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Modal logic with names
Journal of Philosophical Logic 22 (6):607  636 (1993)
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A complete axiomatic system CTL$_{rp}$ is introduced for a temporal logic for finitely branching $\omega^+$trees in a temporal language extended with so called reference pointers. Syntactic and semantic interpretations are constructed for the branching time computation tree logic CTL* into CTL$_{rp}$. In particular, that yields a complete axiomatization for the translations of all valid CTL*formulae. Thus, the temporal logic with reference pointers is brought forward as a simpler (with no path quantifiers), but in a way more expressive medium for reasoning (...) 

On the 4th of December 1967, Hans Kamp sent his UCLA seminar notes on the logic of ‘now’ to Arthur N. Prior. Kamp’s twodimensional analysis stimulated Prior to an intense burst of creativity in which he sought to integrate Kamp’s work into tense logic using a onedimensional approach. Prior’s search led him through the work of Castañeda, and back to his own work on hybrid logic: the first made temporal reference philosophically respectable, the second made it technically feasible in a (...) 

Viewing the language of modal logic as a language for describing directed graphs, a natural type of directed graph to study modally is one where the nodes are sets and the edge relation is the subset or superset relation. A wellknown example from the literature on intuitionistic logic is the class of Medvedev frames $\langle W,R\rangle$ where $W$ is the set of nonempty subsets of some nonempty finite set $S$, and $xRy$ iff $x\supseteq y$, or more liberally, where $\langle W,R\rangle$ (...) 

We show that basic hybridization makes it possible to give straightforward Henkinstyle completeness proofs even when the modal logic being hybridized is higherorder. The key ideas are to add nominals as expressions of type t, and to extend to arbitrary types the way we interpret \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{69pt} \begin{document}$@_i$\end{document} in propositional and firstorder hybrid logic. This means: interpret \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{69pt} \begin{document}$@_i\alpha _a$\end{document}, where \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} (...) 

Many of the formalisms used in Attribute Value grammar are notational variants of languages of propositional modal logic, and testing whether two Attribute Value Structures unify amounts to testing for modal satisfiability. In this paper we put this observation to work. We study the complexity of the satisfiability problem for nine modal languages which mirror different aspects of AVS description formalisms, including the ability to express reentrancy, the ability to express generalisations, and the ability to express recursive constraints. Two main (...) 

Topic of the paper is Qlogic  a logic of agency in its temporal and modal context. Qlogic may be considered as a basal logic of agency since the most important stitoperators discussed in the literature can be defined or axiomatized easily within its semantical and syntactical framework. Its basic agent dependent operator, the Qoperator (also known as Δ or cstitoperator), which has been discussed independently by E v. Kutschera and B. E Chellas, is investigated here in respect of its (...) 

The paper introduces a firstorder theory in the language of predicate tense logic which contains a single simple axiom. It is shewn that this theory enables times to be referred to and sentences involving ‘now’ and ‘then’ to be formalised. The paper then compares this way of increasing the expressive capacity of predicate tense logic with other mechanisms, and indicates how to generalise the results to other modal and tense systems. 

We study hybrid logics in topological semantics. We prove that hybrid logics of separation axioms are complete with respect to certain classes of finite topological models. This characterisation allows us to obtain several further results. We prove that aforementioned logics are decidable and PSPACEcomplete, the logics of T 1 and T 2 coincide, the logic of T 1 is complete with respect to two concrete structures: the Cantor space and the rational numbers. 

A hybrid logic is obtained by adding to an ordinary modal logic further expressive power in the form of a second sort of propositional symbols called nominals and by adding socalled satisfaction operators. In this paper we consider hybridized versions of S5 (“the logic of everywhere”) and the modal logic of inequality (“the logic of elsewhere”). We give natural deduction systems for the logics and we prove functional completeness results. 

In this paper we argue that hybrid logic is the deductive setting most natural for Kripke semantics. We do so by investigating hybrid axiomatics for a variety of systems, ranging from the basic hybrid language to the strong Priorean language . We show that hybrid logic offers a genuinely firstorder perspective on Kripke semantics: it is possible to define base logics which extend automatically to a wide variety of frame classes and to prove completeness using the Henkin method. In the (...) 

This papers gives a survey of recent results about simulations of one class of modal logics by another class and of the transfer of properties of modal logics under extensions of the underlying modal language. We discuss: the transfer from normal polymodal logics to their fusions, the transfer from normal modal logics to their extensions by adding the universal modality, and the transfer from normal monomodal logics to minimal tense extensions. Likewise, we discuss simulations of normal polymodal logics by normal (...) 

In recent years combinations of tense and modality have moved intothe focus of logical research. From a philosophical point of view, logical systems combining tense and modality are of interest because these logics have a wide field of application in original philosophical issues, for example in the theory of causation, of action, etc. But until now only methods yielding completeness results for propositional languages have been developed. In view of philosophical applications, analogous results with respect to languages of predicate logic (...) 

We show that basic hybridization (adding nominals and @ operators) makes it possible to give straightforward Henkinstyle completeness proofs even when the modal logic being hybridized is higherorder. The key ideas are to add nominals as expressions of type t, and to extend to arbitrary types the way we interpret $@_i$ in propositional and firstorder hybrid logic. This means: interpret $@_i\alpha _a$ , where $\alpha _a$ is an expression of any type $a$ , as an expression of type $a$ that (...) 



In this paper I present a dynamicepistemic hybrid logic for reasoning about information and intention changes in situations of strategic interaction. I provide a complete axiomatization for this logic, and then use it to study intentionsbased transformations of decision problems. 

In [14], we studied the computational behaviour of various firstorder and modal languages interpreted in metric or weaker distance spaces. [13] gave an axiomatisation of an expressive and decidable metric logic. The main result of this paper is in showing that the technique of representing metric spaces by means of Kripke frames can be extended to cover the modal (hybrid) language that is expressively complete over metric spaces for the (undecidable) twovariable fragment of firstorder logic with binary predicates interpreting the (...) 

This paper contributes to the principled construction of tableaubased decision procedures for hybrid logic with global, difference, and converse modalities. We also consider reflexive and transitive relations. For conversefree formulas we present a terminating control that does not rely on the usual chainbased blocking scheme. Our tableau systems are based on a new model existence theorem. 

Hybrid languages have both modal and firstorder characteristics: a Kripke semantics, and explicit variable binding apparatus. This paper motivates the development of hybrid languages, sketches their history, and examines the expressive power of three hybrid binders. We show that all three binders give rise to languages strictly weaker than the corresponding firstorder language, that full firstorder expressivity can be gained by adding the universal modality, and that all three binders can force the existence of infinite models and have undecidable satisfiability (...) 

We introduce and study hierarchies of extensions of the propositional modal and temporal languages with pairs of new syntactic devices: point of referencereference pointer which enable semantic references to be made within a formula. We propose three different but equivalent semantics for the extended languages, discuss and compare their expressiveness. The languages with reference pointers are shown to have great expressive power (especially when their frugal syntax is taken into account), perspicuous semantics, and simple deductive systems. For instance, Kamp's and (...) 

In this article, we tell a story about incompleteness in modal logic. The story weaves together an article of van Benthem, “Syntactic aspects of modal incompleteness theorems,” and a longstanding open question: whether every normal modal logic can be characterized by a class of completely additive modal algebras, or as we call them, ${\cal V}$baos. Using a firstorder reformulation of the property of complete additivity, we prove that the modal logic that starred in van Benthem’s article resolves the open question (...) 

In terms of validity in Kripke frames, a modal formula expresses a universal monadic secondorder condition. Those modal formulae which are equivalent to firstorder conditions are called elementary. Modal formulae which have a certain persistence property which implies their validity in all canonical frames of modal logics axiomatized with them, and therefore their completeness, are called canonical. This is a survey of a recent and ongoing study of the class of elementary and canonical modal formulae. We summarize main ideas and (...) 

We study the general problem of axiomatizing structures in the framework of modal logic and present a uniform method for complete axiomatization of the modal logics determined by a large family of classes of structures of any signature. 







In this paper we study the expressive power and definability for modal languages interpreted on topological spaces. We provide topological analogues of the van Benthem characterization theorem and the Goldblatt–Thomason definability theorem in terms of the wellestablished firstorder topological language. 

In the paper we present a relatively simple proof of cut elimination theorem for variety of hybrid logics in the language with satisfaction operators and universal modality. The proof is based on the strategy introduced originally in the framework of hypersequent calculi but it works well also for standard sequent calculi. Sequent calculus examined in the paper works on so called satisfaction formulae and cover all logics adequate with respect to classes of frames defined by so called geometric conditions. 





Hybrid languages are expansions of propositional modal languages which can refer to worlds. The use of strong hybrid languages dates back to at least [Pri67], but recent work has focussed on a more constrained system called $\mathscr{H}$. We show in detail that $\mathscr{H}$ is modally natural. We begin by studying its expressivity, and provide model theoretic characterizations and a syntactic characterization. The key result to emerge is that $\mathscr{H}$ corresponds to the fragment of firstorder logic which is invariant for generated (...) 

We survey main developments, results, and open problems on interval temporal logics and duration calculi. We present various formal systems studied in the literature and discuss their distinctive features, emphasizing on expressiveness, axiomatic systems, and (un)decidability results. 

ABSTRACT This paper presents the axioinatization—without the rule of irreflexivity—of the modal logic of inequality as well as a method for proving its completeness. This method uses the technics of the frame of subordination. 

Hyperboolean algebras are Boolean algebras with operators, constructed as algebras of complexes (or, power structures) of Boolean algebras. They provide an algebraic semantics for a modal logic (called here a {\em hyperboolean modal logic}) with a Kripke semantics accordingly based on frames in which the worlds are elements of Boolean algebras and the relations correspond to the Boolean operations. We introduce the hyperboolean modal logic, give a complete axiomatization of it, and show that it lacks the finite model property. The (...) 

A complete axiomatic system CTL$_{rp}$ is introduced for a temporal logic for finitely branching $\omega^+$trees in a temporal language extended with so called reference pointers. Syntactic and semantic interpretations are constructed for the branching time computation tree logic CTL$^{*}$ into CTL$_{rp}$. In particular, that yields a complete axiomatization for the translations of all valid CTL$^{*}$formulae. Thus, the temporal logic with reference pointers is brought forward as a simpler (with no path quantifiers), but in a way more expressive medium for reasoning (...) 

We consider some modal languages with a modal operator $D$ whose semantics is based on the relation of inequality. Basic logical properties such as definability, expressive power and completeness are studied. Also, some connections with a number of other recent proposals to extend the standard modal language are pointed at. 

We study term modal logics, where modalities can be indexed by variables that can be quantified over. We suggest that these logics are appropriate for reasoning about systems of unboundedly many reasoners and define a notion of bisimulation which preserves propositional fragment of term modal logics. Also we show that the propositional fragment is already undecidable but that its monodic fragment is decidable, and expressive enough to include interesting assertions. 

Several extensions of the basic modal language are characterized in terms of interpolation. Our main results are of the following form: Language ℒ' is the least expressive extension of ℒ with interpolation. For instance, let ℳ be the extension of the basic modal language with a difference operator [7]. Firstorder logic is the least expressive extension of ℳ with interpolation. These characterizations are subsequently used to derive new results about hybrid logic, relation algebra and the guarded fragment. 

In this paper we argue that Prior and Reichenbach are best viewed as allies, not antagonists. We do so by combining the central insights of Prior and Reichenbach in the framework of hybrid tense logic. This overcomes a wellknown defect of Reichenbach’s tense schema, namely that it gives multiple representations to sentences in the future perfect and the futureinthepast. It also makes it easy to define an iterative schema for tense that allows for multiple points of reference, a possibility noted (...) 



We generalize and extend the class of Sahlqvist formulae in arbitrary polyadic modal languages, to the class of so called inductive formulae. To introduce them we use a representation of modal polyadic languages in a combinatorial style and thus, in particular, develop what we believe to be a better syntactic approach to elementary canonical formulae altogether. By generalizing the method of minimal valuations à la Sahlqvist–van Benthem and the topological approach of Sambin and Vaccaro we prove that all inductive formulae (...) 