Biomedical Ethics

Edited by L. Syd M Johnson (SUNY Upstate Medical University)
Assistant editor: Tyler John (Rutgers University - New Brunswick)
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History/traditions: Biomedical Ethics

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  1. Without a Trace: Why Did Corona Apps Fail?Lucie White & Philippe van Basshuysen - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (12):83-83.
    At the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, high hopes were put on digital contact tracing, using mobile phone apps to record and immediately notify contacts when a user reports as infected. Such apps can now be downloaded in many countries, but as second waves of COVID-19 are raging, these apps are playing a less important role than anticipated. We argue that this is because most countries have opted for app configurations that cannot provide a means of rapidly informing users of (...)
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  2. Research Guidelines for Embryoids.Monika Piotrowska - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (12):67-67.
    Human embryo models formed from stem cells—known as embryoids—allow scientists to study the elusive first stages of human development without having to experiment on actual human embryos. But clear ethical guidelines for research involving embryoids are still lacking. Previously, a handful of researchers put forward new recommendations for embryoids, which they hope will be included in the next set of International Society for Stem Cell Research guidelines. Although these recommendations are an improvement over the default approach, they are nonetheless unworkable, (...)
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  3. Prize, Not Price: Reframing Rewards for Kidney Donors.Aksel Braanen Sterri - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (12):57-57.
    Worldwide 1.2 million people are dying from kidney failure each year, and in the USA alone, approximately 100 000 people are currently on the waiting list for a kidney transplant. One possible solution to the kidney shortage is for governments to pay donors for one of their healthy kidneys and distribute these kidneys according to need. There are, however, compelling objections to this government-monopsony model. To avoid these objections, I propose a small adjustment to the model. I suggest we reward (...)
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  4. More Than Consent for Ethical Open-Label Placebo Research.Laura Specker Sullivan - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (12):7-7.
    Recent studies have explored the effectiveness of open-label placebos for a variety of conditions, including chronic pain, cancer-related fatigue and irritable bowel syndrome. OLPs are thought to sidestep traditional ethical worries about placebos because they do not involve deception: with an OLP, patients or subjects are told outright that they are not given an active substance. As deception is framed as the primary hurdle to ethical placebo use, the door is ostensibly opened to ethical studies of OLPs. In this article, (...)
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  5. Prognostication of Patients in Coma After Cardiac Arrest: Public Perspectives.Mayli Mertens, Janine van Til, Eline Bouwers-Beens, Marianne Boenink, Jeannette Hofmeijer & Catherina Groothuis-Oudshoorn - 2021 - Resuscitation 169:4-10.
    Aim: To elicit preferences for prognostic information, attitudes towards withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment (WLST) and perspectives on acceptable quality of life after post-anoxic coma within the adult general population of Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and the United States of America. Methods: A web-based survey, consisting of questions on respondent characteristics, perspectives on quality of life, communication of prognostic information, and withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment, was taken by adult respondents recruited from four countries. Statistical analysis included descriptive analysis and chi2-tests for (...)
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  6. Cash Incentives, Ethics, and COVID-19 Vaccination.Nancy Jecker - 2021 - Science 6569 (374):819-820.
    Monetary incentives to increase COVID-19 vaccinations are widely used. Even if they work, whether such payments are ethical is contested. This paper reviews ethical arguments for and against using monetary incentives that appeal to utility, liberty, civic responsibility, equity, exploitation, and autonomy. It concludes that in low-income nations and nations with meagre safety nets and income inequality, policy-makers should proceed with caution.
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  7. To Remember, or Not to Remember? Potential Impact of Memory Modification on Narrative Identity, Personal Agency, Mental Health, and Well-Being.Przemysław Zawadzki - 2021 - Bioethics 35 (9):891-899.
    Memory modification technologies (MMTs)—interventions within the memory affecting its functions and contents in specific ways—raise great therapeutic hopes but also great fears. Ethicists have expressed concerns that developing and using MMTs may endanger the very fabric of who we are—our personal identity. This threat has been mainly considered in relation to two interrelated concerns: truthfulness and narrative self‐constitution. In this article, we propose that although this perspective brings up important matters concerning the potential aftermaths of MMT utilization, it fails to (...)
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  8. The Case for Compulsory Surgical Smoke Evacuation Systems in the Operating Theatre.Daniel Rodger - forthcoming - Clinical Ethics.
    Perioperative staff are frequently exposed to surgical smoke created by using heat-generating devices like diathermy and lasers. This is a concern due to mounting evidence that this exposure can be harmful with no safe level of exposure yet identified. First, I briefly summarise the problem posed by surgical smoke exposure and highlight that many healthcare organisations are not sufficiently satisfying their legal and ethical responsibilities to protect their staff from potential harm. Second, I explore the ethical case for compulsory smoke (...)
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  9. Farber’s Reimagined Mad Pride: Strategies for Messianic Utopian Leadership.Joshua M. Hall - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Humanities.
    In this article, I explore Seth Farber’s critique, in The Spiritual Gift of Madness, that the leaders of the Mad Pride movement are failing to realize his vision of the mad as spiritual vanguard of sociopolitical transformation. First, I show how, contra Farber’s polemic, several postmodern theorists are well suited for this leadership (especially the Argentinian post-Marxist philosopher Ernesto Laclau). I reinterpret the first book by the Icarus Project, Navigating the Space between Brilliance and Madness, by reimagining its central metaphor (...)
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  10. Deaf, Not Invisible: Sign Language Interpreting in a Global Pandemic.John Huss & Trzeciak Huss Joanna - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics: Neuroscience 12 (4):280-283.
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  11. An African Response to the Philosophical Crises in Medicine: Towards an African Philosophy of Medicine and Bioethics.Chrysogonus M. Okwenna - 2021 - Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and Religions 10 (2):1-16.
    In this paper, I identify two major philosophical crises confronting medicine as a global phenomenon. The first crisis is the epistemological crisis of adopting an epistemic attitude, adequate for improving medical knowledge and practice. The second is the ethical crisis, also known as the “quality-of-care crisis,” arising from the traditional patient-physician dyad. I acknowledge the different proposals put forward in the quest for solutions to these crises. However, I observe that most of these proposals remain inadequate given their over-reliance on (...)
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  12. Beyond Individual Triage: Regional Allocation of Life-Saving Resources such as Ventilators in Public Health Emergencies.Jonathan Pugh, Dominic Wilkinson, Cesar Palacios-Gonzalez & Julian Savulescu - 2021 - Health Care Analysis 29 (4):263-282.
    In the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare workers in some countries were forced to make distressing triaging decisions about which individual patients should receive potentially life-saving treatment. Much of the ethical discussion prompted by the pandemic has concerned which moral principles should ground our response to these individual triage questions. In this paper we aim to broaden the scope of this discussion by considering the ethics of broader structural allocation decisions raised by the COVID-19 pandemic. More specifically, we (...)
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  13. Listening to Vaccine Refusers.Kaisa Kärki - forthcoming - Medicine Health Care and Philosophy.
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  14. The Epistemic Risk in Representation.Stephanie Harvard & Eric Winsberg - forthcoming - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal.
    Both the distinction between the 'internal' and 'external' phases of science and the concept of 'inductive risk' are core constructs in the values in science literature. However, both constructs have shortcomings, which, we argue, have concealed the unique significance of values in scientific representation. We defend three closely- related proposals to rectify the problem: i) to draw a conceptual distinction between endorsing a 'fact' and making a decision about representation; ii) to employ a conception of inductive risk that aligns with (...)
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  15. Care for Language: Etymology as a Continental Argument in Bioethics.Hub Zwart - forthcoming - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry:1-10.
    Emphasizing the importance of language is a key characteristic of philosophical reflection in general and of bioethics in particular. Rather than trying to eliminate the historicity and ambiguity of language, a continental approach to bioethics will make conscious use of it, for instance by closely studying the history of the key terms we employ in bioethical debates. Continental bioethics entails a focus on the historical vicissitudes of the key signifiers of the bioethical vocabulary, urging us to study the history of (...)
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  16. Mind the Gaps: Ethical and Epistemic Issues in the Digital Mental Health Response to Covid‐19.Joshua August Skorburg & Phoebe Friesen - forthcoming - Wiley: Hastings Center Report.
    Well before the COVID-19 pandemic, proponents of digital psychiatry were touting the promise of various digital tools and techniques to revolutionize mental healthcare. As social distancing and its knock-on effects have strained existing mental health infrastructures, calls have grown louder for implementing various digital mental health solutions at scale. Decisions made today will shape the future of mental healthcare for the foreseeable future. We argue that bioethicists are uniquely positioned to cut through the hype surrounding digital mental health, which can (...)
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  17. The Epistemic Duties of Philosophers: An Addendum.Philippe van Basshuysen & Lucie White - forthcoming - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal.
    We were slightly concerned, upon having read Eric Winsberg, Jason Brennan and Chris Surprenant’s reply to our paper “Were Lockdowns Justified? A Return to the Facts and Evidence”, that they may have fundamentally misunderstood the nature of our argument, so we issue the following clarification, along with a comment on our motivations for writing such a piece, for the interested reader.
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  18. Citizenship as the Exception to the Rule: An Addendum.Tyler L. Jaynes - 2021 - AI and Society 36 (3):911-930.
    This addendum expands upon the arguments made in the author’s 2020 essay, “Legal Personhood for Artificial Intelligence: Citizenship as the Exception to the Rule”, in an effort to display the significance human augmentation technologies will have on (feasibly) inadvertently providing legal protections to artificial intelligence systems (AIS)—a topic only briefly addressed in that work. It will also further discuss the impacts popular media have on imprinting notions of computerised behaviour and its subsequent consequences on the attribution of legal protections to (...)
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  19. Citizenship as the Exception to the Rule: An Addendum.Tyler L. Jaynes - 2021 - AI and Society 36 (3):911-930.
    This addendum expands upon the arguments made in the author’s 2020 essay, “Legal Personhood for Artificial Intelligence: Citizenship as the Exception to the Rule”, in an effort to display the significance human augmentation technologies will have on (feasibly) inadvertently providing legal protections to artificial intelligence systems (AIS)—a topic only briefly addressed in that work. It will also further discuss the impacts popular media have on imprinting notions of computerised behaviour and its subsequent consequences on the attribution of legal protections to (...)
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  20. Wherein is the Concept of Disease Normative? From Weak Normativity to Value-Conscious Naturalism.M. Cristina Amoretti & Elisabetta Lalumera - 2021 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 25:1-14.
    In this paper we focus on some new normativist positions and compare them with traditional ones. In so doing, we claim that if normative judgments are involved in determining whether a condition is a disease only in the sense identified by new normativisms, then disease is normative only in a weak sense, which must be distinguished from the strong sense advocated by traditional normativisms. Specifically, we argue that weak and strong normativity are different to the point that one ‘normativist’ label (...)
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  21. Conscientious Objection in Medicine: Making it Public.Nir Ben-Moshe - 2021 - HEC Forum 33 (3):269-289.
    The literature on conscientious objection in medicine presents two key problems that remain unresolved: Which conscientious objections in medicine are justified, if it is not feasible for individual medical practitioners to conclusively demonstrate the genuineness or reasonableness of their objections? How does one respect both medical practitioners’ claims of conscience and patients’ interests, without leaving practitioners complicit in perceived or actual wrongdoing? My aim in this paper is to offer a new framework for conscientious objections in medicine, which, by bringing (...)
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  22. Mit Kontaktdaten gegen die Pandemie: Zur Ethik von Corona Warn-Apps.Philippe van Basshuysen & Lucie White - 2021 - Ethik in der Medizin 33 (3):387-400.
    Zu Beginn der Pandemie im Frühjahr 2020, und nach einem weitreichenden Lockdown, ruhten große Erwartungen auf Corona-Warn-Apps, um einen erneuten Lockdown zu verhindern. Diese Erwartungen haben sich nicht erfüllt; stattdessen wurden in Deutschland als Reaktion auf erneute Wellen von COVID-19 weitere Kontaktbeschränkungen verordnet. Wie hätte die digitale Kontaktverfolgung wirksamer gestaltet werden können? Wir argumentieren, dass es ein Spannungsfeld zwischen der Datensparsamkeit und einer wirksamen Bekämpfung der Pandemie besteht. Im Gegensatz zur deutschen Corona-Warn-App wäre eine Variante der App, in der pseudonymisierte (...)
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  23. Materializing Systemic Racism, Materializing Health Disparities.Vanessa Carbonell & Shen-yi Liao - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (9):16-18.
    The purpose of cultural competence education for medical professionals is to ensure respectful care and reduce health disparities. Yet as Berger and Miller (2021) show, the cultural competence framework is dated, confused, and self-defeating. They argue that the framework ignores the primary driver of health disparities—systemic racism—and is apt to exacerbate rather than mitigate bias and ethnocentrism. They propose replacing cultural competence with a framework that attends to two social aspects of structural inequality: health and social policy, and institutional-system activity; (...)
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  24. Supported Decision-Making: Non-Domination Rather Than Mental Prosthesis.Allison McCarthy & Dana Howard - forthcoming - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience.
    Recently, bioethicists and the UNCRPD have advocated for supported medical decision-making on behalf of patients with intellectual disabilities. But what does supported decision-making really entail? One compelling framework is Anita Silvers and Leslie Francis’ mental prosthesis account, which envisions supported decision-making as a process in which trustees act as mere appendages for the patient’s will; the trustee provides the cognitive tools the patient requires to realize her conception of her own good. We argue that supported decision-making would be better understood (...)
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  25. Misrecognition, Social Stigma, and COVID-19.Kazi A. S. M. Nurul Huda - 2021 - Developing World Bioethics:1-6.
    As social and interdependent beings, we have responsibilities to each other. One of them is to recognize each other appropriately. When we fail to meet this responsibility, we often stigmatize. In this paper, I argue that the COVID-19-related stigmatization is a variation of the lack of recognition understood as an orientation to our evaluative features. Various stereotypical behaviors regarding COVID-19 become stigmatized practices because of labeling, stereotyping, separation, status loss and discrimination, and power. When people stigmatize COVID-19 victims, they orient (...)
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  26. Ethical Considerations for International Recruitment in COVID-19 Human Challenge Trials.Kaleem Ahmid, Abie Rohrig, Paul Ndebele, Zacharia Kafuko & Josh Morrison - manuscript
    Ongoing and anticipated COVID-19 human challenge studies in the UK may advance our understanding of COVID-19 and facilitate the licensure of safe, effective, and easily deployable next-generation COVID-19 vaccines and boosters. We argue that international volunteer recruitment for COVID-19 human challenge trials can help promote diversity in these trials and ensure a sufficient number of eligible volunteers, both of which will increase the benefits of challenge research. We explore the ethical ramifications of dealing with unfair background conditions of global vaccine (...)
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  27. Sullying Sights.Ryan P. Doran - forthcoming - Philosophical Psychology.
    In this article, an account of the architecture of the cognitive contamination system is offered, according to which the contamination system can generate contamination representations in circumstances that do not satisfy the norms of contamination, including in cases of mere visual contact with disgusting objects. It is argued that this architecture is important for explaining the content, logic, distribution, and persistence of maternal impression beliefs—according to which foetal defects are caused by the pregnant mother’s experiences and actions—which in turn provide (...)
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  28. Value Promotion as a Goal of Medicine.Eric Mathison & Jeremy Davis - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (7):494-501.
    In this paper, we argue that promoting patient values is a legitimate goal of medicine. Our view offers a justification for certain current practices, including birth control and living organ donation, that are widely accepted but do not fit neatly within the most common extant accounts of the goals of medicine. Moreover, we argue that recognising value promotion as a goal of medicine will expand the scope of medical practice by including some procedures that are sometimes rejected as being outside (...)
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  29. Response to Open Peer Commentaries on “Informed Consent: What Must Be Disclosed and What Must Be Understood?”.Danielle Bromwich & Joseph Millum - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (7):1-5.
    In “Informed Consent: What Must be Disclosed and What Must be Understood?”, we reject a dogma at the heart of research ethics. We demonstrate that the constitutive claim...
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  30. Why We Should Not Extend the 14-Day Rule.Bruce Philip Blackshaw & Daniel Rodger - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics (10):712-714.
    The 14-day rule restricts the culturing of human embryos in vitro for the purposes of scientific research for no longer than 14 days. Since researchers recently developed the capability to exceed the 14-day limit, pressure to modify the rule has started to build. Sophia McCully argues that the limit should be extended to 28 days, listing numerous potential benefits of doing so. We contend that McCully has not engaged with the main reasons why the Warnock Committee set such a limit, (...)
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  31. The Evolving Social Purpose of Academic Freedom.Shannon Dea - 2021 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 31 (2):199-222.
    In the face of the increasing substitution of free speech for academic freedom, I argue for the distinctiveness and irreplaceability of the latter. Academic freedom has evolved alongside universities in order to support the important social purpose universities serve. Having limned this evolution, I compare academic freedom and free speech. This comparison reveals freedom of expression to be an individual freedom, and academic freedom to be a group-differentiated freedom with a social purpose. I argue that the social purpose of academic (...)
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  32. Socrates in the fMRI Scanner: The Neurofoundations of Morality and the Challenge to Ethics.Jon Rueda - 2021 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 30 (4):606-612.
    The neuroscience of ethics is allegedly having a double impact. First, it is transforming the view of human morality through the discovery of the neurobiological underpinnings that influence moral behavior. Secondly, some neuroscientific findings are radically challenging traditional views on normative ethics. Both claims have some truth but are also overstated. In this article, the author shows that they can be understood together, although with different caveats, under the label of ‘neurofoundationalism’. Whereas the neuroscientific picture of human morality is undoubtedly (...)
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  33. Simulating (Some) Individuals in a Connected World.Jenny Krutzinna - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (6):403-404.
    Braun explores the use of digital twin technology in medicine with a particular emphasis on the question of how such simulations can represent a person.1 In defining some first conditions for ethically justifiable forms of representation of digital twins, he argues that digital twins do not threaten an embodied person, as long as that person retains control over their simulated representation via dynamic consent, and ideally with the option to choose both form and usage of the simulation. His thoughtful elaboration (...)
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  34. Ethical Issues of Using Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cell Therapy of John Stuart Mill Perspective.Pattamawadee Sankheangaew - 2021 - Ethics, Value Theory.
    This academic paper on Ethical issues of using umbilical cord blood stem cell therapy of John Stuart Mill perspective aim to investigate the new approaches in the treatment of diseases by using umbilical cord blood stem cells. And also to study ethical issues from the use of umbilical cord blood stem cells in the treatment of diseases considered by Mill’s utilitarianism. 21st century, the medical industry was interested in organ transplantation from stem cells especially stem cells from the umbilical cord (...)
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  35. We Might Be Afraid of Black-Box Algorithms.Carissa Veliz, Milo Phillips-Brown, Carina Prunkl & Ted Lechterman - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (5):339-40.
    Fears of black-box algorithms are multiplying. Black-box algorithms are said to prevent accountability, make it harder to detect bias and so on. Some fears concern the epistemology of black-box algorithms in medicine and the ethical implications of that epistemology. In ‘Who is afraid of black box algorithms? On the epistemological and ethical basis of trust in medical AI,’ Juan Durán and Karin Jongsma seek to allay such fears. While we find some of their arguments compelling, we still see reasons for (...)
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  36. Is There an App for That?: Ethical Issues in the Digital Mental Health Response to COVID-19.Joshua August Skorburg & Josephine Yam - forthcoming - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience:1-14.
    As COVID-19 spread, clinicians warned of mental illness epidemics within the coronavirus pandemic. Funding for digital mental health is surging and researchers are calling for widespread adoption to address the mental health sequalae of COVID-19. -/- We consider whether these technologies improve mental health outcomes and whether they exacerbate existing health inequalities laid bare by the pandemic. We argue the evidence for efficacy is weak and the likelihood of increasing inequalities is high. -/- First, we review recent trends in digital (...)
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  37. Against Personal Ventilator Reallocation.Joel Michael Reynolds, Laura Guidry-Grimes & Katie Savin - 2020 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 30 (2):272-284.
    The COVID-19 pandemic has led to intense conversations about ventilator allocation and reallocation during a crisis standard of care. Multiple voices in the media and multiple state guidelines mention reallocation as a possibility. Drawing upon a range of neuroscientific, phenomenological, ethical, and sociopolitical considerations, the authors argue that taking away someone’s personal ventilator is a direct assault on their bodily and social integrity. They conclude that personal ventilators should not be part of reallocation pools and that triage protocols should be (...)
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  38. L'éthique des émotions.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    Les émotions ont souvent été considérées comme une menace pour la moralité et la rationalité ; dans la tradition romantique, les passions étaient placées au centre de l'individualité humaine et de la vie morale. Cette ambivalence a conduit à une ambiguïté entre les termes des émotions pour les vices et les vertus. Spinoza déclare que les systèmes éthiques fondés sur l'auto-préservation tiennent également compte des éléments sociaux et culturels. Spinoza nous dit que le bonheur est le pouvoir d'être libéré de (...)
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  39. Nudging to Donate Organs: Do What You Like or Like What We Do?Sergio Beraldo & Jurgis Karpus - 2021 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy (3):329-340.
    An effective method to increase the number of potential cadaveric organ donors is to make people donors by default with the option to opt out. This non-coercive public policy tool to influence people’s choices is often justified on the basis of the as-judged-by-themselves principle: people are nudged into choosing what they themselves truly want. We review three often hypothesized reasons for why defaults work and argue that the as-judged-by-themselves principle may hold only in two of these cases. We specify further (...)
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  40. Hermeneutical Healing: Physical Therapy with a Gadamerian Twist.Casey Rentmeester - 2021 - Journal of Applied Hermeneutics 1 (2021):1-14.
    In recent decades, phenomenology has been utilized not only as a conceptual framework from which to understand medical encounters in healthcare settings, but also to guide medical professionals in providing care. In the realm of physical therapy, phenomenology has been touted as a philosophically-based avenue to aid in helping to understand what it means to be a patient. The works of Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger have been utilized as paths to approach phenomenologically-informed care in physical therapy. However, to our (...)
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  41. The King Was Pregnant: Reproductive Ethics and Transgender Pregnancy.Jill Drouillard - 2021 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 14 (1):120-140.
    Using Ursula K. Le Guin’s The Left Hand of Darkness as an inspirational backdrop, a novel whose story unfolds on a genderless planet that nevertheless relies on reproductive sex for the sake of generativity, this paper tackles the sex/gender debate, its entanglements with procreation, and its consequences for transgender pregnancies. More specifically, I analyze three issues that pose barriers to thinking about a more inclusive reproductive ethics: state-sanctioned sterilization, non-reproductive futurism, and access to assisted reproductive technology.
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  42. E-Cigarettes and the Multiple Responsibilities of the FDA.Larisa Svirsky, Dana Howard & Micah L. Berman - forthcoming - American Journal of Bioethics:1-10.
    This paper considers the responsibilities of the FDA with regard to disseminating information about the benefits and harms of e-cigarettes. Tobacco harm reduction advocates claim that the FDA has been overcautious and has violated ethical obligations by failing to clearly communicate to the public that e-cigarettes are far less harmful than cigarettes. We argue, by contrast, that the FDA’s obligations in this arena are more complex than they may appear at first blush. Though the FDA is accountable for informing the (...)
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  43. LGBT Testimony and the Limits of Trust.Maura Priest - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics (x):xx.
    Draft of forthcoming article in the Journal of Medical Ethics where I discuss ethical tension between LGBT testimony and testimonial trust of medical professionals.
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  44. COVID-19 Vaccine Trial Ethics Once We Have Efficacious Vaccines.David Wendler, Jorge Ochoa, Joseph Millum, Christine Grady & Holly Taylor - 2020 - Science 370 (6522):1277-1279.
    Some placebo-controlled trials can continue ethically after a candidate vaccine is found to be safe and efficacious.
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  45. The Ethics of Abortion, Infanticide, and the Problem of the Internal Inconsistency of the Moral System.Ilya Glazunov - manuscript
    The paper presents an analysis of the ethics of abortion and infanticide. The work considers two main approaches: the argument of J.J. Thomson on the right to use his body and the absence of responsibilities regarding the fetus, and the argument about the difference in the moral status of the fetus and the adult, which are used both in the argumentation of supporters and opponents of abortion. The paper shows the fallacy of the first approach, and also, in order for (...)
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  46. Taking Relational Authenticity Seriously: Neurotechnologies, Narrative Identity, and Co-Authorship of the Self.Emilian Mihailov, Alexandra Zorila & Cristian Iftode - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 12 (1):35-37.
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  47. How AI Can AID Bioethics.Walter Sinnott Armstrong & Joshua August Skorburg - forthcoming - Journal of Practical Ethics.
    This paper explores some ways in which artificial intelligence (AI) could be used to improve human moral judgments in bioethics by avoiding some of the most common sources of error in moral judgment, including ignorance, confusion, and bias. It surveys three existing proposals for building human morality into AI: Top-down, bottom-up, and hybrid approaches. Then it proposes a multi-step, hybrid method, using the example of kidney allocations for transplants as a test case. The paper concludes with brief remarks about how (...)
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  48. Informed Consent: What Must Be Disclosed and What Must Be Understood?Joseph Millum & Danielle Bromwich - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (5):46-58.
    Over the last few decades, multiple studies have examined the understanding of participants in clinical research. They show variable and often poor understanding of key elements of disclosure, such as expected risks and the experimental nature of treatments. Did the participants in these studies give valid consent? According to the standard view of informed consent they did not. The standard view holds that the recipient of consent has a duty to disclose certain information to the profferer of consent because valid (...)
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  49. Neural Organoids and the Precautionary Principle.Jonathan Birch & Heather Browning - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (1):56-58.
    Human neural organoid research is advancing rapidly. As Greely notes in the target article, this progress presents an “onrushing ethical dilemma.” We can’t rule out the possibility that suff...
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  50. Expert Communication and the Self-Defeating Codes of Scientific Ethics.Hugh Desmond - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (1):24-26.
    Codes of ethics currently offer no guidance to scientists acting in capacity of expert. Yet communicating their expertise is one of the most important activities of scientists. Here I argue that expert communication has a specifically ethical dimension, and that experts must face a fundamental trade-off between "actionability" and "transparency" when communicating. Some recommendations for expert communication are suggested.
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