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  1. added 2020-05-05
    Opioid Treatment Agreements and Patient Accountability.Larisa Svirsky - forthcoming - Hastings Center Report.
    Opioid treatment agreements are written agreements between physicians and patients enumerating the risks associated with opioid medications along with the requirements that patients must meet to receive these medications on an ongoing basis. The choice to use such agreements goes beyond the standard informed consent process, and has a distinctive symbolic significance. Specifically, it suggests that physicians regard it as important to hold their patients accountable for adhering to various protocols regarding the use of their opioid medications. After laying out (...)
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  2. added 2019-06-25
    The Future of Phage: Ethical Challenges of Using Phage Viruses to Treat Bacterial Infections.Jonathan Anomaly - 2020 - Public Health Ethics 13.
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  3. added 2018-09-21
    Coercion and the Neurocorrective Offer.Jonathan Pugh - forthcoming - In David Rhys Birks & Thomas Douglas (eds.), reatment for Crime: Philosophical Essays on Neurointerventions in Criminal Justice. Oxford, UK:
    According to what Douglas calls ‘the consent requirement’, neuro-correctives can only permissibly be provided with the valid consent of the offender who will undergo the intervention. Some of those who endorse the consent requirement have claimed that even though the requirement prohibits the imposition of mandatory neurocorrectives on criminal offenders, it may yet be permissible to offer offenders the opportunity to consent to undergoing such an intervention, in return for a reduction to their penal sentence. I call this the neurocorrective (...)
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  4. added 2018-09-21
    Smart Pills for Psychosis: The Tricky Ethical Challenges of Digital Medicine for Serious Mental Illness.Anna K. Swartz - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (9):65-67.
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  5. added 2018-06-04
    Love in the Time of Antibiotic Resistance: How Altruism Might Be Our Best Hope.Dien Ho - 2017 - In Philosophical Issues in Pharmaceutics: Development, Dispensing, and Use. Springer.
    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria pose a serious threat to our health. Our ability to destroy deadly bacteria by using antibiotics have not only improved our lives by curing infections, it also allows us to undertake otherwise dangerous treatments from chemotherapies to invasive surgeries. The emergence of antibiotic resistance, I argue, is a consequence of various iterations of prisoner’s dilemmas. To wit, each participant (from patients to nations) has rational self-interest to pursue a course of action that is suboptimal for all of us. (...)
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  6. added 2018-06-02
    Run the Experiment, Publish the Study, Close the Sale: Commercialized Biomedical Research.Aleta Quinn - 2016 - De Ethica 2 (3):5-21.
    Business models for biomedical research prescribe decentralization due to market selection pressures. I argue that decentralized biomedical research does not match four normative philosophical models of the role of values in science. Non-epistemic values affect the internal stages of for-profit biomedical science. Publication planning, effected by Contract Research Organizations, inhibits mechanisms for transformative criticism. The structure of contracted research precludes attribution of responsibility for foreseeable harm resulting from methodological choices. The effectiveness of business strategies leads to overrepresentation of profit values (...)
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  7. added 2018-04-17
    Compensation for Cures: Paying People to Participate in Challenge Studies.Jonathan Anomaly & Julian Savulescu - 2019 - Bioethics 33 (7):792-797.
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  8. added 2018-02-26
    Social Policy and Cognitive Enhancement: Lessons From Chess.Emilian Mihailov & Julian Savulescu - 2018 - Neuroethics 11 (2):115-127.
    Should the development of pharmacological cognitive enhancers raise worries about doping in cognitively demanding activities? In this paper, we argue against using current evidence relating to enhancement to justify a ban on cognitive enhancers using the example of chess. It is a mistake to assume that enhanced cognitive functioning on psychometric testing is transferable to chess performance because cognitive expertise is highly complex and in large part not merely a function of the sum specific sub-processes. A deeper reason to doubt (...)
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  9. added 2017-11-24
    Informatics: The Fuel for Pharmacometric Analysis.H. Grasela Thaddeus, Fiedler-Kelly Jill, Cirincione Brenda, Hitchcock Darcy, Reitz Kathleen, Sardella Susanne & Barry Smith - 2007 - AAPS Journal 9 (1):E84--E91.
    The current informal practice of pharmacometrics as a combination art and science makes it hard to appreciate the role that informatics can and should play in the future of the discipline and to comprehend the gaps that exist because of its absence. The development of pharmacometric informatics has important implications for expediting decision making and for improving the reliability of decisions made in model-based development. We argue that well-defined informatics for pharmacometrics can lead to much needed improvements in the efficiency, (...)
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  10. added 2017-05-17
    Harvesting the Uncollected Fruits of Other People’s Intellectual Labour.Cristian Timmermann - 2017 - Acta Bioethica 23 (2):259-269.
    Intellectual property regimes necessarily create artificial scarcity leading to wastage, both by blocking follow-up research and hindering access to those who are only able to pay less then the actual retail price. After revising the traditional arguments to hinder access to people’s intellectual labour we will examine why we should be more open to allow free-riding of inventive efforts, especially in cases where innovators have not secured the widest access to the fruits of their research and failed to cooperate with (...)
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  11. added 2017-03-29
    Pharmacogenomic Inequalities: Strategies for Justice in Biomedical Research and Healthcare.Giovanni De Grandis - 2017 - Diametros 51:153-172.
    The paper discusses the possibility that the benefits of pharmacogenomics will not be distributed equally and will create orphan populations. I argue that since these inequalities are not substantially different from those produced by ‘traditional’ drugs and are not generated with the intention to discriminate, their production needs not be unethical. Still, the final result is going against deep-seated moral feelings and intuitions, as well as broadly accepted principles of just distribution of health outcomes and healthcare. I thus propose two (...)
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  12. added 2016-12-15
    Review of Listening Into the Heart of Things-on MDMA and LSD by Samuel Widmer (1989).Michael Starks - 2016 - In Suicidal Utopian Delusions in the 21st Century: Philosophy, Human Nature and the Collapse of Civilization-- Articles and Reviews 2006-2017 2nd Edition Feb 2018. Henderson,NV, USA: Michael Starks. pp. 573-575.
    This is an early volume from a much respected psychedelic psychotherapist. He has written several other books since this one but until recently none of his books were on Amazon and still you can only find a German edition and a Spanish one (from 1993) but no English one (except a couple used copies). This is sad since these drugs have enormous therapeutic potential but afaik government suppression still prevents their use. The most interesting and readable parts are the case (...)
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  13. added 2016-12-12
    MRCT Center Post-Trial Responsibilities Framework Continued Access to Investigational Medicines. Guidance Document. Version 1.0, December 2016.Carmen Aldinger, Barbara Bierer, Rebecca Li, Luann Van Campen, Mark Barnes, Eileen Bedell, Amanda Brown-Inz, Robin Gibbs, Deborah Henderson, Christopher Kabacinski, Laurie Letvak, Susan Manoff, Ignacio Mastroleo, Ellie Okada, Usharani Pingali, Wasana Prasitsuebsai, Hans Spiegel, Daniel Wang, Susan Briggs Watson & Marc Wilenzik - 2016 - The Multi-Regional Clinical Trials Center of the Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard (MRCT Center).
    I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The MRCT Center Post-trial Responsibilities: Continued Access to an Investigational Medicine Framework outlines a case-based, principled, stakeholder approach to evaluate and guide ethical responsibilities to provide continued access to an investigational medicine at the conclusion of a patient’s participation in a clinical trial. The Post-trial Responsibilities (PTR) Framework includes this Guidance Document as well as the accompanying Toolkit. A 41-member international multi-stakeholder Workgroup convened by the Multi-Regional Clinical Trials Center of Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard University (...)
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  14. added 2016-06-15
    Ethics, Antibiotics, and Public Policy.Jonny Anomaly - 2017 - Georgetown Journal of Law and Public Policy 15 (2).
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  15. added 2016-05-15
    Análisis ético e implicaciones de la prolongación de los derechos de exclusividad sobre las invenciones farmacéuticas.Iván Vargas-Chaves - 2014 - Revista Jurídicas 11 (2):129-147.
    El presente artículo tiene como objetivo destacar la problemática de las prácticas de extensión o prolongación de los derechos de exclusividad sobre los medicamentos, llevadas a cabo por la industria farmacéutica, una vez el término de protección vía patente está por finalizar. A través de tres escenarios se pone de manifiesto las implicaciones de este fenómeno, destacándose la necesidad de involucrar activamente al Estado para garantizar así unas condiciones equitativas de acceso a los medicamentos.
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  16. added 2014-11-01
    OAE: The Ontology of Adverse Events.Yongqun He, Sirarat Sarntivijai, Yu Lin, Zuoshuang Xiang, Abra Guo, Shelley Zhang, Desikan Jagannathan, Luca Toldo, Cui Tao & Barry Smith - 2014 - Journal of Biomedical Semantics 5 (29):1-13.
    A medical intervention is a medical procedure or application intended to relieve or prevent illness or injury. Examples of medical interventions include vaccination and drug administration. After a medical intervention, adverse events (AEs) may occur which lie outside the intended consequences of the intervention. The representation and analysis of AEs are critical to the improvement of public health. Description: The Ontology of Adverse Events (OAE), previously named Adverse Event Ontology (AEO), is a community-driven ontology developed to standardize and integrate data (...)
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  17. added 2014-10-12
    Paying for the Possibility of Disease: How Medicalization of Risk Conditions Affects Health Policy and Why We Must Bear It In Mind.Alison Reiheld - 2008 - Medical Humanities Report:3, 4, 6.
    In this paper, I sound a warning note about the medicalization of risk conditions such as high cholesterol, especially in a health care climate of resource scarcity.
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  18. added 2014-07-12
    Ethical Considerations of Medical Cannabis Prescription.Cole Zachary - manuscript
    Despite analgesic and emetogenic benefits, cannabis has been banned from prescription in a number of western countries. Although some benefits are shared by drugs already available, the options of prescription are limited to the physician. The negative side-effects of cannabis do not justify this limitation on freedom and autonomy. Recreational use warrants limitations, as the search for euphoria is regularly believed to be a non-autonomous behavior. Medical prescriptions serve an analgesic and emetogenic purpose comparable to other prescribed drugs. This vindicates (...)
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  19. added 2014-04-02
    What's Wrong with Factory Farming?Jonny Anomaly - 2015 - Public Health Ethics 8 (3):246-254.
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  20. added 2013-12-07
    Die Ambivalenz zwischen Therapie und Leistung.Patrick Grüneberg - 2010 - In Christoph Asmuth (ed.), Was ist Doping? Fakten und Probleme der aktuellen Diskussion. Transcript. pp. 117--137.
    Die Frage nach der Definition von Doping basiert nicht zuletzt auf naturwissenschaftlicher Forschung. Aus einer naturwissenschaftlichen Perspektive könnte man sogar behaupten, dass die aktuelle Dopingdebatte ihre Ursachen gerade in der pharmazeutischen Forschung hat, da sich das Problem des Dopings erst mit dem Vorhandensein entsprechender Mittel bzw. Methoden zur Leistungssteigerung stellt. Allerdings wird die Frage der Dopingdefinition im Folgenden nicht auf einen naturwissenschaftlichen Referenzrahmen reduziert, wie dies in den aktuellen Dopingdefinitionen häufig der Fall ist. Vielmehr werde ich die spezifische Rolle naturwissenschaftlicher (...)
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  21. added 2013-11-12
    Life Sciences, Intellectual Property Regimes and Global Justice.Cristian Timmermann - 2013 - Dissertation, Wageningen University
    In this thesis we have examined the complex interaction between intellectual property rights, life sciences and global justice. Science and the innovations developed in its wake have an enormous effect on our daily lives, providing countless opportunities but also raising numerous problems of justice. The complexity of a problem however does not liberate society as a whole from moral responsibilities. Our intellectual property regimes clash at various points with human rights law and commonly held notions of justice.
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  22. added 2013-08-27
    The Promise and Challenge of Nanovaccines and the Question of Global Equity.Trevor Stammers Stammers, Yasmin J. Erden & Geoffrey Hunt - 2013 - Nanotechnology Perceptions 9:16-27.
    Among the many potential benefits arising from the rapidly advancing field of nanomedicine is the possibility of a whole new range of nanovaccines in which novel delivery mechanisms utilizing nanoparticles could make obsolete the use of needles for administering any vaccine. However, as the massive resources of the worldwide pharmaceutical industry are deployed to develop nanovaccines, urgent questions arise as to which diseases should be targeted and which populations will benefit most. -/- This paper explores how such targeting of nanovaccines (...)
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  23. added 2013-05-03
    The Health Impact Fund and the Right to Participate in the Advancement of Science.Cristian Timmermann - 2012 - European Journal of Applied Ethics 1 (1).
    Taking into consideration the extremely harsh public health conditions faced by the majority of the world population, the Health Impact Fund (HIF) proposal seeks to make the intellectual property regimes more in line with human rights obligations. While prioritizing access to medicines and research on neglected diseases, the HIF makes many compromises in order to be conceived as politically feasible and to retain a compensation character that makes its implementation justified solely on basis of negative duties. Despite that current global (...)
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  24. added 2013-02-21
    Collective Action and Individual Choice.Jonny Anomaly - 2013 - Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (4):752-756.
    Governments across the globe have squandered treasure and imprisoned millions of their own citizens by criminalising the use and sale of recreational drugs. But use of these drugs has remained relatively constant, and the primary victims are the users themselves. Meanwhile, antimicrobial drugs that once had the power to cure infections are losing their ability to do so, compromising the health of people around the world. The thesis of this essay is that policymakers should stop wasting resources trying to fight (...)
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  25. added 2012-10-11
    Natural Selection, Childrearing, and the Ethics of Marriage (and Divorce): Building a Case for the Neuroenhancement of Human Relationships. [REVIEW]Brian D. Earp, Anders Sandberg & Julian Savulescu - 2012 - Philosophy and Technology 25 (4):561-587.
    We argue that the fragility of contemporary marriages—and the corresponding high rates of divorce—can be explained (in large part) by a three-part mismatch: between our relationship values, our evolved psychobiological natures, and our modern social, physical, and technological environment. “Love drugs” could help address this mismatch by boosting our psychobiologies while keeping our values and our environment intact. While individual couples should be free to use pharmacological interventions to sustain and improve their romantic connection, we suggest that they may have (...)
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  26. added 2012-07-30
    Pharmaceutical Risk Communication: Sources of Uncertainty and Legal Tools of Uncertainty Management.Barbara Osimani - 2010 - Health Risk and Society 12 (5):453-69.
    Risk communication has been generally categorized as a warning act, which is performed in order to prevent or minimize risk. On the other side, risk analysis has also underscored the role played by information in reducing uncertainty about risk. In both approaches the safety aspects related to the protection of the right to health are on focus. However, it seems that there are cases where a risk cannot possibly be avoided or uncertainty reduced, this is for instance valid for the (...)
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  27. added 2012-05-26
    Reasons to Feel, Reasons to Take Pills.Guy Kahane - 2011 - In J. Savulescu, R. ter Meulen & G. Kahane (eds.), Enhancing Human Capacities. Wiley-Blackwell.
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  28. added 2010-04-08
    Ethics and the Pharmaceutical Industry. [REVIEW]Joakim Sandberg - 2010 - European Journal of Health Law 17:211-214.
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  29. added 2009-09-15
    Smart Policy: Cognitive Enhancement and the Public Interest.Nick Bostrom - forthcoming - In Julian Savulescu, Ruud ter Muelen & Guy Kahane (eds.), Enhancing Human Capabilities. Wiley-Blackwell.
    Cognitive enhancement may be defined as the amplification or extension of core capacities of the mind through improvement or augmentation of internal or external information processing systems. Cognition refers to the processes an organism uses to organize information. These include acquiring information (perception), selecting (attention), representing (understanding) and retaining (memory) information, and using it to guide behavior (reasoning and coordination of motor outputs). Interventions to improve cognitive function may be directed at any of these core faculties.
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