Results for 'university'

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  1. Second-Wave Effects of COVID-19 Pandemic on Transportation Business: Keke-Napep and Motor-Cycle Transport Systems in Asaba Metropolis, Nigeria.University O. Edih & Nyanayon D. Faghawari - 2023 - International Journal of Multidisciplinary Educational Research and Innovation 1 (3):23-35.
    Transnational, global trades, investments, and travels, amongst other drivers of globalization, helps to reverberate the deadly coronavirus pandemic from Wuhan, China, across the world like whirl fire. In order to contain the infectious spread of the pandemic, and mitigate its negative effects on macro-economic variables, the World Health Organization, (WHO) designed Covid-19 protocols that are being enforced by governments and people of the world. Based on the above account, the study examined the Second wave effect of Covid’19 pandemic on transportation (...)
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  2. Vài dòng ghi lại lịch sử Trung tâm ISR, nhân ngày đầu sang tuổi lên 7.University Phenikaa - 2023 - Isr History.
    Như thế, hôm nay chính là ngày đầu tiên bước sang tuổi lên 7 của ISR, mặc dù nếu đếm năm, thì đã sang năm thứ 7 kể từ 1-1-2023 rồi.
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  3. Versus.Bogdan Khmelnitsky Melitopol State Pedagogical University (ed.) - 2013-2017 - Melitopol, Ukraine: Bogdan Khmelnitsky Melitopol State Pedagogical University.
    Scientific journal presented by Bogdan Khmelnitsky Melitopol State Pedagogical University, Ukraine, Melitopol. Main points: 1. Actual Problems of Modern Philosophy 2. Researches in Philosophy connected with natural components, sociological aspects and self - identity development.
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  4. University Teachers’ Work-School-Life Balance and their Commitment at Jimei University.Jinyong Ye - 2023 - International Journal of Open-Access, Interdisciplinary and New Educational Discoveries of ETCOR Educational Research Center 2 (1):166-186.
    Aim: This paper assessed the relationship of the university teachers’ work-life balance with their work commitment in Jimei University Chengyi College in creating dynamics on managing competing demands aligned with personal and professional satisfaction. -/- Methodology: A descriptive research design was used in this study. The research locale is at Jimei University Chengyi College. The purposive sampling technique was used. This study used statistical treatment wherein responses were summarized, classified, and tabulated using statistical treatment such as frequency, (...)
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  5. University Teachers' Professional Identity and Work Performance in a Government University in China.Yi Zhong - 2023 - International Journal of Open-Access, Interdisciplinary and New Educational Discoveries of ETCOR Educational Research Center 2 (1):44-76.
    Aim: This research determined the relationship between university teachers’ professional identity and their work performance. -/- Methodology: The design that was used in this study is a Descriptive Comparative- Correlational research design using the quantitative approach. Participants in this study were taken from the 967 university teachers at Guangdong Business and Technology University from the 14 colleges. They were chosen randomly. The researcher used the Qualtrics calculator at a 5% margin of error to arrive at 275 respondents. (...)
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  6.  95
    Universal Desire Theory: An Account of Objective Subjectivity.Asher Zachman - manuscript
    In this enquiry I attempt to establish Universal Desire Theory as the nominal designation of my active ethical framework, a system heavily influenced by the natural essentialists Philippa Foot and Jenny Teichman, wherein the comparative amalgamation of all subjectively experienced biological harm and benefit is the foundation of objective normativity. Highlights of this paper include the sections where I discuss the moral life of the cell, as well as the moral fallibility of hallucinating persons under this system which combines biological (...)
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  7. Universality Reduced.Alexander Franklin - 2019 - Philosophy of Science 86 (5):1295-1306.
    The universality of critical phenomena is best explained by appeal to the Renormalisation Group (RG). Batterman and Morrison, among others, have claimed that this explanation is irreducible. I argue that the RG account is reducible, but that the higher-level explanation ought not to be eliminated. I demonstrate that the key assumption on which the explanation relies – the scale invariance of critical systems – can be explained in lower-level terms; however, we should not replace the RG explanation with a bottom-up (...)
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  8.  52
    Kant's Universal Law and Humanity Formulae.Damian Williams - forthcoming - Forthcoming.
    Kant's formulae ought to effectively produce the same result when applied to the moral validity of any particular maxim; further, no valid maxim produces contradictory results when applied against Kant's Universal Law and Humanity formulae. Where one uses all formulae in the assessment of a maxim, one gains a more complete understanding of the moral law, thereby bridging principles of reason with intuition within the agent who has undertaken to evaluate the morality of a particular action. These formulae command without (...)
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  9. Performance Efficiency of University Education from Students Perspective.Samia A. M. Abdalmenem, Rasha O. Owda, Amal A. Al Hila, Samy S. Abu-Naser & Mazen J. Al Shobaki - 2018 - International Journal of Engineering and Information Systems (IJEAIS) 2 (11):10-24.
    The study aims to identify the efficiency of the university education performance from the perspective of postgraduate and undergraduate students in international and Palestinian universities. The analytical descriptive approach was used for this purpose and the questionnaire was used as a main tool for data collection. The study community consists of: post graduate students, (23850) graduate students and (146355) undergraduate students. The sample of the study was 378 graduate students and 383 undergraduate students. The random stratified sample was used. (...)
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  10. Explaining Universal Social Institutions: A Game-Theoretic Approach.Michael Vlerick - 2016 - Topoi 35 (1):291-300.
    Universal social institutions, such as marriage, commons management and property, have emerged independently in radically different cultures. This requires explanation. As Boyer and Petersen point out ‘in a purely localist framework would have to constitute massively improbable coincidences’ . According to Boyer and Petersen, those institutions emerged naturally out of genetically wired behavioural dispositions, such as marriage out of mating strategies and borders out of territorial behaviour. While I agree with Boyer and Petersen that ‘unnatural’ institutions cannot thrive, this one-sided (...)
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  11. Universities from an Epistemological Point of View.Daniel Stoljar - forthcoming - Humanities Review.
    Abstract: What is the nature and social function of universities? In this article I consider the well-known Humboldtian answer to this question, with a view not just to its inherent plausibility but to how it has changed over time. I pay particular attention to how different versions of the Humboldtian answer make different epistemological assumptions and conclude with a suggestion about how best to develop that answer in the future.
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  12. Universal Core Semantic Layer.Barry Smith, Lowell Vizenor & James Schoening - 2009 - In Ontology for the Intelligence Community: Proceedings of the Third OIC Conference. CEUR, vol. 555. pp. 1-5.
    The Universal Core (UCore) is a central element of the National Information Sharing Strategy that is supported by multiple U.S. Federal Government Departments, by the intelligence community, and by a number of other national and international institutions. The goal of the UCore initiative is to foster information sharing by means of an XML schema providing consensus representations for four groups of universally understood terms under the headings who, what, when, and where. We here describe a project to create an ontology-based (...)
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  13. Universal Biology: Assessing universality from a single example.Carlos Mariscal - 2015 - In The Impact of Discovering Life Beyond Earth. Cambridge, UK: pp. 113-126.
    Is it possible to know anything about life we have not yet encountered? We know of only one example of life: our own. Given this, many scientists are inclined to doubt that any principles of Earth’s biology will generalize to other worlds in which life might exist. Let’s call this the “N = 1 problem.” By comparison, we expect the principles of geometry, mechanics, and chemistry would generalize. Interestingly, each of these has predictable consequences when applied to biology. The surface-to-volume (...)
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  14. The Universe:a Philosophical derivation of a Final Theory.John F. Thompson - manuscript
    The reason for physics’ failure to find a final theory of the universe is examined. Problems identified are: the lack of unequivocal definitions for its fundamental elements (time, length, mass, electric charge, energy, work, matter-waves); the danger of relying too much on mathematics for solutions; especially as philosophical arguments conclude the universe cannot have a mathematical basis. It does not even need the concept of number to exist. Numbers and mathematics are human inventions arising from the human predilection for measurement. (...)
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  15. Truth and universality: a necessary antinomy?José Ramón Fabelo Corzo - 2021 - Sophia 31 (31):41-63.
    Throughout history, oppressors have used multiple forms of violence to impose their own logic on the human universe they oppress. One such form is epistemic violence, which is based on the monopoly control of truth and the hijacking of universality. Those who apply this violence seek to convince everyone of the absolute character of their supposed truths, of the quasi-natural universality of their ways of thinking, of living, of organizing socially. Truth and universality are ineludible objects in dispute between conservative (...)
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  16. University Lecturing as a Technique of Collective Imagination.Lavinia Marin - 2020 - In Naomi Hodgson, Joris Vlieghe & Piotr Zamojski (eds.), Post-critical Perspectives on Higher Education. pp. 73-82.
    Lecturing is the only educational form inherited from the universities of the middle ages that is still in use today. However, it seems that lecturing is under threat, as recent calls to do away with lecturing in favour of more dynamic settings, such as the flipped classroom or pre-recorded talks, have found many adherents. In line with the post-critical approach of this book, this chapter argues that there is something in the university lecture that needs to be affirmed: at (...)
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  17. Static Time, a Localized Universe, and a Cosmological Uncertainty Rule.Jef Zerrudo - manuscript
    This paper offers a solution to the problem of time by proposing that if the universe is time-like, stationary, and bounded, then it can be divided into static temporal gradations or contours. This led to the establishment of an energy diffusion flux (EDF) equation from which the Planck and Hubble times were derived. It was found that time becomes unimportant after applying Gauss's Law on EDF when searching for the characteristic length of the universe א. Additionally, an uncertainty rule that (...)
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  18. Universism and extensions of V.Carolin Antos, Neil Barton & Sy-David Friedman - 2021 - Review of Symbolic Logic 14 (1):112-154.
    A central area of current philosophical debate in the foundations of mathematics concerns whether or not there is a single, maximal, universe of set theory. Universists maintain that there is such a universe, while Multiversists argue that there are many universes, no one of which is ontologically privileged. Often model-theoretic constructions that add sets to models are cited as evidence in favour of the latter. This paper informs this debate by developing a way for a Universist to interpret talk that (...)
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  19. Universities as Anarchic Knowledge Institutions.Säde Hormio & Samuli Reijula - 2023 - Social Epistemology (2):119-134.
    Universities are knowledge institutions. Compared to several other knowledge institutions (e.g. schools, government research organisations, think tanks), research universities have unusual, anarchic organisational features. We argue that such anarchic features are not a weakness. Rather, they reflect the special standing of research universities among knowledge institutions. We contend that the distributed, self-organising mode of knowledge production maintains a diversity of approaches, topics and solutions needed in frontier research, which involves generating relevant knowledge under uncertainty. Organisational disunity and inconsistencies should sometimes (...)
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  20. Is Universal Consciousness Fit for Ground?Miri Albahari - 2024 - In Uriah Kriegel (ed.), Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Mind Vol 4. Oxford University Press.
    The Perennial Philosophy centres around what is said to be a recurring mystical insight: that our inherent nature is actually pure, unconditioned consciousness, identical to the ground of all being. Perennial Idealism, the name I give to a metaphysical system I have been building, extrapolates from the Perennial Philosophy to explain how the world could be configured if it were in fact true. Among the most serious challenges faced is that of articulating and defending the very notion that our world (...)
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  21. Multiple Universes and Observation Selection Effects.Darren Bradley - 2009 - American Philosophical Quarterly 46 (1):72.
    The fine-tuning argument can be used to support the Many Universe hypothesis. The Inverse Gambler’s Fallacy objection seeks to undercut the support for the Many Universe hypothesis. The objection is that although the evidence that there is life somewhere confirms Many Universes, the specific evidence that there is life in this universe does not. I will argue that the Inverse Gambler’s Fallacy is not committed by the fine-tuning argument. The key issue is the procedure by which the universe with life (...)
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  22. From Outside of Ethics Richard, Mark . When Truth Gives Out . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008. Pp. 184. $55.00 (cloth).Andrew Alwood & Mark Schroeder - 2009 - Ethics 119 (4):805-813.
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  23. Economists, university rankings, and leaving the European Union, by M*l*n K*nder*.Terence Rajivan Edward - manuscript
    In this paper, I present some responses to an argument made by an economist in an online video: that when Britain leaves the European Union, it will be taking many high ranking universities with it, which will lead to an innovation deficit in the union. I present some responses by means of a pastiche of a widely read European fiction writer.
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  24. Universal Gravitation and the (Un)Intelligibility of Natural Philosophy.Matias Slavov - 2019 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 101 (1):129-157.
    This article centers on Hume’s position on the intelligibility of natural philosophy. To that end, the controversy surrounding universal gravitation shall be scrutinized. It is very well-known that Hume sides with the Newtonian experimentalist approach rather than with the Leibnizian demand for intelligibility. However, what is not clear is Hume’s overall position on the intelligibility of natural philosophy. It shall be argued that Hume declines Leibniz’s principle of intelligibility. However, Hume does not eschew intelligibility altogether; his concept of causation itself (...)
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  25. Can Universities Save Us From Disaster?Nicholas Maxwell - 2017 - On the Horizon 52 (2):115-130.
    We face grave global problems. One might think universities are doing all they can to help solve these problems. But universities, in successfully pursuing scientific knowledge and technological know-how in a way that is dissociated from a more fundamental concern with problems of living, have actually made possible the genesis of all our current global problems. Modern science and technology have led to modern industry and agriculture, modern medicine and hygiene, modern armaments, which in turn have led to much that (...)
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  26. Should Political Philosophy be more Realistic?: Bell, Duncan . 2009. Political Thought and International Relations: Variations on a Realist Theme. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 256 pp Bourke, Richard, and Geuss, Raymond . 2009. Political Judgement: Essays for John Dunn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 368 pp.Jonathan Floyd - 2010 - Res Publica 16 (3):337-347.
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  27. Responsibility Skepticism and Strawson’s Naturalism: Review Essay on Pamela Hieronymi, Freedom, Resentment & The Metaphysics of Morals (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2020).Paul Russell - 2021 - Ethics 131 (4):754-776.
    There are few who would deny that P. F. Strawson’s “Freedom and Resentment” (1962) ranks among the most significant contributions to modern moral philosophy. Although any number of essays have been devoted to it, Pamela Hieronymi’s 'Freedom, Resentment, and the Metaphysics of Morals' is the first book-length study. The aim of Hieronymi’s study is to show that Strawson’s “central argument” has been “underestimated and misunderstood.” Hieronymi interprets this argument in terms of what she describes as Strawson’s “social naturalism”. Understood this (...)
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  28. Universal Biology Does Not Prescribe Planetary Isolationism.Carlos Mariscal - 2017 - Theology and Science 2 (15):150-152.
    Stephen Hawking’s caution against messaging extraterrestrial intelligence is a claim of universal biology and is probably false.
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  29. Snipping or editing? Parsimony in the chimpanzee mind-reading debate: Elliott Sober: Ockham’s razors: A user’s manual. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 322 pp, $ 29.99 PB, $ 99.99 HB.Kristin Andrews - 2016 - Metascience 25 (3):377-386.
    on ). Advice about how to move forward on the mindreading debate, particularly when it comes to overcoming the logical problem, is much needed in comparative psychology. In chapter 4 of his book Ockham’s Razors, Elliott Sober takes on the task by suggesting how we might uncover the mechanism that mediates between the environmental stimuli that is visible to all, and chimpanzee social behavior. I argue that Sober's proposed method for deciding between the behaivor-reading and mindreading hypotheses fails given the (...)
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  30. The Universe of Science. The Architectonic Ideas of Science, Sciences and Their Parts in Kant.Michael Lewin - 2020 - Kantian Journal 39 (2):26-45.
    I argue that Kant has developed a broad systematic account of the architectonic functionality of pure reason that can be used and advanced in contemporary contexts. Reason, in the narrow sense, is responsible for the picture of a well-ordered universe of science consisting of architectonic ideas of science, sciences and parts of sciences. In the first section (I), I show what Kant means by the architectonic ideas by explaining and interrelating the concepts of (a) the faculty of reason, (b) ideas (...)
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  31. Reward-Punishment Symmetric Universal Intelligence.Samuel Allen Alexander & Marcus Hutter - 2021 - In Samuel Allen Alexander & Marcus Hutter (eds.), AGI.
    Can an agent's intelligence level be negative? We extend the Legg-Hutter agent-environment framework to include punishments and argue for an affirmative answer to that question. We show that if the background encodings and Universal Turing Machine (UTM) admit certain Kolmogorov complexity symmetries, then the resulting Legg-Hutter intelligence measure is symmetric about the origin. In particular, this implies reward-ignoring agents have Legg-Hutter intelligence 0 according to such UTMs.
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  32. Multiple Universes and Self-Locating Evidence.Yoaav Isaacs, John Hawthorne & Jeffrey Sanford Russell - 2022 - Philosophical Review 131 (3):241-294.
    Is the fact that our universe contains fine-tuned life evidence that we live in a multiverse? Ian Hacking and Roger White influentially argue that it is not. We approach this question through a systematic framework for self-locating epistemology. As it turns out, leading approaches to self-locating evidence agree that the fact that our own universe contains fine-tuned life indeed confirms the existence of a multiverse. This convergence is no accident: we present two theorems showing that, in this setting, any updating (...)
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  33. Universal History and the Emergence of Species Being.Brown Haines - manuscript
    This paper seeks to recover the function of universal history, which was to place particulars into relation with universals. By the 20th century universal history was largely discredited because of an idealism that served to lend epistemic coherence to the overwhelming complexity arising from universal history's comprehensive scope. Idealism also attempted to account for history's being "open"--for the human ability to transcend circumstance. The paper attempts to recover these virtues without the idealism by defining universal history not by its scope (...)
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  34. Inquiring Universal Religion in the Times of Consumer Mythology.Manish Sharma - 2022 - Rabindra Bharati Journal of Philosophy 23 (09):17-24.
    Human beings as self-conscious, aesthetic, sympathetic, and empathetic beings develop various ways to live in this world. They continue to aspire for a better version of themselves and their lives. In this process, they developed certain ethical norms, social practices, and ways to perceive and understand this world. These qualities become the basis for proactive steps of spirituality which in turn become the foundation of religion. In human history, religion has helped individuals to fulfill various human needs irrespective of their (...)
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  35. On Universal Roots in Logic.Andrzej K. Rogalski & Urszula Wybraniec-Skardowska - 1998 - Dialogue and Universalism 8 (11):143-154.
    The aim of this study is to discuss in what sense one can speak about universal character of logic. The authors argue that the role of logic stands mainly in the generality of its language and its unrestricted applications to any field of knowledge and normal human life. The authors try to precise that universality of logic tends in: (a) general character of inference rules and the possibility of using those rules as a tool of justification of theorems of every (...)
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  36. Geometry and geography of morality: S. Matthew Liao : Moral brains. The neuroscience of morality. Oxford University Press, 2016, £ 22.99 PB.Jovan Babić - 2017 - Metascience 26 (3):475-479.
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  37. Rationality and freedom, by Amartya Sen. Harvard university press 2003.S. M. Amadae - 2004 - Economics and Philosophy 20 (2):381-389.
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  38. Joseph Fishkin: Bottlenecks—A New Theory of Equality of Opportunity: Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York, 2014, 288 pp.Andreas Albertsen - 2015 - Res Publica 21 (3):331-336.
    Book review: Joseph Fishkin: Bottlenecks—A New Theory of Equality of Opportunity.
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  39. Liberating Critical Theory: Eurocentrism, Normativity, and Capitalism: Symposium on Amy Allen’s The End of Progress: Decolonizing the Normative Foundations of Critical Theory, Columbia University Press, 2016.Claudia Leeb, Robert Nichols, Yves Winter & Amy Allen - 2018 - Political Theory 46 (5):772-800.
    In her latest book, The End of Progress, Amy Allen embarks on an ambitious and much-needed project: to decolonize contemporary Frankfurt School Critical Theory. As with all of her books, this is an exceptionally well-written and well-argued book. Allen strives to avoid making assertions without backing them up via close and careful textual reading of the thinkers she engages in her book. In this article, I will state why this book makes a central contribution to contemporary critical theory (in the (...)
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  40. Shlomi Segall , Equality and opportunity: Oxford University Press, ISBN: 9780199661817. 240 pages, £ 35.Andreas Albertsen - 2016 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 19 (5):1345-1347.
    Review: Shlomi Segall (2013) Equality and opportunity.
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  41. What Role Should Propositions Have in the Theory of Meaning? Review Essay: Scott Soames. What is meaning?: Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2010. Pp. ix, 132.Kirk Ludwig - 2012 - Philosophia 40 (4):885-901.
    Critical review of Scott Soames's What is Meaning?
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  42. Knowledge Management Maturity in Universities and its Impact on Performance Excellence "Comparative study".Samy S. Abu Naser, Mazen J. Al Shobaki & Youssef M. Abu Amuna - 2016 - Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research 3.
    The paper assesses Knowledge Management Maturity(KMM) in the universities to determine the impact of knowledge management on performance excellence. This study was applied on Al-Azhar University and Al-Quds Open University in Gaza strip, Palestine. This paper depends on Asian productivity organization model that used to assess KMM. Second dimension which assess performance excellence was developed by the authors. The controlled sample was (610). Several statistical tools were used for data analysis and hypotheses testing, including reliability Correlation using Cronbach’s (...)
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  43. How Universities have Betrayed Reason and Humanity – And What’s to be Done About It.Nicholas Maxwell - 2021 - Frontiers 631.
    In 1984 the author published From Knowledge to Wisdom, a book that argued that a revolution in academia is urgently needed, so that problems of living, including global problems, are put at the heart of the enterprise, and the basic aim becomes to seek and promote wisdom, and not just acquire knowledge. Every discipline and aspect of academia needs to change, and the whole way in which academia is related to the rest of the social world. Universities devoted to the (...)
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  44. Universal Agent Mixtures and the Geometry of Intelligence.Samuel Allen Alexander, David Quarel, Len Du & Marcus Hutter - 2023 - Aistats.
    Inspired by recent progress in multi-agent Reinforcement Learning (RL), in this work we examine the collective intelligent behaviour of theoretical universal agents by introducing a weighted mixture operation. Given a weighted set of agents, their weighted mixture is a new agent whose expected total reward in any environment is the corresponding weighted average of the original agents' expected total rewards in that environment. Thus, if RL agent intelligence is quantified in terms of performance across environments, the weighted mixture's intelligence is (...)
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  45. Universities of the Third Age in Poland. Emerging Model for 21st Century.Andrzej Klimczuk - 2013 - Journal of Education, Psychology and Social Sciences 1 (2):8--14.
    Main objective of this paper is to describe emergence of a Polish Universities of the Third Age model. These are a multidisciplinary non-formal education centers, which allow formation of positive responses to the challenges of an ageing population. Article indicates main organizational changes of these institutions conditioned by internal and external factors. Essay describes transformation, differentiation factors, and characteristics of these institutions for elderly based on a critical analysis of literature.
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  46. Explaining Universality: Infinite Limit Systems in the Renormalization Group Method.Jingyi Wu - 2021 - Synthese (5-6):14897-14930.
    I analyze the role of infinite idealizations used in the renormalization group (RG hereafter) method in explaining universality across microscopically different physical systems in critical phenomena. I argue that despite the reference to infinite limit systems such as systems with infinite correlation lengths during the RG process, the key to explaining universality in critical phenomena need not involve infinite limit systems. I develop my argument by introducing what I regard as the explanatorily relevant property in RG explanations: linearization* property; I (...)
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  47. Block-universe and indeterminacy (iss.20230120).Jean-Louis Boucon - 2023 - Academia.
    According to the Ontology of Knowledge (OK) reality is unspeakable, it is subjected neither to form nor to time (see ref OK). The concepts of necessity and indeterminacy are central for the OK. It is important to understand their meaning in such a context. Relativity offers a model of reality: The block-universe which is not "in" time but "contains" time. The same questions of necessity and indeterminacy therefore arise, but this time in the context of a model of sayable reality. (...)
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  48. Paradox University by La*ra R*ding.Terence Rajivan Edward - manuscript
    I present a vision of a university in which each of the departments is based on having solved a paradox (especially for those who think that philosophers on here lack vision, in a grand sense!). I do so imitating a notable modernist writer, apologies for any political incorrectness.
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  49. The Nation-State, Globalisation and the Modern Institution of the University.Marek Kwiek - 2000 - Theoria 47 (96):74-98.
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  50. How universities can help create a wiser world.Nicholas Maxwell - 2014 - Times Higher Education , No. 21 P. 30 (2136):30.
    The crisis of our times is that we have science without wisdom. Modern science and technology lead to modern industry and agriculture which in turn lead to all the great benefits of the modern world and to the global crises we face, from population growth to climate change. The fault lies, not with science, but with science dissociated from a more fundamental concern with problems of living. We urgently need to bring about a revolution in academia so that the fundamental (...)
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