The Case of MRSA.Albert Goldfain, Barry Smith & Lindsay G. Cowell - 2011 - Journal of Biomedical Informatics 44 (1):35-41.
    This paper addresses a family of issues surrounding the biological phenomenon of resistance and its representation in realist ontologies. The treatments of resistance terms in various existing ontologies are examined and found to be either overly narrow, internally inconsistent, or otherwise problematic. We propose a more coherent characterization of resistance in terms of what we shall call blocking dispositions, which are collections of mutually coordinated dispositions which are of such a sort that they cannot undergo simultaneous realization within a single (...)
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  19. The Future of Phage: Ethical challenges of using phage viruses to treat bacterial infections.Jonathan Anomaly - 2020 - Public Health Ethics 13.
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  20. Revising global theories of justice to include public goods.Heather Widdows & Peter G. N. West-Oram - 2013 - Journal of Global Ethics 9 (2):227 - 243.
    Our aim in this paper is to suggest that most current theories of global justice fail to adequately recognise the importance of global public goods. Broadly speaking, this failing can be attributed at least in part to the complexity of the global context, the individualistic focus of most theories of justice, and the localised nature of the theoretical foundations of most theories of global justice. We argue ? using examples (particularly that of protecting antibiotic efficacy) ? that any truly effective (...)
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  21. What's Wrong with Factory Farming?Jonny Anomaly - 2015 - Public Health Ethics 8 (3):246-254.
    Factory farming continues to grow around the world as a low-cost way of producing animal products for human consumption. However, many of the practices associated with intensive animal farming have been criticized by public health professionals and animal welfare advocates. The aim of this essay is to raise three independent moral concerns with factory farming, and to explain why the practices associated with factory farming flourish despite the cruelty inflicted on animals and the public health risks imposed on people. I (...)
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  22. How Universities Can Best Respond to the Climate Crisis and Other Global Problems.Nicholas Maxwell - 2021 - Philosophies 1 (1):1.
    The world is in a state of crisis. Global problems that threaten our future include: the climate crisis; the destruction of natural habitats, catastrophic loss of wild life, and mass extinction of species; lethal modern war; the spread of modern armaments; the menace of nuclear weapons; pollution of earth, sea and air; rapid rise in the human population; increasing antibiotic resistance; the degradation of democratic politics, brought about in part by the internet. It is not just that universities around the (...)
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  23. Antimicrobial Footprints, Fairness, and Collective Harm.Anne Schwenkenbecher - 2020 - In Euzebiusz Jamrozik & Michael Selgelid (eds.), Ethics and Drug Resistance: Collective Responsibility for Global Public Health. Springer. pp. 379-389.
    This chapter explores the question of whether or not individual agents are under a moral obligation to reduce their ‘antimicrobial footprint’. An agent’s antimicrobial footprint measures the extent to which her actions are causally linked to the use of antibiotics. As such, it is not necessarily a measure of her contribution to antimicrobial resistance. Talking about people’s antimicrobial footprint in a way we talk about our carbon footprint may be helpful for drawing attention to the global effects of individual (...)
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  24. The World Crisis - And What To Do About It: A Revolution for Thought and Action.Nicholas Maxwell - 2021 - New Jersey: World Scientific.
    Two great problems of learning confront humanity: learning about the universe, and about ourselves and other living things as a part of the universe; and learning how to create a good, civilized, enlightened, wise world. We have solved the first great problem of learning – we did that when we created modern science and technology in the 17th century. But we have not yet solved the second one. That combination of solving the first problem, failing to solve the second one, (...)
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  25. Efficacy of Colistin Therapy in Patients with Hematological Malignancies: What if There is Colistin Resistance?Zeynep Ture, Gamze Kalın Unüvar, Hüseyin Nadir Kahveci, Muzaffer Keklik & Ayşegül Ulu Kilic - 2023 - European Journal of Therapeutics 29 (1):17-22.
    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and appropriateness of colistin therapy in patients with hematological malignancies. -/- Methods: Age, gender, type of hematologic malignancy, and potential carbapenem-resistant microorganism risk factors were all noted in this retrospective study. In empirical and agent-specific treatment groups, differences in demographic features, risk factors, treatment responses, and side effects were compared. -/- Results: Sixty-three patients were included, 54% were male, and the median age was 49. In the last three (...)
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  26. Considerações legais e forenses do aborto infeccioso bovino na “Saúde Única”: Revisão (18th edition).Jackson Barros Do Amaral, Vinícius José Moreira Nogueira & Wendell da Luz Silva (eds.) - 2024 - Londrina: Pubvet.
    In Brazil, the social demand for veterinary expertise is growing. However, there is still a shortage of professionals trained in this area to apply specific knowledge to each case. Studies and research into forensic veterinary medicine are necessary for veterinary experts to assist in investigations and legal proceedings. Veterinary medicine has subjects on its curriculum that cover the knowledge needed to apply in the fields of animal health, public health and the environment. The interaction between human and veterinary medicine, as (...)
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  27. The case of psoriatic arthritis developed periorbital infection following adalimumab therapy.Tuba Tülay Koca & Gülbahar Saraç - 2014 - European Journal of Therapeutics 20 (4):323-327.
    Psoriatic arthritis is a chronic, systemic inflammatory disorder. It has been classified in spondyloarthropathies group which shares clinical, radiologic, serologic features, familial and genetic relationship. Up to 5-30% of patients with psoriasis may go on to develop psoriatic arthritis, usually within 5-10 years. Adalimumab (ADA) is the first human monoclonal antibody against TNF-α. ADA is a biologic agent effective in both skin lesions and joint signs. Anti-TNF agents are powerful immunmodulating drugs with potentially side effects. Our case is 38 years (...)
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  28. Intensive Animal Agriculture and Human Health.Jonathan Anomaly - 2019 - In Bob Fischer (ed.), Routledge Handbook of Animal Ethics. New York: Routledge.
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  29. Assessment of Microbiological Quality of Ready to Eat Food Served in Ships Along Warri, Koko and Port Harcourt Water Ways, Nigeria.Yusuf Babatunde Adiama, Olawale Henry Sawyerr, Opasola Afolabi Olaniyi, Alero Favour Fregene, Mubarakat Alabede & Morufu Olalekan Raimi - 2022 - Online Journal of Microbiological Research 1 (1):1-7.
    Background: Food-borne outbreaks have been associated with sourcing unsafe food. Therefore, the first preventative strategy should be to source safe food. Even if the sourced food is safe, measures need to be put in place to ensure that it remains safe during the transfer, storage, preparation and serving activities that follow. An understanding of the ship food supply and transfer chain will help to illustrate the points at which the food can become contaminated en route to the point of consumption. (...)
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  30. Evolutionism: Logic, Language and Thought.Alexandru Anghelescu - 2016 - Procedia Environmental Sciences 2016 (32):184 – 189.
    Do other earthly forms of life evolved to the level of intelligent life? Cancer and resistance to antibiotics obliged to ask this question. Signs of intelligence are found at its simplest levels. We try to see if logic is used at these levels. Peter of Spain’s suppositio materialis is applied to the chemical signals of cells. Dynamic Logic is used to understand these chemical communications. <System of communications> is used, instead of “language”. The development of life appears as the (...)
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  31. Historical and epistemological perspectives on what Lateral Gene Transfer mechanisms contribute to our understanding of evolution.Nathalie Gontier - 2015 - In Reticulate Evolution: Symbiogenesis, Lateral Gene Transfer, Hybridization and Infectious heredity. Springer. pp. 121-178.
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  32. More Carrots, Less Sticks: Encouraging Good Stewardship in the Global Antimicrobial Commons.Cristian Timmermann - 2023 - Health Care Analysis 31 (1):53-57.
    Time-tested commons characterize by having instituted sanctioning mechanisms that are sensitive to the circumstances and motivations of non-compliers. As a proposed Global Antimicrobial Commons cannot cost-effectively develop sanctioning mechanisms that are consistently sensitive to the circumstances of the global poor, I suggest concentrating on establishing a wider set of incentives that encourages both compliance and participation.
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  33. The History of Medicine.Rochelle Forrester - unknown
    This paper was written to study the order of medical advances throughout history. It investigates changing human beliefs concerning the causes of diseases, how modern surgery developed and improved methods of diagnosis and the use of medical statistics. Human beliefs about the causes of disease followed a logical progression from supernatural causes, such as the wrath of the Gods, to natural causes, involving imbalances within the human body. The invention of the microscope led to the discovery of microorganisms which were (...)
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