Switch to: References

Add citations

You must login to add citations.
  1. The Moral Consideration of Artificial Entities: A Literature Review.Jamie Harris & Jacy Reese Anthis - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (4):1-95.
    Ethicists, policy-makers, and the general public have questioned whether artificial entities such as robots warrant rights or other forms of moral consideration. There is little synthesis of the research on this topic so far. We identify 294 relevant research or discussion items in our literature review of this topic. There is widespread agreement among scholars that some artificial entities could warrant moral consideration in the future, if not also the present. The reasoning varies, such as concern for the effects on (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  • Shifting Perspectives.David J. Gunkel - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (5):2527-2532.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  • Debate: What is Personhood in the Age of AI?David J. Gunkel & Jordan Joseph Wales - 2021 - AI and Society 36:473–486.
    In a friendly interdisciplinary debate, we interrogate from several vantage points the question of “personhood” in light of contemporary and near-future forms of social AI. David J. Gunkel approaches the matter from a philosophical and legal standpoint, while Jordan Wales offers reflections theological and psychological. Attending to metaphysical, moral, social, and legal understandings of personhood, we ask about the position of apparently personal artificial intelligences in our society and individual lives. Re-examining the “person” and questioning prominent construals of that category, (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  • Moral Status and Intelligent Robots.John-Stewart Gordon & David J. Gunkel - 2022 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 60 (1):88-117.
    The Southern Journal of Philosophy, Volume 60, Issue 1, Page 88-117, March 2022.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  • In Search of the Moral Status of AI: Why Sentience is a Strong Argument.Martin Gibert & Dominic Martin - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):319-330.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  • In search of the moral status of AI: why sentience is a strong argument.Martin Gibert & Dominic Martin - 2021 - AI and Society 1:1-12.
    Is it OK to lie to Siri? Is it bad to mistreat a robot for our own pleasure? Under what condition should we grant a moral status to an artificial intelligence system? This paper looks at different arguments for granting moral status to an AI system: the idea of indirect duties, the relational argument, the argument from intelligence, the arguments from life and information, and the argument from sentience. In each but the last case, we find unresolved issues with the (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  • Artificial virtue: the machine question and perceptions of moral character in artificial moral agents.Patrick Gamez, Daniel B. Shank, Carson Arnold & Mallory North - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (4):795-809.
    Virtue ethics seems to be a promising moral theory for understanding and interpreting the development and behavior of artificial moral agents. Virtuous artificial agents would blur traditional distinctions between different sorts of moral machines and could make a claim to membership in the moral community. Accordingly, we investigate the “machine question” by studying whether virtue or vice can be attributed to artificial intelligence; that is, are people willing to judge machines as possessing moral character? An experiment describes situations where either (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   11 citations  
  • A Friendly Critique of Levinasian Machine Ethics.Patrick Gamez - 2022 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 60 (1):118-149.
    The Southern Journal of Philosophy, Volume 60, Issue 1, Page 118-149, March 2022.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Towards Establishing Criteria for the Ethical Analysis of Artificial Intelligence.Michele Farisco, Kathinka Evers & Arleen Salles - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (5):2413-2425.
    Ethical reflection on Artificial Intelligence has become a priority. In this article, we propose a methodological model for a comprehensive ethical analysis of some uses of AI, notably as a replacement of human actors in specific activities. We emphasize the need for conceptual clarification of relevant key terms in order to undertake such reflection. Against that background, we distinguish two levels of ethical analysis, one practical and one theoretical. Focusing on the state of AI at present, we suggest that regardless (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  • Why the Epistemic Objection Against Using Sentience as Criterion of Moral Status is Flawed.Leonard Dung - 2022 - Science and Engineering Ethics 28 (6):1-15.
    According to a common view, sentience is necessary and sufficient for moral status. In other words, whether a being has intrinsic moral relevance is determined by its capacity for conscious experience. The _epistemic objection_ derives from our profound uncertainty about sentience. According to this objection, we cannot use sentience as a _criterion_ to ascribe moral status in practice because we won’t know in the foreseeable future which animals and AI systems are sentient while ethical questions regarding the possession of moral (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Should We Use Technology to Merge Minds?John Danaher & Sven Nyholm - 2021 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 30 (4):585-603.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Robot Betrayal: A Guide to the Ethics of Robotic Deception.John Danaher - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (2):117-128.
    If a robot sends a deceptive signal to a human user, is this always and everywhere an unethical act, or might it sometimes be ethically desirable? Building upon previous work in robot ethics, this article tries to clarify and refine our understanding of the ethics of robotic deception. It does so by making three arguments. First, it argues that we need to distinguish between three main forms of robotic deception (external state deception; superficial state deception; and hidden state deception) in (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  • Understanding Responsibility in Responsible AI. Dianoetic Virtues and the Hard Problem of Context.Mihaela Constantinescu, Cristina Voinea, Radu Uszkai & Constantin Vică - 2021 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (4):803-814.
    During the last decade there has been burgeoning research concerning the ways in which we should think of and apply the concept of responsibility for Artificial Intelligence. Despite this conceptual richness, there is still a lack of consensus regarding what Responsible AI entails on both conceptual and practical levels. The aim of this paper is to connect the ethical dimension of responsibility in Responsible AI with Aristotelian virtue ethics, where notions of context and dianoetic virtues play a grounding role for (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  • The Role of Ethical Reflection and Dialogue in Conceptualising Animal Welfare.Simon Coghlan - 2022 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 35 (3):1-17.
    This paper argues that ethical reflection and dialogue can assist in understanding what animal welfare is. Questions about animal welfare’s nature are thorny and contested. Responding to an essay by Donald Bruckner, the paper acknowledges that animal welfare is a type of normative value distinct from ethical value and that the methodology for determining prudential value is not simply reducible to ethical thought. However, it contends that connections between ethics and understanding wellbeing are closer than we might expect. The paper (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • What’s Wrong with Designing People to Serve?Bartek Chomanski - 2019 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 22 (4):993-1015.
    In this paper I argue, contrary to recent literature, that it is unethical to create artificial agents possessing human-level intelligence that are programmed to be human beings’ obedient servants. In developing the argument, I concede that there are possible scenarios in which building such artificial servants is, on net, beneficial. I also concede that, on some conceptions of autonomy, it is possible to build human-level AI servants that will enjoy full-blown autonomy. Nonetheless, the main thrust of my argument is that, (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  • The Measurement Problem of Consciousness.Heather Browning & Walter Veit - 2020 - Philosophical Topics 48 (1):85-108.
    This paper addresses what we consider to be the most pressing challenge for the emerging science of consciousness: the measurement problem of consciousness. That is, by what methods can we determine the presence of and properties of consciousness? Most methods are currently developed through evaluation of the presence of consciousness in humans and here we argue that there are particular problems in application of these methods to nonhuman cases—what we call the indicator validity problem and the extrapolation problem. The first (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  • Represent Me: Please! Towards an Ethics of Digital Twins in Medicine.Matthias Braun - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (6):394-400.
    Simulations are used in very different contexts and for very different purposes. An emerging development is the possibility of using simulations to obtain a more or less representative reproduction of organs or even entire persons. Such simulations are framed and discussed using the term ‘digital twin’. This paper unpacks and scrutinises the current use of such digital twins in medicine and the ideas embedded in this practice. First, the paper maps the different types of digital twins. A special focus is (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  • Empathic responses and moral status for social robots: an argument in favor of robot patienthood based on K. E. Løgstrup.Simon N. Balle - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):535-548.
    Empirical research on human–robot interaction has demonstrated how humans tend to react to social robots with empathic responses and moral behavior. How should we ethically evaluate such responses to robots? Are people wrong to treat non-sentient artefacts as moral patients since this rests on anthropomorphism and ‘over-identification’ —or correct since spontaneous moral intuition and behavior toward nonhumans is indicative for moral patienthood, such that social robots become our ‘Others’?. In this research paper, I weave extant HRI studies that demonstrate empathic (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  • To Each Technology Its Own Ethics: The Problem of Ethical Proliferation.Henrik Skaug Sætra & John Danaher - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (4):1-26.
    Ethics plays a key role in the normative analysis of the impacts of technology. We know that computers in general and the processing of data, the use of artificial intelligence, and the combination of computers and/or artificial intelligence with robotics are all associated with ethically relevant implications for individuals, groups, and society. In this article, we argue that while all technologies are ethically relevant, there is no need to create a separate ‘ethics of X’ or ‘X ethics’ for each and (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Why Indirect Harms Do Not Support Social Robot Rights.Paula Sweeney - 2022 - Minds and Machines 32 (4):735-749.
    There is growing evidence to support the claim that we react differently to robots than we do to other objects. In particular, we react differently to robots with which we have some form of social interaction. In this paper I critically assess the claim that, due to our tendency to become emotionally attached to social robots, permitting their harm may be damaging for society and as such we should consider introducing legislation to grant social robots rights and protect them from (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Moral Zombies: Why Algorithms Are Not Moral Agents.Carissa Véliz - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-11.
    In philosophy of mind, zombies are imaginary creatures that are exact physical duplicates of conscious subjects but for whom there is no first-personal experience. Zombies are meant to show that physicalism—the theory that the universe is made up entirely out of physical components—is false. In this paper, I apply the zombie thought experiment to the realm of morality to assess whether moral agency is something independent from sentience. Algorithms, I argue, are a kind of functional moral zombie, such that thinking (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   13 citations  
  • Ethical aspects of AI robots for agri-food; a relational approach based on four case studies.Simone van der Burg, Else Giesbers, Marc-Jeroen Bogaardt, Wijbrand Ouweltjes & Kees Lokhorst - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-15.
    These last years, the development of AI robots for agriculture, livestock farming and food processing industries is rapidly increasing. These robots are expected to help produce and deliver food more efficiently for a growing human population, but they also raise societal and ethical questions. As the type of questions raised by these AI robots in society have been rarely empirically explored, we engaged in four case studies focussing on four types of AI robots for agri-food ‘in the making’: manure collectors, (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Technology and Moral Change: The Transformation of Truth and Trust.Henrik Skaug Sætra & John Danaher - 2022 - Ethics and Information Technology 24 (3).
    Technologies can have profound effects on social moral systems. Is there any way to systematically investigate and anticipate these potential effects? This paper aims to contribute to this emerging field on inquiry through a case study method. It focuses on two core human values—truth and trust—describes their structural properties and conceptualisations, and then considers various mechanisms through which technology is changing and can change our perspective on those values. In brief, the paper argues that technology is transforming these values by (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Robots in the Workplace: a Threat to—or Opportunity for—Meaningful Work?Jilles Smids, Sven Nyholm & Hannah Berkers - 2020 - Philosophy and Technology 33 (3):503-522.
    The concept of meaningful work has recently received increased attention in philosophy and other disciplines. However, the impact of the increasing robotization of the workplace on meaningful work has received very little attention so far. Doing work that is meaningful leads to higher job satisfaction and increased worker well-being, and some argue for a right to access to meaningful work. In this paper, we therefore address the impact of robotization on meaningful work. We do so by identifying five key aspects (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  • Danaher’s Ethical Behaviourism: An Adequate Guide to Assessing the Moral Status of a Robot?Jilles Smids - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (5):2849-2866.
    This paper critically assesses John Danaher’s ‘ethical behaviourism’, a theory on how the moral status of robots should be determined. The basic idea of this theory is that a robot’s moral status is determined decisively on the basis of its observable behaviour. If it behaves sufficiently similar to some entity that has moral status, such as a human or an animal, then we should ascribe the same moral status to the robot as we do to this human or animal. The (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  • Engineering Responsibility.Nicholas Sars - 2022 - Ethics and Information Technology 24 (3).
    Many optimistic responses have been proposed to bridge the threat of responsibility gaps which artificial systems create. This paper identifies a question which arises if this optimistic project proves successful. On a response-dependent understanding of responsibility, our responsibility practices themselves at least partially determine who counts as a responsible agent. On this basis, if AI or robot technology advance such that AI or robot agents become fitting participants within responsibility exchanges, then responsibility itself might be engineered. If we have good (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Could you hate a robot? And does it matter if you could?Helen Ryland - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-13.
    This article defends two claims. First, humans could be in relationships characterised by hate with some robots. Second, it matters that humans could hate robots, as this hate could wrong the robots. In defending this second claim, I will thus be accepting that morally considerable robots either currently exist, or will exist in the near future, and so it can matter how we treat these robots. The arguments presented in this article make an important original contribution to the robo-philosophy literature, (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • On the Moral Status of Social Robots: Considering the Consciousness Criterion.Kestutis Mosakas - 2021 - AI and Society 36 (2):429-443.
    While philosophers have been debating for decades on whether different entities—including severely disabled human beings, embryos, animals, objects of nature, and even works of art—can legitimately be considered as having moral status, this question has gained a new dimension in the wake of artificial intelligence. One of the more imminent concerns in the context of AI is that of the moral rights and status of social robots, such as robotic caregivers and artificial companions, that are built to interact with human (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  • Is It Time for Robot Rights? Moral Status in Artificial Entities.Vincent C. Müller - 2021 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (3):579–587.
    Some authors have recently suggested that it is time to consider rights for robots. These suggestions are based on the claim that the question of robot rights should not depend on a standard set of conditions for ‘moral status’; but instead, the question is to be framed in a new way, by rejecting the is/ought distinction, making a relational turn, or assuming a methodological behaviourism. We try to clarify these suggestions and to show their highly problematic consequences. While we find (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  • Investigating User Perceptions of Commercial Virtual Assistants: A Qualitative Study.Leilasadat Mirghaderi, Monika Sziron & Elisabeth Hildt - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    As commercial virtual assistants become an integrated part of almost every smart device that we use on a daily basis, including but not limited to smartphones, speakers, personal computers, watches, TVs, and TV sticks, there are pressing questions that call for the study of how participants perceive commercial virtual assistants and what relational roles they assign to them. Furthermore, it is crucial to study which characteristics of commercial virtual assistants are perceived as important for establishing affective interaction with commercial virtual (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Humans, Neanderthals, Robots and Rights.Kamil Mamak - 2022 - Ethics and Information Technology 24 (3).
    Robots are becoming more visible parts of our life, a situation which prompts questions about their place in our society. One group of issues that is widely discussed is connected with robots’ moral and legal status as well as their potential rights. The question of granting robots rights is polarizing. Some positions accept the possibility of granting them human rights whereas others reject the notion that robots can be considered potential rights holders. In this paper, I claim that robots will (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  • Problems with “Friendly AI”.Oliver Li - 2021 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (3):543-550.
    On virtue ethical grounds, Barbro Fröding and Martin Peterson recently recommended that near-future AIs should be developed as ‘Friendly AI’. AI in social interaction with humans should be programmed such that they mimic aspects of human friendship. While it is a reasonable goal to implement AI systems interacting with humans as Friendly AI, I identify four issues that need to be addressed concerning Friendly AI with Fröding’s and Peterson’s understanding of Friendly AI as a starting point. In a first step, (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  • Basic Issues in AI Policy.Vincent C. Müller - 2022 - In Maria Amparo Grau-Ruiz (ed.), Interactive robotics: Legal, ethical, social and economic aspects. Cham: Springer. pp. 3-9.
    This extended abstract summarises some of the basic points of AI ethics and policy as they present themselves now. We explain the notion of AI, the main ethical issues in AI and the main policy aims and means.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • The Morality of Artificial Friends in Ishiguro’s Klara and the Sun.Jakob Stenseke - 2022 - Journal of Science Fiction and Philosophy 5.
    Can artificial entities be worthy of moral considerations? Can they be artificial moral agents (AMAs), capable of telling the difference between good and evil? In this essay, I explore both questions—i.e., whether and to what extent artificial entities can have a moral status (“the machine question”) and moral agency (“the AMA question”)—in light of Kazuo Ishiguro’s 2021 novel Klara and the Sun. I do so by juxtaposing two prominent approaches to machine morality that are central to the novel: the (1) (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Thinking Unwise: A Relational U-Turn.Nicholas Barrow - forthcoming - In Social Robots in Social Institutions: Proceedings of RoboPhilosophy 2022.
    In this paper, I add to the recent flurry of research concerning the moral patiency of artificial beings. Focusing on David Gunkel's adaptation of Levinas, I identify and argue that the Relationist's extrinsic case-by-case approach of ascribing artificial moral status fails on two accounts. Firstly, despite Gunkel's effort to avoid anthropocentrism, I argue that Relationism is, itself, anthropocentric in virtue of how its case-by-case approach is, necessarily, assessed from a human perspective. Secondly I, in light of interpreting Gunkel's Relationism as (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Ethics of Artificial Intelligence and Robotics.Vincent C. Müller - 2020 - In Edward Zalta (ed.), Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Palo Alto, Cal.: CSLI, Stanford University. pp. 1-70.
    Artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics are digital technologies that will have significant impact on the development of humanity in the near future. They have raised fundamental questions about what we should do with these systems, what the systems themselves should do, what risks they involve, and how we can control these. - After the Introduction to the field (§1), the main themes (§2) of this article are: Ethical issues that arise with AI systems as objects, i.e., tools made and used (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   24 citations  
  • Ethics of Artificial Intelligence.Vincent C. Müller - 2021 - In Anthony Elliott (ed.), The Routledge social science handbook of AI. London: Routledge. pp. 122-137.
    Artificial intelligence (AI) is a digital technology that will be of major importance for the development of humanity in the near future. AI has raised fundamental questions about what we should do with such systems, what the systems themselves should do, what risks they involve and how we can control these. - After the background to the field (1), this article introduces the main debates (2), first on ethical issues that arise with AI systems as objects, i.e. tools made and (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • What Matters for Moral Status: Behavioral or Cognitive Equivalence?John Danaher - forthcoming - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics.
    Henry Shevlin’s paper—“How could we know when a robot was a moral patient?” – argues that we should recognize robots and artificial intelligence (AI) as psychological moral patients if they are cognitively equivalent to other beings that we already recognize as psychological moral patients (i.e., humans and, at least some, animals). In defending this cognitive equivalence strategy, Shevlin draws inspiration from the “behavioral equivalence” strategy that I have defended in previous work but argues that it is flawed in crucial respects. (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation