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An Essay on Rights

Journal of Philosophy 93 (4):203 (1996)

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  1. Adipositas Bei Kindern: Elterliche Rechte, Paternalismus Und Gerechtigkeit.Johannes Giesinger - 2015 - Zeitschrift Für Praktische Philosophie 2 (1):59-88.
    Am Beispiel von Adipositas werden in diesem Beitrag die Konflikte diskutiert, die zwischen elterlichen Rechten und den aus Gerechtigkeitserwägungen erwachsenden Ansprüchen von Kindern entstehen können. Es wird angenommen, dass Kinder Anspruch auf Gesundheit haben, und dass Adipositas sie in ihrer Gesundheit gefährdet. Die Frage lautet, was zu tun ist, wenn das Handeln der Eltern die Entstehung von Adipositas begünstigt. Es werden drei verschiedene Konzeptionen elterlicher Rechte diskutiert. Nach der ersten Konzeption sind elterliche Rechte in den Interessen oder Freiheiten der Eltern (...)
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  • The Significance of a Duty's Direction.Marcus Hedahl - 2013 - Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 7 (3):1-29.
    Agents do not merely have duties – they often have directed duties to others. This paper first reveals problems with traditional attempts to equate these directed duties with claims and claim rights. It then defends a novel account of directionality that locates the unifying element of directed duties in a counterparty’s prioritization of the duties owed to her. If one agent has a directed duty to another, then the degree to which fulfilling the duty matters to the agent to whom (...)
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  • Left Libertarianism and the Ownership of Natural Resources.Hillel Steiner - 2009 - Public Reason 1 (1):1-8.
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  • What Is the Will Theory of Rights?David Frydrych - 2019 - Ratio Juris 32 (4):455-472.
    This article helps to clear up some misunderstandings about the Will Theory of rights. Section 2 briefly outlines the Theories of Rights. Section 3 elucidates some salient differences amongst self-described anti–Interest Theory accounts. Section 4 rebuts Carl Wellman’s and Arthur Ripstein’s respective arguments about the Will Theory differing from “Choice” or Kantian theories of a right. Section 5 then offers a candidate explanation of why people might subscribe to the Will Theory in the first place.
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  • The Paradox of Exploitation: A New Solution.Benjamin Ferguson - 2013 - Dissertation, London School of Economics and Political Science
    In this thesis I present a rights-based theory of exploitation. I argue that successful conceptions of exploitation should begin with the ordinary language claim that exploitation involves `taking unfair advantage'. Consequently, they must combine an account of what it means to take advantage of another with an account of when transactions are unfair. Existing conceptions of exploitation fail to provide adequate accounts of both aspects of exploitation. -/- Hillel Steiner and John Roemer provide convincing accounts of the unfairness involved in (...)
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  • Of Animals, Robots and Men.Christine Tiefensee & Johannes Marx - 2015 - Historical Social Research 40:70-91.
    Domesticated animals need to be treated as fellow citizens: only if we conceive of domesticated animals as full members of our political communities can we do justice to their moral standing—or so Sue Donaldson and Will Kymlicka argue in their widely discussed book Zoopolis. In this contribution, we pursue two objectives. Firstly, we reject Donaldson and Kymlicka’s appeal for animal citizenship. We do so by submitting that instead of paying due heed to their moral status, regarding animals as citizens misinterprets (...)
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  • The Concept of Nature in Libertarianism.Marcel Wissenburg - 2019 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 22 (3):287-302.
    ABSTRACTLibertarians are not famed as friends of nature – but is that a matter of principle? I examine consequentialist, deontological and teleological versions of left- and right-libertarianism on...
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  • Ambiguity and Vagueness in Political Terminology: On Coding and Referential Imprecision.Keith Dowding & William Bosworth - 2018 - European Journal of Political Theory.
    Analytic political philosophy tries to make our political language more precise. But in doing so it risks departing from our natural language and intuitions. This article examines this tension. We...
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  • Freedom and Ecological Limits.Jorge Pinto - forthcoming - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy:1-17.
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  • Must Right-Libertarians Embrace Easements by Necessity?Łukasz Dominiak - 2019 - Diametros 60:34-51.
    The present paper investigates the question of whether right-libertarians must accept easements by necessity. Since easements by necessity limit the property rights of the owner of the servient tenement, they apparently conflict with the libertarian homestead principle, according to which the person who first mixes his labor with the unowned land acquires absolute ownership thereof. As we demonstrate in the paper, however, the homestead principle understood in such an absolutist way generates contradictions within the set of rights distributed on its (...)
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  • Why Animals Have an Interest in Freedom.Andreas T. Schmidt - 2015 - Historical Social Research 40 (4):92-109.
    Do non-human animals have an interest in sociopolitical freedom? Cochrane has recently taken up this important yet largely neglected quest ion. He argues that animal freedom is not a relevant moral concern in itself, because animals have a merely instrumental but not an intrinsic interest in freedom (Cochrane 2009a, 2012). This paper will argue that even if animals have a merely instrumental interest in freedom, animal freedom should nonetheless be an important goal for our relationships with animals. Drawing on recent (...)
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  • Responsibility and School Choice in Education.Ben Colburn - 2012 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 46 (2):207-222.
    Consider the following argument for school choice, based on an appeal to the virtues of the market: allowing parents some measure of choice over their particular children's education ultimately serves the interests of all children, because creating a market mechanism in state education will produce improvements through the same pressures that lead to greater efficiency and quality when markets are deployed in more familiar contexts. The argument fails, because it is committed to a principle of equal concern, which implies that (...)
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  • Self-Ownership and Property in the Person: Democratization and a Tale of Two Concepts.Carole Pateman - unknown
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  • Arguing About Climate Change: Judging the Handling of Climate Risk to Future Generations By.M. D. Davidson - unknown
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  • Temporal Justice, Youth Quotas and Libertarianism.Marcel Wissenburg - 2019 - Intergenerational Justice Review 1 (1).
    Quotas, including youth quotas for representative institutions, are usually evaluated from within the social justice discourse. That discourse relies on several questionable assumptions, seven of which I critically address and radically revise in this contribution from a libertarian perspective. Temporal justice then takes on an entirely different form. It becomes a theory in which responsibilities are clear and cannot be shifted onto the shoulders of the weak and innocent. I shall only briefly sketch some outlines and general implications of such (...)
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  • A Further Defence of the Right Not to Vote.Ben Saunders - 2018 - Res Publica 24 (1):93-108.
    Opponents of compulsory voting often allege that it violates a ‘right not to vote’. This paper seeks to clarify and defend such a right against its critics. First, I propose that this right must be understood as a Hohfeldian claim against being compelled to vote, rather than as a mere privilege to abstain. So construed, the right not to vote is compatible with a duty to vote, so arguments for a duty to vote do not refute the existence of such (...)
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  • What Does It Mean to Have a Right?Dieter Birnbacher - 2009 - Intergenerational Justice Review 4 (4).
    This contribution offers an introduction into the language of rights and the role rights play in ethics and law; with special reference to the rights of children. It emerges that there are a number of very different functions characteristic of 'rights talk'; both in ethics and law; and that many of them offer opportunities for strengthening appeals to moral and legal principles while others involve pitfalls that should be avoided. In conclusion; two of the theoretical questions raised by rights are (...)
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  • The Right to Health Versus Good Medical Care?Albert Weale - 2012 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 15 (4):473-493.
    There are two discourses that are used in connection with the provision of good healthcare: a rights discourse and a beneficial design discourse. Although the logical force of these two discourses overlaps, they have distinct and incompatible implications for practical reasoning about health policy. The language of rights can be interpreted as the ground of a well-designed healthcare system stressing the values of equality and inclusion, but it has less application when dealing with questions of cost-effectiveness. This difference reflects the (...)
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  • By "Fancy or Agreement": Locke's Theory of Money and the Justice of the Global Monetary System.Luca J. Uberti - 2013 - Erasmus Journal for Philosophy and Economics 6 (1):49.
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  • Persons or Property – Freedom and the Legal Status of Animals.Andreas T. Schmidt - 2017 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 15 (1):20-45.
    _ Source: _Page Count 26 Is freedom a plausible political value for animals? If so, does this imply that animals are owed legal personhood rights or can animals be free but remain human property? Drawing on different conceptions of freedom, I will argue that while positive freedom, libertarian self-ownership, and republican freedom are not plausible political values for animals, liberal ‘option-freedom’ is. However, because such option-freedom is in principle compatible with different legal statuses, animal freedom does not conceptually imply a (...)
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  • An Unresolved Problem: Freedom Across Lifetimes.Andreas Schmidt - 2017 - Philosophical Studies 174 (6):1413-1438.
    Freedom is one of the central values in political and moral philosophy. A number of theorists hold that freedom should either be the only or at least one of the central distribuenda in our theories of distributive justice. Moreover, many follow Mill and hold that a concern for personal freedom should guide, and limit, how paternalist public policy can be. For the most part, theorists have focussed on a person’s freedom at one specific point in time but have failed to (...)
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  • Exploitation and Disadvantage.Benjamin Ferguson - 2016 - Economics and Philosophy 32 (3):485-509.
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  • Charlie Gard and the Weight of Parental Rights to Seek Experimental Treatment.Giles Birchley - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (7):448-452.
    The case of Charlie Gard, an infant with a genetic illness whose parents sought experimental treatment in the USA, brought important debates about the moral status of parents and children to the public eye. After setting out the facts of the case, this article considers some of these debates through the lens of parental rights. Parental rights are most commonly based on the promotion of a child’s welfare; however, in Charlie’s case, promotion of Charlie’s welfare cannot explain every fact of (...)
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  • Value Neutrality and the Ranking of Opportunity Sets.Michael Garnett - 2016 - Economics and Philosophy 32 (1):99-119.
    I defend the idea that a liberal commitment to value neutrality is best honoured by maintaining a pure cardinality component in our rankings of opportunity or liberty sets. I consider two challenges to this idea. The first holds that cardinality rankings are unnecessary for neutrality, because what is valuable about a set of liberties from a liberal point of view is not its size but rather its variety. The second holds that pure cardinality metrics are insufficient for neutrality, because liberties (...)
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  • Incommensurability and Moral Value.Mark R. Reiff - 2014 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 13 (3):237-268.
    Some theorists believe that there is a plurality of values, and that in many circumstances these values are incommensurable, or at least incomparable. Others believe that all values are reducible to a single super-value, or that even if there is a plurality of irreducible values these values are commensurable. But I will argue that both sides have got it wrong. Values are neither commensurable nor incommensurable, at least not in the way most people think. We are free to believe in (...)
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  • A Reformulation of the Structure of a Set Compossible Rights.Billy Christmas - 2019 - Philosophical Quarterly 69 (275):221-234.
    Hillel Steiner argues that a necessary and sufficient condition for the compossibility of a set of rights is that those rights be extensionally differentiable. However, given that two or more actions can extensionally overlap without thereby being mutually unperformable, if such actions are specified in the relevant rights, then those rights will not be incompossible, notwithstanding their extensional overlap. The set of compossible sets of rights then is greater than the subset of extensionally differentiable rights, and extensional differentiability is a (...)
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  • Theories of Intergenerational Justice: A Synopsis.Axel Gosseries - 2008 - Surv. Perspect. Integr. Environ. Soc 1:39-49.
    In this paper, the author offers a synoptic view of different theories of intergenerational justice, along two dimensions (savings/dissavings) and three modalities (prohibition, authorisation, obligation). After presenting successively the indirect reciprocity, the mutual advantage, the utilitarian and the Lockean approaches, special attention is given to the egalitarian theory of intergenerational justice. Two key differences between the egalitarian view on intergenerational justice and the sufficientarian interpretation of sustainability are highlighted.
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  • Is There a Right to the Death of the Foetus?Eric Mathison & Jeremy Davis - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (4):313-320.
    At some point in the future – perhaps within the next few decades – it will be possible for foetuses to develop completely outside the womb. Ectogenesis, as this technology is called, raises substantial issues for the abortion debate. One such issue is that it will become possible for a woman to have an abortion, in the sense of having the foetus removed from her body, but for the foetus to be kept alive. We argue that while there is a (...)
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  • Intellectual Property, Globalization, and Left-Libertarianism.Constantin Vică - 2015 - Symposion: Theoretical and Applied Inquiries in Philosophy and Social Sciences 2 (3):323–345.
    Intellectual property has become the apple of discord in today’s moral and political debates. Although it has been approached from many different perspectives, a final conclusion has not been reached. In this paper I will offer a new way of thinking about intellectual property rights (IPRs), from a left-libertarian perspective. My thesis is that IPRs are not (natural) original rights, aprioric rights, as it is usually argued. They are derived rights hence any claim for intellectual property is weaker than the (...)
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  • Understanding Religion, Governing Religion: A Realist Perspective.Enzo Rossi - 2017 - In Cecile Laborde & Aurelia Bardon (eds.), Religion in Liberal Political Philosophy. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    Cécile Laborde has argued that the freedom we think of as ‘freedom of religion’ should be understood as a bundle of separate and relatively independent freedoms. I criticise that approach by pointing out that it is insufficiently sensitive to facts about the sorts of entities that liberal states are. I argue that states have good reasons to mould phenomena such as religion into easily governable monoliths. If this is a problem from the normative point of view, it is not due (...)
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  • The Metaphysics of Real Estate.Barry Smith & Leo Zaibert - 2001 - Topoi 20 (2):161-172.
    The thesis that an analysis of property rights is essential to an adequate analysis of the state is a mainstay of political philosophy. The contours of the type of government a society has are shaped by the system regulating the property rights prevailing in that society. Views of this sort are widespread. They range from Locke to Nozick and encompass pretty much everything else in between. Defenders of this sort of view accord to property rights supreme importance. A state that (...)
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  • Los Derechos Homínidos. Una Defensa Ecuménica.Paula Casal - 2018 - Daimon: Revista Internacional de Filosofía 73:7.
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  • Climate Change, Fundamental Interests, and Global Justice.Carl Knight - 2016 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 19 (5):629-644.
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  • Global Equality of Resources and the Problem of Valuation.Alexander Brown - 2016 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 19 (5):609-628.
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  • Hohfeldian Infinities: Why Not to Worry.Visa Kurki - 2017 - Res Publica 23 (1):137-146.
    Hillel Steiner has recently attacked the notion of inalienable rights, basing some of his arguments on the Hohfeldian analysis to show that infinite arrays of legal positions would not be associated with any inalienable rights. This essay addresses the nature of the Hohfeldian infinity: the main argument is that what Steiner claims to be an infinite regress is actually a wholly unproblematic form of infinite recursion. First, the nature of the Hohfeldian recursion is demonstrated. It is shown that infinite recursions (...)
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  • The Blockian Proviso and the Rationality of Property Rights.Lukasz Dominiak - 2017 - Libertarian Papers 9.
    This paper defends the Blockian Proviso against its critics, Kinsella in particular, and interprets it as a law of non-contradiction in the theory of just property rights. I demonstrate that one may not lawfully appropriate in such a way as to forestall others from appropriating an unowned land because such appropriation would result in conflict-generating norms, and conflict-generating norms are not rationally justifiable and just norms. The Blockian Proviso, which precludes forestalling, operates therefore at the level of original appropriation and (...)
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  • Agency in Social Context.John Lawless - 2017 - Res Philosophica 94 (4):471-498.
    Many political philosophers argue that interference threatens a person’s agency. And they cast political freedom in opposition to interpersonal threats to agency, as non-interference. I argue that this approach relies on an inapt model of agency, crucial aspects of which emerge from our relationships with other people. Such relationships involve complex patterns of vulnerability and subjection, essential to our constitution as particular kinds of agents: as owners of property, as members of families, and as participants in a market for labor. (...)
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  • Beruht das Recht zu vererben auf einer Fiktion? Auf dem Weg zu einer philosophischen Theorie des Erbrechts.Hans-Christoph Schmidt am Busch - 2018 - Zeitschrift Für Praktische Philosophie 5 (1):15-42.
    In dem vorliegenden Beitrag rekonstruiere ich die linkslibertaristische Kritik des Rechts zu vererben, die Hillel Steiner ausgearbeitet hat, und prüfe, ob diese Kritik zufriedenstellend ist. Ich komme zu dem Ergebnis, dass Steiner in dem von ihm angelegten rechtstheoretischen Rahmen die von vielen Philosophen und Rechtswissenschaftlern angenommene rechtliche Gleichartigkeit des Vererbens und des Verschenkens mit überzeugenden Argumenten in Frage stellt, seinerseits aber das Recht zu vererben mit einer Theorie kritisiert, die gerechtigkeitstheoretische und sozialtheoretische Bedenken hervorruft. Wie ich abschließend darlege, geben die (...)
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  • Leistungssport und die genetische Lotterie – Die Notwendigkeit stärker differenzierter Wettkampfklassen​.Wündisch Joachim & Benjamin Huppert - 2016 - Zeitschrift Für Praktische Philosophie 3 (2):143-176.
    Leistungssportlerinnen, die in populären Sportarten erfolgreich sind, kommen in den Genuss hoher Einkommen und großen sozialen Ansehens. Gleichzeitig ist ihr Erfolg von Voraussetzungen abhängig, die zu einem signifikanten Teil von ihrem Genotyp bestimmt werden. Diesen Sportlern werden also durch gesellschaftliche Prozesse substantielle Vorteile aufgrund von Eigenschaften zuteil, auf deren Vorhandensein sie keinen Einfluss haben. Wir untersuchen, wie wir vor dem Hintergrund verschiedener Gerechtigkeitsvorstellungen mit diesem Phänomen umgehen sollten. Wir argumentieren, dass die konsistente Berücksichtigung von Intuitionen zur gerechten Güterverteilung an Wettkämpferinnen (...)
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  • Two Worlds of Action: Social Science, Social Theory and Systems of Sociological Refraction.Phil Hutchinson, Andrei Korbut & Ekaterina Pavlenko - 2012 - Russian Sociological Review 11 (2):75-99.
    Despite many points of divergence, social scientists and social theorists seem united by one primary concern: to identify what it is people are doing. The thought that this might count as not only a viable but centrally important concern is grounded in a scepticism about the ability of societies’ ordinary members to reliably correctly identify their own and others’ actions. In this scepticism, such social scientists and social theorists usually situate themselves in opposition to ethnomethodologists and Peter Winch. This scepticism (...)
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  • Una moral de la opacidad: Hume y la virtud del ocultamiento.Juan Samuel Santos Castro - 2018 - Isegoría 58:55-76.
    Are there any conditions under which to justify deliberately hiding or manipulating the expression of our opinions, emotions or character traits in front of others? this article examines David Hume’s answer to this question by discussing the practices that he calls good manners and impudence. the conclusion is that Hume’s description of the moral point of view allows for two conditions under which practices of opacity such as good manners and impudence can be morally assessed.
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  • El igualitarismo de la suerte, Kant y la injusticia de tolerar la pobreza en el mundo.Asier Erdozain - 2018 - Isegoría 58:77-103.
    This paper aims to offer a plausible and renewed defence of the axioms of the already well-known account of political philosophy ‘luck egalitarianism’. By finding certain support not only in the Kantian moral programme but also in widely accepted intuitions of our time, it is contended that luck egalitarianism possesses sufficient justification to become an ethical guide at the global level, revealing plausibly the existence of a compelling positive moral duty to terminate global poverty and denouncing its toleration as nothing (...)
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  • Biological Parenthood: Gestational, Not Genetic.Anca Gheaus - 2018 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 96 (2):225-240.
    Common sense morality and legislations around the world ascribe normative relevance to biological connections between parents and children. Procreators who meet a modest standard of parental competence are believed to have a right to rear the children they brought into the world. I explore various attempts to justify this belief and find most of these attempts lacking. I distinguish between two kinds of biological connections between parents and children: the genetic link and the gestational link. I argue that the second (...)
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  • On Okin’s Critique of Libertarianism.Daniel J. Hicks - 2015 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 45 (1):37-57.
    Susan Moller Okin's critique of libertarianism in Justice, Gender, and the Family has received only slight attention in the libertarian literature. I find this neglect of Okin's argument surprising: The argument is straightforward and, if sound, it establishes a devastating conflict between the core libertarian notions of self-ownership and the acquisition of property through labour. In this paper, I first present a reconstruction of Okin's argument. In brief, she points out that mothers make children through their labour; thus it would (...)
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  • National Responsibility, Global Justice and Exploitation: A Preliminary Analysis.John Pearson - 2011 - Journal of Global Ethics 7 (3):321-335.
    This article addresses the problem of filling in a missing component of David Miller's non-cosmopolitan theory of global justice, as elaborated in his recent National responsibility and global justice (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007). Miller originally included non-exploitation as one of the norms of global justice, but he does not provide a theory of exploitation in his recent book. This article is a preliminary attempt to suggest how Miller might fill in this gap. This article identifies the problems Miller faces (...)
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  • Critical Notice of G.A. Cohen’s Self-Ownership, Freedom, and Equality. [REVIEW]Peter Vallentyne - 1998 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 28 (4):609-626.
    G.A. Cohen’s book brings together and elaborates on articles that he has written on selfownership, on Marx’s theory of exploitation, and on the future of socialism. Although seven of the eleven chapters have been previously published (1977-1992), this is not merely a collection of articles. There is a superb introduction that gives an overview of how the chapters fit together and of their historical relation to each other. Most chapters have a new introduction and often a postscript or addendum that (...)
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  • The Limits of Background Justice.Thomas Porter Sinclair - 2013 - Social Philosophy and Policy 30 (1-2):352-372.
    The argument from background justice is that conformity to Lockean principles of justice in agreements and transactions does not preclude the development of inequalities that undermine the freedom and fairness of those very transactions, and that, therefore, special principles are needed to regulate society's Rawls offers this argument as his for taking the basic structure to be the primary subject of justice. Here I explore the background justice argument and its implications for questions about the scope of distributive justice. As (...)
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  • Property Rights of Personal Data and the Financing of Pensions.Francis Cheneval - 2018 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy:1-23.
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  • I, Me, Mine: Body-Ownership and the Generation Problem.Fiona Woollard - 2017 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 98 (98):87-108.
    The Body Ownership Thesis states that each person owns her body. I address a prominent objection, the Generation Problem: the Body Ownership Thesis apparently implies that parents own their children: as we own the fruit of our property, if a parent owns her own body, she must own her child and her child's body. I argue that a person does not own the fruit of her property when that fruit is a person or the body of a person. Persons have (...)
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  • Exploitation, Intentionality and Injustice.Hillel Steiner - 2018 - Economics and Philosophy 34 (3):369-379.
    :This paper argues that, inasmuch as exploitation is a form of injustice, exploitative acts need not be performed intentionally.
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