Results for 'levels of abstraction'

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  1. The Method of Levels of Abstraction.Luciano Floridi - 2008 - Minds and Machines 18 (3):303–329.
    The use of “levels of abstraction” in philosophical analysis (levelism) has recently come under attack. In this paper, I argue that a refined version of epistemological levelism should be retained as a fundamental method, called the method of levels of abstraction. After a brief introduction, in section “Some Definitions and Preliminary Examples” the nature and applicability of the epistemological method of levels of abstraction is clarified. In section “A Classic Application of the Method ofion”, (...)
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  2.  47
    Levels of Abstraction and the Turing Test.Luciano Floridi - 2010 - Kybernetes 39 (3):423-440.
    An important lesson that philosophy can learn from the Turing Test and computer science more generally concerns the careful use of the method of Levels of Abstraction (LoA). In this paper, the method is first briefly summarised. The constituents of the method are “observables”, collected together and moderated by predicates restraining their “behaviour”. The resulting collection of sets of observables is called a “gradient of abstractions” and it formalises the minimum consistency conditions that the chosen abstractions must satisfy. (...)
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  3. Coupling Levels of Abstraction in Understanding Meaningful Human Control of Autonomous Weapons: A Two-Tiered Approach.Steven Umbrello - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology:1-21.
    The international debate on the ethics and legality of autonomous weapon systems (AWS), along with the call for a ban, primarily focus on the nebulous concept of fully autonomous AWS. These are AWS capable of target selection and engagement absent human supervision or control. This paper argues that such a conception of autonomy is divorced from both military planning and decision-making operations; it also ignores the design requirements that govern AWS engineering and the subsequent tracking and tracing of moral responsibility. (...)
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  4. Stairway to Heaven: The Abstract Method and Levels of Abstraction in Mathematics.Jean Pierre Marquis & Jean-Pierre Marquis - 2016 - The Mathematical Intelligencer 38 (3):41-51.
    In this paper, following the claims made by various mathematicians, I try to construct a theory of levels of abstraction. I first try to clarify the basic components of the abstract method as it developed in the first quarter of the 20th century. I then submit an explication of the notion of levels of abstraction. In the final section, I briefly explore some of main philosophical consequences of the theory.
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  5.  18
    Levellism and the Method of Abstraction.Luciano Floridi & J. W. Sanders - 2004 - IEG Research Report.
    The use of "levels of abstraction" in philosophical analysis (levellism) has recently come under attack. In this paper, we argue that a refined version of epistemological levellism should be retained as a fundamental method, which we call the method of abstraction. After a brief introduction, in section two we make clear the nature and applicability of the (epistemological) method of levels of abstraction. In section three, we show the fruitfulness of the new method by applying (...)
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  6. How to Define Levels of Explanation and Evaluate Their Indispensability.Christopher Clarke - 2017 - Synthese 194 (6).
    Some explanations in social science, psychology and biology belong to a higher level than other explanations. And higher explanations possess the virtue of abstracting away from the details of lower explanations, many philosophers argue. As a result, these higher explanations are irreplaceable. And this suggests that there are genuine higher laws or patterns involving social, psychological and biological states. I show that this ‘abstractness argument’ is really an argument schema, not a single argument. This is because the argument uses the (...)
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  7.  83
    Strategic Flexibility and Its Relationship to the Level of Quality of Services Provided in Non-Governmental Hospitals.Zahi O. Abu-Nahel, Wafiq H. Alagha, Mazen J. Al Shobaki, Samy S. Abu-Naser & Suliman A. El Talla - 2020 - International Journal of Academic Multidisciplinary Research (IJAMR) 4 (10):57-84.
    Abstract: The study aimed to determine the strategic flexibility and its relationship to the level of quality of services provided, from the viewpoint of the internal beneficiary in non-governmental hospitals in Gaza Strip. The study relied on the descriptive and analytical approach, and the questionnaire was designed as a tool to collect data and consisted of (39) items, and the researchers used the comprehensive survey method, and the number of the study population was (536) individuals, where (434) questionnaires were retrieved, (...)
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  8.  54
    The Level of Leadership Characteristics Among Palestinian Police Employees In Light Of the Corona Pandemic.Yaser A. Al Shorafa, Muhammad K. Hamdan, Ahmed Z. A. Sharaf, Mazen J. Al Shobaki, Samy S. Abu-Naser & Suliman A. El Talla - 2021 - International Journal of Academic Accounting, Finance and Management Research(IJAAFMR) 5 (3):44-53.
    Abstract: The study aimed to identify the level of leadership characteristics among Palestinian police employees in Gaza Strip in light of the Corona pandemic, and to achieve the objectives of the study, the researchers used the descriptive approach in its analytical method, using a questionnaire applied to the police officers at the Central Governorate Police Station, whose number is (113) individuals, they were Selected using stratified randomly method, and the study resulted in a set of results, the most important of (...)
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  9.  51
    The Level of Increased Achievement Motivation Among Palestinian Police In Light of the Corona Pandemic.Yaser A. Al Shorafa, Muhammad K. Hamdan, Ahmed Z. A. Sharaf, Mazen J. Al Shobaki, Samy S. Abu-Naser & Suliman A. El Talla - 2021 - International Journal of Academic Multidisciplinary Research (IJAMR) 5 (3):138-147.
    Abstract: The study aimed to identify the level of increased achievement motivation among Palestinian police workers in Gaza Strip in light of the Corona pandemic, and to achieve the objectives of the study, the researchers used the descriptive approach in its analytical method, using a questionnaire applied to the police personnel at the Central Governorate Police Station, whose number is (113) individuals, who were chosen In a stratified, random manner, the study resulted in a set of results, the most important (...)
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  10.  49
    The Level of Creativity at the University of Palestine From the Employees Point of View.Nader H. Abusharekh, Mazen J. Al Shobaki, Samy S. Abu-Naser & Suliman A. El Talla - 2020 - International Journal of Academic Multidisciplinary Research (IJAMR) 4 (10):45-56.
    Abstract: This study aims to identify the level of creativity in the University of Palestine from the point of view of the employees, as the researchers used the descriptive and analytical method, through a questionnaire distributed to a sample of employees at the University of Palestine, where the size of the study population is (234) employees, and the size of the sample (117) employees, of which (90) employees responded. The study reached a set of results, the most important of which (...)
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  11. Levels of Self-Improvement in AI and Their Implications for AI Safety.Alexey Turchin - manuscript
    Abstract: This article presents a model of self-improving AI in which improvement could happen on several levels: hardware, learning, code and goals system, each of which has several sublevels. We demonstrate that despite diminishing returns at each level and some intrinsic difficulties of recursive self-improvement—like the intelligence-measuring problem, testing problem, parent-child problem and halting risks—even non-recursive self-improvement could produce a mild form of superintelligence by combining small optimizations on different levels and the power of learning. Based on this, (...)
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  12.  27
    The Level of Mediation Outcomes of Disputes Resolution in Workplace at UNRWA, Gaza.Abdallah I. Qandil, Muhammad K. Hamdan, Ahmed I. Alhussaina, Mazen J. Al Shobaki, Samy S. Abu-Naser & Suliman A. El Talla - 2021 - International Journal of Academic Multidisciplinary Research (IJAMR) 5 (2):310-327.
    Abstract: The research also aims at identifying the differences between respondents as attributed to their professional and personal traits of age, gender, educational level, distribution of department, dispute resolution experience and representation party. Researchers adopted mixed data collection methods; quantitative and qualitative. For qualitative, a semi-structured interview was conducted with (9) officials including management, staff unions and expert external mediators. (63) Questionnaires were distributed to a systematic random sample population; (56) were received, with a response rate 88.9%. The results proved (...)
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  13. Levels: Descriptive, Explanatory, and Ontological.Christian List - 2019 - Noûs 53 (4):852-883.
    Scientists and philosophers frequently speak about levels of description, levels of explanation, and ontological levels. In this paper, I propose a unified framework for modelling levels. I give a general definition of a system of levels and show that it can accommodate descriptive, explanatory, and ontological notions of levels. I further illustrate the usefulness of this framework by applying it to some salient philosophical questions: (1) Is there a linear hierarchy of levels, with (...)
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  14. High-Level Explanation and the Interventionist’s ‘Variables Problem’.L. R. Franklin-Hall - 2016 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 67 (2):553-577.
    The interventionist account of causal explanation, in the version presented by Jim Woodward, has been recently claimed capable of buttressing the widely felt—though poorly understood—hunch that high-level, relatively abstract explanations, of the sort provided by sciences like biology, psychology and economics, are in some cases explanatorily optimal. It is the aim of this paper to show that this is mistaken. Due to a lack of effective constraints on the causal variables at the heart of the interventionist causal-explanatory scheme, as presently (...)
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  15. On the Morality of Artificial Agents.Luciano Floridi & J. W. Sanders - 2004 - Minds and Machines 14 (3):349-379.
    Artificial agents (AAs), particularly but not only those in Cyberspace, extend the class of entities that can be involved in moral situations. For they can be conceived of as moral patients (as entities that can be acted upon for good or evil) and also as moral agents (as entities that can perform actions, again for good or evil). In this paper, we clarify the concept of agent and go on to separate the concerns of morality and responsibility of agents (most (...)
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  16.  23
    Technological Games and Their Relation to the Level of Academic Achievement Among Seventh Graders in the Public Schools in Gaza City.Dr Hashem A. Homead - 2019 - International Journal of Academic Pedagogical Research (IJAPR) 3 (4):21-28.
    Abstract: The study aimed to identify the technological games and their relation to the level of student achievement. The data and information were collected through a questionnaire designed specifically for this purpose. The study population consisted of all teachers and teachers of the seventh grade stage. The sample consisted of (30) In the Gaza City, 30 questionnaires were retrieved at a 100% recovery rate and analyzed using the statistical analysis program. The researcher used the analytical descriptive approach to achieve the (...)
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  17. Conflating Abstraction with Empirical Observation: The False Mind-Matter Dichotomy.Bernardo Kastrup - 2018 - Constructivist Foundations 13 (3):341-361.
    > Context • The alleged dichotomy between mind and matter is pervasive. Therefore, the attempt to explain mat- ter in terms of mind (idealism) is often considered a mirror image of that of explaining mind in terms of mat- ter (mainstream physicalism), in the sense of being structurally equivalent despite being reversely arranged. > Problem • I argue that this is an error arising from language artifacts, for dichotomies must reside in the same level of abstraction. > Method • (...)
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  18. The Debate on the Moral Responsibilities of Online Service Providers.Mariarosaria Taddeo & Luciano Floridi - 2016 - Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (6):1575-1603.
    Online service providers —such as AOL, Facebook, Google, Microsoft, and Twitter—significantly shape the informational environment and influence users’ experiences and interactions within it. There is a general agreement on the centrality of OSPs in information societies, but little consensus about what principles should shape their moral responsibilities and practices. In this article, we analyse the main contributions to the debate on the moral responsibilities of OSPs. By endorsing the method of the levels of abstract, we first analyse the moral (...)
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  19. Abstracta and Abstraction in Trope Theory.A. R. J. Fisher - 2020 - Philosophical Papers 49 (1):41-67.
    Trope theory is a leading metaphysical theory in analytic ontology. One of its classic statements is found in the work of Donald C. Williams who argued that tropes qua abstract particulars are the very alphabet of being. The concept of an abstract particular has been repeatedly attacked in the literature. Opponents and proponents of trope theory alike have levelled their criticisms at the abstractness of tropes and the associated act of abstraction. In this paper I defend the concept of (...)
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  20.  65
    Levelling the Analysis of Knowledge Via Methodological Scepticism.William A. Brant - 2013 - Logos and Episteme 4 (3):293-304.
    ABSTRACT: In this essay I provide one methodology that yields the level of analysis of an alleged knowledge-claim under investigation via its relations to varying gradations of scepticism. Each proposed knowledge-claim possesses a specified relationship with: (i) a globally sceptical argument; (ii) the least sceptical but successful argument that casts it into doubt; and (iii) the most sceptical yet unsuccessful argument, which is conceivably hypothesized to repudiate it but fails to do so. Yielding this specified set of relations, by means (...)
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  21. Mindfulness Changes Construal Level: An Experimental Investigation.Eugene Y. Chan & Yitong Wang - 2019 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 148 (9):1656-1664.
    Mindfulness involves paying attention to the present moment and accepting any thoughts or feelings that might arise without judgment. Mindfulness can influence a number of outcomes. Currently, we are interested if it influences people’s level of mental construal. Two central dimensions of mindfulness (focusing on the present, and Openness to Experience) can lead to diverging predictions. While focusing on the present may produce a concrete construal level, openness to experience may facilitate an abstract construal level instead. We conducted 2 experiments (...)
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  22. James and Dewey on Abstraction. Winther - 2014 - The Pluralist 9 (2):1.
    Reification is to abstraction as disease is to health. Whereas abstraction is singling out, symbolizing, and systematizing, reification is neglecting abstractive context, especially functional, historical, and analytical-level context. William James and John Dewey provide similar and nuanced arguments regarding the perils and promises of abstraction. They share an abstraction-reification account. The stages of abstraction and the concepts of “vicious abstractionism,” “/the/ psychologist’s fallacy,” and “the philosophic fallacy” in the works of these pragmatists are here analyzed (...)
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  23.  67
    Complex-Dynamic Origin of Quantised Relativity and Its Manifestations at Higher Complexity Levels.Andrei P. Kirilyuk - 2017 - In A. P. Kirilyuk, Theory of Everything, Ultimate Reality and the End of Humanity: Extended Sustainability by the Universal Science of Complexity. Beau Bassin: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing. pp. 186-194.
    Unified and causal complex-dynamic origin of standard (special and general) relativistic and quantum effects revealed previously at the lowest levels of world interaction dynamics is explicitly generalised to all higher levels of unreduced interaction processes, thus additionally confirming the causally complete character of complex-dynamical, naturally quantised relativity, which does not contain any artificially added, abstract postulates. We demonstrate some elementary applications of this generalised quantum relativity at higher levels of complex brain and social interaction dynamics.
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  24.  27
    Turing's Three Philosophical Lessons and the Philosophy of Information.Luciano Floridi - 2012 - Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A 370 (1971):3536-3542.
    In this article, I outline the three main philosophical lessons that we may learn from Turing’s work, and how they lead to a new philosophy of information. After a brief introduction, I discuss his work on the method of levels of abstraction (LoA), and his insistence that questions could be meaningfully asked only by specifying the correct LoA. I then look at his second lesson, about the sort of philosophical questions that seem to be most pressing today. Finally, (...)
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  25.  34
    Determinants of Job Satisfaction Levels Among Community Development Officers in Oyo State, Nigeria.O. S. U. U. C. - 2019 - International Journal of Academic Multidisciplinary Research (IJAMR) 3 (5):50-56.
    Abstract: The objective of this study was to examine empirically the determinants of job satisfaction levels among community development officer in Oyo State, Nigeria. Due to this, two research questions were formulated and answered. All community development officers across thirty-three local government areas of Oyo state formed the target population. However, fifteen local governments were chosen for the study from the existing number, also, simple random sampling technique which was stratified in nature and operation was used to select seven-hundred (...)
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  26.  33
    Assessment of Serum Zinc and Albumin Levels Among Newly Diagnosed Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Khartoum State.Nuha Eljaili Abubaker, Hassan Siddig AbdElgader Omar & Hind Haidar Ahmed - 2019 - International Journal of Academic Health and Medical Research (IJAHMR) 3 (5):1-9.
    Abstract: Background: Tuberculosis is a major public health problem world-wide, it is contagious disease caused by organism mycobacterium tuberculosis. The aim of this study was to assess the level of zinc and albumin in newly diagnosed patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Khartoum state. Methods: Fifty blood samples were collected from newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients during the period between April to May 2017, chosen randomly from Abu Anga Teaching Hospital and fifty blood samples from apparently healthy individuals serve as control (...)
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  27. Moral Perception: High-Level Perception or Low-Level Intuition?Elijah Chudnoff - 2015 - In Thiemo Breyer & Christopher Gutland (eds.), Phenomenology of Thinking.
    Here are four examples of “seeing.” You see that something green is wriggling. You see that an iguana is in distress. You see that someone is wrongfully harming an iguana. You see that torturing animals is wrong. The first is an example of low-level perception. You visually represent color and motion. The second is an example of high-level perception. You visually represent kind properties and mental properties. The third is an example of moral perception. You have an impression of moral (...)
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  28.  99
    What is Data Ethics?Luciano Floridi & Mariarosaria Taddeo - 2016 - Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A 374 (2083).
    This theme issue has the founding ambition of landscaping Data Ethics as a new branch of ethics that studies and evaluates moral problems related to data (including generation, recording, curation, processing, dissemination, sharing, and use), algorithms (including AI, artificial agents, machine learning, and robots), and corresponding practices (including responsible innovation, programming, hacking, and professional codes), in order to formulate and support morally good solutions (e.g. right conducts or right values). Data Ethics builds on the foundation provided by Computer and Information (...)
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  29.  27
    Association Between IL-10 Levels With Plasmodim Falciparum Related to Age Groups and Density of Infection Among Sudanese Patients- Khartoum State- Sudan.Ibrahim Mohammed Eisa, Tayseer Elamin Mohamed Elfaki, Mohamed Mobarak Elbasheir & Mohammed Ahmed Ibrahim - 2019 - International Journal of Academic Health and Medical Research (IJAHMR) 3 (1):15-19.
    Abstract: A complex parasite such as human Plasmodium is likely to generate a variety of substances that injure the hosts directly or cause immunopathology. In malaria, a blood concentration of anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL-10) is increased. The present study was performed to analyze IL-10 levels in patients with malaria falciparum and healthy controls individuals and correlate with malaria density infection as well as age groups. It is a cross sectional study was carried out in Khartoum state /Sudan, (...)
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  30. Assessing Abstract Thought and its Relation to Language with a New Nonverbal Paradigm: Evidence From Aphasia.Peter Langland-Hassan, Frank R. Faries, Maxwell Gatyas, Aimee Dietz & Michael J. Richardson - 2021 - Cognition 211:104622.
    In recent years, language has been shown to play a number of important cognitive roles over and above the communication of thoughts. One hypothesis gaining support is that language facilitates thought about abstract categories, such as democracy or prediction. To test this proposal, a novel set of semantic memory task trials, designed for assessing abstract thought non-linguistically, were normed for levels of abstractness. The trials were rated as more or less abstract to the degree that answering them required the (...)
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  31.  17
    Outline of a Theory of Truth as Correctness for Semantic Information.Luciano Floridi - 2009 - tripleC 7 (2):142-157.
    The article develops a correctness theory of truth (CTT) for semantic information. After the introduction, in section two, semantic information is shown to be translatable into propositional semantic information (i). In section three, i is polarised into a query (Q) and a result (R), qualified by a specific context, a level of abstraction and a purpose. This polarization is normalised in section four, where [Q + R] is transformed into a Boolean question and its relative yes/no answer [Q + (...)
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  32. On the Intrinsic Value of Information Objects and the Infosphere.Luciano Floridi - 2002 - Ethics and Information Technology 4 (4):287–304.
    What is the most general common set of attributes that characterises something as intrinsically valuable and hence as subject to some moral respect, and without which something would rightly be considered intrinsically worthless or even positively unworthy and therefore rightly to be disrespected in itself? This paper develops and supports the thesis that the minimal condition of possibility of an entity's least intrinsic value is to be identified with its ontological status as an information object. All entities, even when interpreted (...)
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  33. The Ethical Gravity Thesis: Marrian Levels and the Persistence of Bias in Automated Decision-Making Systems.Atoosa Kasirzadeh & Colin Klein - 2021 - Proceedings of the 2021 AAAI/ACM Conference on AI, Ethics, and Society (AIES '21).
    Computers are used to make decisions in an increasing number of domains. There is widespread agreement that some of these uses are ethically problematic. Far less clear is where ethical problems arise, and what might be done about them. This paper expands and defends the Ethical Gravity Thesis: ethical problems that arise at higher levels of analysis of an automated decision-making system are inherited by lower levels of analysis. Particular instantiations of systems can add new problems, but not (...)
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  34.  36
    The Logic of Design as a Conceptual Logic of Information.Luciano Floridi - 2017 - Minds and Machines 27 (3):495-519.
    In this article, I outline a logic of design of a system as a specific kind of conceptual logic of the design of the model of a system, that is, the blueprint that provides information about the system to be created. In section two, I introduce the method of levels of abstraction as a modelling tool borrowed from computer science. In section three, I use this method to clarify two main conceptual logics of information inherited from modernity: Kant’s (...)
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  35. A Defence of Constructionism: Philosophy as Conceptual Engineering.Luciano Floridi - 2011 - Metaphilosophy 42 (3):282-304.
    This article offers an account and defence of constructionism, both as a metaphilosophical approach and as a philosophical methodology, with references to the so-called maker's knowledge tradition. Its main thesis is that Plato's “user's knowledge” tradition should be complemented, if not replaced, by a constructionist approach to philosophical problems in general and to knowledge in particular. Epistemic agents know something when they are able to build (reproduce, simulate, model, construct, etc.) that something and plug the obtained information into the correct (...)
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  36.  18
    A 3rd Person Knowledge Level Analysis of Cognitive Architectures: Problems, Challenges, and Future Directions.Antonio Lieto - 2021 - Unipa Invited Seminars.
    A 3rd person Knowledge Level analysis of cognitive architectures -/- Abstract I provide a knowledge level analysis of the main representational and reasoning problems affecting the cognitive architectures for what concerns this issue. In providing this analysis I will show, by considering some of the main cognitive architectures currently available (e.g. SOAR, ACT-R, CLARION), how one of the main problems of such architectures is represented by the fact that their knowledge representation and processing mechanisms are not sufficiently constrained with “structural (...)
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  37. Informational Realism.Luciano Floridi - manuscript
    What is the ultimate nature of reality? This paper defends an answer in terms of informational realism (IR). It does so in three stages. First, it is shown that, within the debate about structural realism (SR), epistemic (ESR) and ontic (OSR) structural realism are reconcilable by using the methodology of the levels of abstractions. It follows that OSR is defensible from a structuralist-friendly position. Second, it is argued that OSR is also plausible, because not all related objects are logically (...)
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  38. Is Low-Level Visual Experience Cognitively Penetrable?Dávid Bitter - 2014 - The Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication 9:1-26.
    Philosophers and psychologists alike have argued recently that relatively abstract beliefs or cognitive categories like those regarding race can influence the perceptual experience of relatively low-level visual features like color or lightness. Some of the proposed best empirical evidence for this claim comes from a series of experiments in which White faces were consistently judged as lighter than equiluminant Black faces, even for racially ambiguous faces that were labeled ‘White’ as opposed to ‘Black’ (Levin and Banaji 2006). The latter result (...)
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  39. The Semantics of Existence.Friederike Moltmann - 2013 - Linguistics and Philosophy 36 (1):31-63.
    The notion of existence is a very puzzling one philosophically. Often philosophers have appealed to linguistic properties of sentences stating existence. However, the appeal to linguistic intuitions has generally not been systematic and without serious regard of relevant issues in linguistic semantics. This paper has two aims. On the one hand, it will look at statements of existence from a systematic linguistic point of view, in order to try to clarify what the actual semantics of such statements in fact is. (...)
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  40.  27
    Semantic Information and the Correctness Theory of Truth.Luciano Floridi - 2011 - Erkenntnis 74:147-175.
    Semantic information is usually supposed to satisfy the veridicality thesis: p qualifies as semantic information only if p is true. However, what it means for semantic information to be true is often left implicit, with correspondentist interpretations representing the most popular, default option. The article develops an alternative approach, namely a correctness theory of truth (CTT) for semantic information. This is meant as a contribution not only to the philosophy of information but also to the philosophical debate on the nature (...)
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  41.  41
    Perceptions and Practices of Science Teachers About Professional Development at Secondary School Level: A Phenomenological Study.Rabia Aslam & Dr Najum Nisa - 2019 - International Journal of Academic Pedagogical Research (IJAPR) 3 (1):9-15.
    Abstract: This study was done to know that how secondary school teachers of science interprets the experiences which they gained from professional development (PD) in Karachi. And also to know the teachers’ awareness for sense making, and then professional development opportunities to bring changes in their teaching methodology by implementing the knowledge which they gained from PD. Data was collected through five secondary school science teachers of Karachi by purposive sampling technique. In-depth Semi-structured technique were used. After this, thematic analysis (...)
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  42. Law Is the Command of the Sovereign: H. L. A. Hart Reconsidered.Andrew Stumpff Morrison - 2016 - Ratio Juris 29 (3):364-384.
    This article presents a critical reevaluation of the thesis—closely associated with H. L. A. Hart, and central to the views of most recent legal philosophers—that the idea of state coercion is not logically essential to the definition of law. The author argues that even laws governing contracts must ultimately be understood as “commands of the sovereign, backed by force.” This follows in part from recognition that the “sovereign,” defined rigorously, at the highest level of abstraction, is that person or (...)
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  43. The Philosophy of Information as a Conceptual Framework.Luciano Floridi - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (1-2):1-31.
    The article contains the replies to the collection of contributions discussing my research on the philosophy of information.
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  44. The Philosophy of Information: Ten Years Later.Luciano Floridi - 2010 - Metaphilosophy 41 (3):402–419.
    : This article provides replies to, and comments on, the contributions to the special issue on the philosophy of information. It seeks to highlight con‐vergences and points of potential agreement, while offering clarifications and further details. It also answers some criticisms and replies to some objections articulated in the special issue.
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  45. Abstraction and Justification in Moral Theory.Cynthia A. Stark - 2010 - Hypatia 25 (4):825-833.
    Ethicists of care have objected to traditional moral philosophy's reliance upon abstract universal principles. They claim that the use of abstraction renders traditional theories incapable of capturing morally relevant, particular features of situations. I argue that this objection sometimes conflates two different levels of moral thinking: the level of justification and the level of deliberation. Specifically, I claim that abstraction or attention to context at the level of justification does not entail, as some critics seem to think, (...)
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  46.  38
    Conjunctive and Disjunctive Limits: Abstract Logics and Modal Operators.Edelcio G. de Souza & Alexandre Costa-Leite - 2020 - Studia Humana 9 (3-4):66-71.
    Departing from basic concepts in abstract logics, this paper introduces two concepts: conjunctive and disjunctive limits. These notions are used to formalize levels of modal operators.
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  47. Overdetermination of Theories by Empirical Models: A Realist Interpretation of Empirical Choices.Emma Ruttkamp - 2005 - Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 84 (1):409-436.
    A model-theoretic realist account of science places linguistic systems and their corresponding non-linguistic structures at different stages or different levels of abstraction of the scientific process. Apart from the obvious problem of underdetermination of theories by data, philosophers of science are also faced with the inverse (and very real) problem of overdetermination of theories by their empirical models, which is what this article will focus on. I acknowledge the contingency of the factors determining the nature – and choice (...)
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  48. Problematics of Grounded Theory: Innovations for Developing an Increasingly Rigorous Qualitative Method.Jason Adam Wasserman, Jeffrey Michael Clair & Kenneth L. Wilson - 2009 - Qualitative Research 9 (3):355-381.
    Our purpose in this article is to identify and suggest resolution for two core problematics of grounded theory. First, while grounded theory provides transparency to one part of the conceptualization process, where codes emerge directly from the data, it provides no such systematic or transparent way for gaining insight into the conceptual relationships between discovered codes. Producing a grounded theory depends not only on the definition of conceptual pieces, but the delineation of a relationship between at least two of those (...)
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  49. Semantic Information and the Correctness Theory of Truth.Luciano Floridi - 2011 - Erkenntnis 74 (2):147–175.
    Semantic information is usually supposed to satisfy the veridicality thesis: p qualifies as semantic information only if p is true. However, what it means for semantic information to be true is often left implicit, with correspondentist interpretations representing the most popular, default option. The article develops an alternative approach, namely a correctness theory of truth (CTT) for semantic information. This is meant as a contribution not only to the philosophy of information but also to the philosophical debate on the nature (...)
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  50. A Possible Answer to Newman’s Objection From the Perspective of Informational Structural Realism.Lavinia Marin - 2015 - Revue Roumaine de Philosophie 59 (2):307-318.
    This paper aims to reconstruct a possible answer to the classical Newman’s objection which has been used countless times to argue against structural realism. The reconstruction starts from the new strand of structural realism – informational structural realism – authored by Luciano Floridi. Newman’s objection had previously stated that all propositions which comprise the mathematical structures are merely trivial truths and can be instantiated by multiple models. This paper examines whether informational structural realism can overcome this objection by analysing the (...)
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