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  1. Democratizing AI from a Sociotechnical Perspective.Merel Noorman & Tsjalling Swierstra - 2023 - Minds and Machines 33 (4):563-586.
    Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies offer new ways of conducting decision-making tasks that influence the daily lives of citizens, such as coordinating traffic, energy distributions, and crowd flows. They can sort, rank, and prioritize the distribution of fines or public funds and resources. Many of the changes that AI technologies promise to bring to such tasks pertain to decisions that are collectively binding. When these technologies become part of critical infrastructures, such as energy networks, citizens are affected by these decisions whether (...)
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  • Jaz u odgovornosti u informatičkoj eri.Jelena Mijić - 2023 - Društvo I Politika 4 (4):25-38.
    Odgovornost pripisujemo sa namerom da postignemo neki cilj. Jedno od opših mesta u filozofskoj literaturi je da osobi možemo pripisati moralnu odgovornost ako su zadovoljena bar dva uslova: da subjekt delanja ima kontrolu nad svojim postupcima i da je u stanju da navede razloge u prilog svog postupka. Međutim, četvrtu industrijsku revoluciju karakterišu sociotehnološke pojave koje nas potencijalno suočavaju sa tzv. problemom jaza u odgovornosti. Rasprave o odgovornosti u kontekstu veštačke inteligencije karakteriše nejasna i neodređena upotreba ovog pojma. Da bismo (...)
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  • Realising Meaningful Human Control Over Automated Driving Systems: A Multidisciplinary Approach.Filippo Santoni de Sio, Giulio Mecacci, Simeon Calvert, Daniel Heikoop, Marjan Hagenzieker & Bart van Arem - 2023 - Minds and Machines 33 (4):587-611.
    The paper presents a framework to realise “meaningful human control” over Automated Driving Systems. The framework is based on an original synthesis of the results of the multidisciplinary research project “Meaningful Human Control over Automated Driving Systems” lead by a team of engineers, philosophers, and psychologists at Delft University of the Technology from 2017 to 2021. Meaningful human control aims at protecting safety and reducing responsibility gaps. The framework is based on the core assumption that human persons and institutions, not (...)
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  • Against the Double Standard Argument in AI Ethics.Scott Hill - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (1):1-5.
    In an important and widely cited paper, Zerilli, Knott, Maclaurin, and Gavaghan (2019) argue that opaque AI decision makers are at least as transparent as human decision makers and therefore the concern that opaque AI is not sufficiently transparent is mistaken. I argue that the concern about opaque AI should not be understood as the concern that such AI fails to be transparent in a way that humans are transparent. Rather, the concern is that the way in which opaque AI (...)
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  • AI and the need for justification (to the patient).Anantharaman Muralidharan, Julian Savulescu & G. Owen Schaefer - 2024 - Ethics and Information Technology 26 (1):1-12.
    This paper argues that one problem that besets black-box AI is that it lacks algorithmic justifiability. We argue that the norm of shared decision making in medical care presupposes that treatment decisions ought to be justifiable to the patient. Medical decisions are justifiable to the patient only if they are compatible with the patient’s values and preferences and the patient is able to see that this is so. Patient-directed justifiability is threatened by black-box AIs because the lack of rationale provided (...)
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  • Ethical Issues with Artificial Ethics Assistants.Elizabeth O'Neill, Michal Klincewicz & Michiel Kemmer - 2023 - In Carissa Véliz (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Digital Ethics. Oxford University Press.
    This chapter examines the possibility of using AI technologies to improve human moral reasoning and decision-making, especially in the context of purchasing and consumer decisions. We characterize such AI technologies as artificial ethics assistants (AEAs). We focus on just one part of the AI-aided moral improvement question: the case of the individual who wants to improve their morality, where what constitutes an improvement is evaluated by the individual’s own values. We distinguish three broad areas in which an individual might think (...)
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  • Agency Laundering and Algorithmic Decision Systems.Alan Rubel, Adam Pham & Clinton Castro - 2019 - In N. Taylor, C. Christian-Lamb, M. Martin & B. Nardi (eds.), Information in Contemporary Society (Lecture Notes in Computer Science). Springer Nature. pp. 590-598.
    This paper has two aims. The first is to explain a type of wrong that arises when agents obscure responsibility for their actions. Call it “agency laundering.” The second is to use the concept of agency laundering to understand the underlying moral issues in a number of recent cases involving algorithmic decision systems. From the Proceedings of the 14th International Conference, iConference 2019, Washington D.C., March 31-April 3, 2019.
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  • Binding the Smart City Human-Digital System with Communicative Processes.Brandt Dainow - 2021 - In Michael Nagenborg, Taylor Stone, Margoth González Woge & Pieter E. Vermaas (eds.), Technology and the City: Towards a Philosophy of Urban Technologies. Springer Verlag. pp. 389-411.
    This chapter will explore the dynamics of power underpinning ethical issues within smart cities via a new paradigm derived from Systems Theory. The smart city is an expression of technology as a socio-technical system. The vision of the smart city contains a deep fusion of many different technical systems into a single integrated “ambient intelligence”. ETICA Project, 2010, p. 102). Citizens of the smart city will not experience a succession of different technologies, but a single intelligent and responsive environment through (...)
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  • Research and Practice of AI Ethics: A Case Study Approach Juxtaposing Academic Discourse with Organisational Reality.Bernd Stahl, Kevin Macnish, Tilimbe Jiya, Laurence Brooks, Josephina Antoniou & Mark Ryan - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (2):1-29.
    This study investigates the ethical use of Big Data and Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies (BD + AI)—using an empirical approach. The paper categorises the current literature and presents a multi-case study of 'on-the-ground' ethical issues that uses qualitative tools to analyse findings from ten targeted case-studies from a range of domains. The analysis coalesces identified singular ethical issues, (from the literature), into clusters to offer a comparison with the proposed classification in the literature. The results show that despite the variety (...)
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  • The Effectiveness of Embedded Values Analysis Modules in Computer Science Education: An Empirical Study.Matthew Kopec, Meica Magnani, Vance Ricks, Roben Torosyan, John Basl, Nicholas Miklaucic, Felix Muzny, Ronald Sandler, Christo Wilson, Adam Wisniewski-Jensen, Cora Lundgren, Kevin Mills & Mark Wells - 2023 - Big Data and Society 10 (1).
    Embedding ethics modules within computer science courses has become a popular response to the growing recognition that CS programs need to better equip their students to navigate the ethical dimensions of computing technologies like AI, machine learning, and big data analytics. However, the popularity of this approach has outpaced the evidence of its positive outcomes. To help close that gap, this empirical study reports positive results from Northeastern’s program that embeds values analysis modules into CS courses. The resulting data suggest (...)
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  • Manipulate to empower: Hyper-relevance and the contradictions of marketing in the age of surveillance capitalism.Detlev Zwick & Aron Darmody - 2020 - Big Data and Society 7 (1).
    In this article, we explore how digital marketers think about marketing in the age of Big Data surveillance, automatic computational analyses, and algorithmic shaping of choice contexts. Our starting point is a contradiction at the heart of digital marketing namely that digital marketing brings about unprecedented levels of consumer empowerment and autonomy and total control over and manipulation of consumer decision-making. We argue that this contradiction of digital marketing is resolved via the notion of relevance, which represents what Fredric Jameson (...)
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  • Transparency in Algorithmic and Human Decision-Making: Is There a Double Standard?John Zerilli, Alistair Knott, James Maclaurin & Colin Gavaghan - 2018 - Philosophy and Technology 32 (4):661-683.
    We are sceptical of concerns over the opacity of algorithmic decision tools. While transparency and explainability are certainly important desiderata in algorithmic governance, we worry that automated decision-making is being held to an unrealistically high standard, possibly owing to an unrealistically high estimate of the degree of transparency attainable from human decision-makers. In this paper, we review evidence demonstrating that much human decision-making is fraught with transparency problems, show in what respects AI fares little worse or better and argue that (...)
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  • Fairness as Equal Concession: Critical Remarks on Fair AI.Christopher Yeomans & Ryan van Nood - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (6):1-14.
    Although existing work draws attention to a range of obstacles in realizing fair AI, the field lacks an account that emphasizes how these worries hang together in a systematic way. Furthermore, a review of the fair AI and philosophical literature demonstrates the unsuitability of ‘treat like cases alike’ and other intuitive notions as conceptions of fairness. That review then generates three desiderata for a replacement conception of fairness valuable to AI research: (1) It must provide a meta-theory for understanding tradeoffs, (...)
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  • Democratizing Algorithmic Fairness.Pak-Hang Wong - 2020 - Philosophy and Technology 33 (2):225-244.
    Algorithms can now identify patterns and correlations in the (big) datasets, and predict outcomes based on those identified patterns and correlations with the use of machine learning techniques and big data, decisions can then be made by algorithms themselves in accordance with the predicted outcomes. Yet, algorithms can inherit questionable values from the datasets and acquire biases in the course of (machine) learning, and automated algorithmic decision-making makes it more difficult for people to see algorithms as biased. While researchers have (...)
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  • What has the Trolley Dilemma ever done for us ? On some recent debates about the ethics of self-driving cars.Andreas Wolkenstein - 2018 - Ethics and Information Technology 20 (3):163-173.
    Self-driving cars currently face a lot of technological problems that need to be solved before the cars can be widely used. However, they also face ethical problems, among which the question of crash-optimization algorithms is most prominently discussed. Reviewing current debates about whether we should use the ethics of the Trolley Dilemma as a guide towards designing self-driving cars will provide us with insights about what exactly ethical research does. It will result in the view that although we need the (...)
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  • The Struggle for AI’s Recognition: Understanding the Normative Implications of Gender Bias in AI with Honneth’s Theory of Recognition.Rosalie Waelen & Michał Wieczorek - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (2).
    AI systems have often been found to contain gender biases. As a result of these gender biases, AI routinely fails to adequately recognize the needs, rights, and accomplishments of women. In this article, we use Axel Honneth’s theory of recognition to argue that AI’s gender biases are not only an ethical problem because they can lead to discrimination, but also because they resemble forms of misrecognition that can hurt women’s self-development and self-worth. Furthermore, we argue that Honneth’s theory of recognition (...)
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  • Modeling Ethics: Approaches to Data Creep in Higher Education.Madisson Whitman - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (6):1-18.
    Though rapid collection of big data is ubiquitous across domains, from industry settings to academic contexts, the ethics of big data collection and research are contested. A nexus of data ethics issues is the concept of creep, or repurposing of data for other applications or research beyond the conditions of original collection. Data creep has proven controversial and has prompted concerns about the scope of ethical oversight. Institutional review boards offer little guidance regarding big data, and problematic research can still (...)
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  • The Rhetoric and Reality of Anthropomorphism in Artificial Intelligence.David Watson - 2019 - Minds and Machines 29 (3):417-440.
    Artificial intelligence has historically been conceptualized in anthropomorphic terms. Some algorithms deploy biomimetic designs in a deliberate attempt to effect a sort of digital isomorphism of the human brain. Others leverage more general learning strategies that happen to coincide with popular theories of cognitive science and social epistemology. In this paper, I challenge the anthropomorphic credentials of the neural network algorithm, whose similarities to human cognition I argue are vastly overstated and narrowly construed. I submit that three alternative supervised learning (...)
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  • The explanation game: a formal framework for interpretable machine learning.David S. Watson & Luciano Floridi - 2020 - Synthese 198 (10):1–⁠32.
    We propose a formal framework for interpretable machine learning. Combining elements from statistical learning, causal interventionism, and decision theory, we design an idealised explanation game in which players collaborate to find the best explanation for a given algorithmic prediction. Through an iterative procedure of questions and answers, the players establish a three-dimensional Pareto frontier that describes the optimal trade-offs between explanatory accuracy, simplicity, and relevance. Multiple rounds are played at different levels of abstraction, allowing the players to explore overlapping causal (...)
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  • The explanation game: a formal framework for interpretable machine learning.David S. Watson & Luciano Floridi - 2021 - Synthese 198 (10):9211-9242.
    We propose a formal framework for interpretable machine learning. Combining elements from statistical learning, causal interventionism, and decision theory, we design an idealisedexplanation gamein which players collaborate to find the best explanation(s) for a given algorithmic prediction. Through an iterative procedure of questions and answers, the players establish a three-dimensional Pareto frontier that describes the optimal trade-offs between explanatory accuracy, simplicity, and relevance. Multiple rounds are played at different levels of abstraction, allowing the players to explore overlapping causal patterns of (...)
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  • On the Philosophy of Unsupervised Learning.David S. Watson - 2023 - Philosophy and Technology 36 (2):1-26.
    Unsupervised learning algorithms are widely used for many important statistical tasks with numerous applications in science and industry. Yet despite their prevalence, they have attracted remarkably little philosophical scrutiny to date. This stands in stark contrast to supervised and reinforcement learning algorithms, which have been widely studied and critically evaluated, often with an emphasis on ethical concerns. In this article, I analyze three canonical unsupervised learning problems: clustering, abstraction, and generative modeling. I argue that these methods raise unique epistemological and (...)
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  • Ethical concerns with the use of intelligent assistive technology: findings from a qualitative study with professional stakeholders.Tenzin Wangmo, Mirjam Lipps, Reto W. Kressig & Marcello Ienca - 2019 - BMC Medical Ethics 20 (1):1-11.
    Background Advances in artificial intelligence, robotics and wearable computing are creating novel technological opportunities for mitigating the global burden of population ageing and improving the quality of care for older adults with dementia and/or age-related disability. Intelligent assistive technology is the umbrella term defining this ever-evolving spectrum of intelligent applications for the older and disabled population. However, the implementation of IATs has been observed to be sub-optimal due to a number of barriers in the translation of novel applications from the (...)
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  • The Right to be an Exception to Predictions: a Moral Defense of Diversity in Recommendation Systems.Eleonora Viganò - 2023 - Philosophy and Technology 36 (3):1-25.
    Recommendation systems (RSs) predict what the user likes and recommend it to them. While at the onset of RSs, the latter was designed to maximize the recommendation accuracy (i.e., accuracy was their only goal), nowadays many RSs models include diversity in recommendations (which thus is a further goal of RSs). In the computer science community, the introduction of diversity in RSs is justified mainly through economic reasons: diversity increases user satisfaction and, in niche markets, profits.I contend that, first, the economic (...)
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  • Co-designing algorithms for governance: Ensuring responsible and accountable algorithmic management of refugee camp supplies.Mark van Embden Andres, S. Ilker Birbil, Paul Koot & Rianne Dekker - 2022 - Big Data and Society 9 (1).
    There is increasing criticism on the use of big data and algorithms in public governance. Studies revealed that algorithms may reinforce existing biases and defy scrutiny by public officials using them and citizens subject to algorithmic decisions and services. In response, scholars have called for more algorithmic transparency and regulation. These are useful, but ex post solutions in which the development of algorithms remains a rather autonomous process. This paper argues that co-design of algorithms with relevant stakeholders from government and (...)
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  • Human-aligned artificial intelligence is a multiobjective problem.Peter Vamplew, Richard Dazeley, Cameron Foale, Sally Firmin & Jane Mummery - 2018 - Ethics and Information Technology 20 (1):27-40.
    As the capabilities of artificial intelligence systems improve, it becomes important to constrain their actions to ensure their behaviour remains beneficial to humanity. A variety of ethical, legal and safety-based frameworks have been proposed as a basis for designing these constraints. Despite their variations, these frameworks share the common characteristic that decision-making must consider multiple potentially conflicting factors. We demonstrate that these alignment frameworks can be represented as utility functions, but that the widely used Maximum Expected Utility paradigm provides insufficient (...)
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  • The ethics of algorithms: key problems and solutions.Andreas Tsamados, Nikita Aggarwal, Josh Cowls, Jessica Morley, Huw Roberts, Mariarosaria Taddeo & Luciano Floridi - 2021 - AI and Society.
    Research on the ethics of algorithms has grown substantially over the past decade. Alongside the exponential development and application of machine learning algorithms, new ethical problems and solutions relating to their ubiquitous use in society have been proposed. This article builds on a review of the ethics of algorithms published in 2016, 2016). The goals are to contribute to the debate on the identification and analysis of the ethical implications of algorithms, to provide an updated analysis of epistemic and normative (...)
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  • The ethics of algorithms: key problems and solutions.Andreas Tsamados, Nikita Aggarwal, Josh Cowls, Jessica Morley, Huw Roberts, Mariarosaria Taddeo & Luciano Floridi - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (1):215-230.
    Research on the ethics of algorithms has grown substantially over the past decade. Alongside the exponential development and application of machine learning algorithms, new ethical problems and solutions relating to their ubiquitous use in society have been proposed. This article builds on a review of the ethics of algorithms published in 2016, 2016). The goals are to contribute to the debate on the identification and analysis of the ethical implications of algorithms, to provide an updated analysis of epistemic and normative (...)
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  • Weapons of moral construction? On the value of fairness in algorithmic decision-making.Simona Tiribelli & Benedetta Giovanola - 2022 - Ethics and Information Technology 24 (1):1-13.
    Fairness is one of the most prominent values in the Ethics and Artificial Intelligence (AI) debate and, specifically, in the discussion on algorithmic decision-making (ADM). However, while the need for fairness in ADM is widely acknowledged, the very concept of fairness has not been sufficiently explored so far. Our paper aims to fill this gap and claims that an ethically informed re-definition of fairness is needed to adequately investigate fairness in ADM. To achieve our goal, after an introductory section aimed (...)
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  • Transparency you can trust: Transparency requirements for artificial intelligence between legal norms and contextual concerns.Aurelia Tamò-Larrieux, Christoph Lutz, Eduard Fosch Villaronga & Heike Felzmann - 2019 - Big Data and Society 6 (1).
    Transparency is now a fundamental principle for data processing under the General Data Protection Regulation. We explore what this requirement entails for artificial intelligence and automated decision-making systems. We address the topic of transparency in artificial intelligence by integrating legal, social, and ethical aspects. We first investigate the ratio legis of the transparency requirement in the General Data Protection Regulation and its ethical underpinnings, showing its focus on the provision of information and explanation. We then discuss the pitfalls with respect (...)
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  • Ethical problems in the use of algorithms in data management and in a free market economy.Rafał Szopa - 2023 - AI and Society 38 (6):2487-2498.
    The problem that I present in this paper concerns the issue of ethical evaluation of algorithms, especially those used in social media and which create profiles of users of these media and new technologies that have recently emerged and are intended to change the functioning of technologies used in data management. Systems such as Overton, SambaNova or Snorkel were created to help engineers create data management models, but they are based on different assumptions than the previous approach in machine learning (...)
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  • Epistemic injustice and data science technologies.John Symons & Ramón Alvarado - 2022 - Synthese 200 (2):1-26.
    Technologies that deploy data science methods are liable to result in epistemic harms involving the diminution of individuals with respect to their standing as knowers or their credibility as sources of testimony. Not all harms of this kind are unjust but when they are we ought to try to prevent or correct them. Epistemically unjust harms will typically intersect with other more familiar and well-studied kinds of harm that result from the design, development, and use of data science technologies. However, (...)
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  • Robots in the Workplace: a Threat to—or Opportunity for—Meaningful Work?Jilles Smids, Sven Nyholm & Hannah Berkers - 2020 - Philosophy and Technology 33 (3):503-522.
    The concept of meaningful work has recently received increased attention in philosophy and other disciplines. However, the impact of the increasing robotization of the workplace on meaningful work has received very little attention so far. Doing work that is meaningful leads to higher job satisfaction and increased worker well-being, and some argue for a right to access to meaningful work. In this paper, we therefore address the impact of robotization on meaningful work. We do so by identifying five key aspects (...)
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  • A taxonomy of human–machine collaboration: capturing automation and technical autonomy.Monika Simmler & Ruth Frischknecht - 2021 - AI and Society 36 (1):239-250.
    Due to the ongoing advancements in technology, socio-technical collaboration has become increasingly prevalent. This poses challenges in terms of governance and accountability, as well as issues in various other fields. Therefore, it is crucial to familiarize decision-makers and researchers with the core of human–machine collaboration. This study introduces a taxonomy that enables identification of the very nature of human–machine interaction. A literature review has revealed that automation and technical autonomy are main parameters for describing and understanding such interaction. Both aspects (...)
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  • Consumers are willing to pay a price for explainable, but not for green AI. Evidence from a choice-based conjoint analysis.Markus B. Siewert, Stefan Wurster & Pascal D. König - 2022 - Big Data and Society 9 (1).
    A major challenge with the increasing use of Artificial Intelligence applications is to manage the long-term societal impacts of this technology. Two central concerns that have emerged in this respect are that the optimized goals behind the data processing of AI applications usually remain opaque and the energy footprint of their data processing is growing quickly. This study thus explores how much people value the transparency and environmental sustainability of AI using the example of personal AI assistants. The results from (...)
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  • Algorithmic paranoia: the temporal governmentality of predictive policing.Bonnie Sheehey - 2019 - Ethics and Information Technology 21 (1):49-58.
    In light of the recent emergence of predictive techniques in law enforcement to forecast crimes before they occur, this paper examines the temporal operation of power exercised by predictive policing algorithms. I argue that predictive policing exercises power through a paranoid style that constitutes a form of temporal governmentality. Temporality is especially pertinent to understanding what is ethically at stake in predictive policing as it is continuous with a historical racialized practice of organizing, managing, controlling, and stealing time. After first (...)
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  • Mapping the Ethicality of Algorithmic Pricing: A Review of Dynamic and Personalized Pricing. [REVIEW]Peter Seele, Claus Dierksmeier, Reto Hofstetter & Mario D. Schultz - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 170 (4):697-719.
    Firms increasingly deploy algorithmic pricing approaches to determine what to charge for their goods and services. Algorithmic pricing can discriminate prices both dynamically over time and personally depending on individual consumer information. Although legal, the ethicality of such approaches needs to be examined as often they trigger moral concerns and sometimes outrage. In this research paper, we provide an overview and discussion of the ethical challenges germane to algorithmic pricing. As a basis for our discussion, we perform a systematic interpretative (...)
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  • Technology and moral vacuums in just war theorising.Elke Schwarz - 2018 - Journal of International Political Theory 14 (3):280-298.
    Our contemporary condition is deeply infused with scientific-technological rationales. These influence and shape our ethical reasoning on war, including the moral status of civilians and the moral choices available to us. In this article, I discuss how technology shapes and directs the moral choices available to us by setting parameters for moral deliberation. I argue that technology has moral significance for just war thinking, yet this is often overlooked in attempts to assess who is liable to harm in war and (...)
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  • Mobile health ethics and the expanding role of autonomy.Bettina Schmietow & Georg Marckmann - 2019 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 22 (4):623-630.
    Mhealth technology is mushrooming world-wide and, in a variety of forms, reaches increasing numbers of users in ever-widening contexts and virtually independent from standard medical evidence assessment. Yet, debate on the broader societal impact including in particular mapping and classification of ethical issues raised has been limited. This article, as part of an ongoing empirically informed ethical research project, provides an overview of ethical issues of mhealth applications with a specific focus on implications on autonomy as a key notion in (...)
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  • Individual benefits and collective challenges: Experts’ views on data-driven approaches in medical research and healthcare in the German context.Silke Schicktanz & Lorina Buhr - 2022 - Big Data and Society 9 (1).
    Healthcare provision, like many other sectors of society, is undergoing major changes due to the increased use of data-driven methods and technologies. This increased reliance on big data in medicine can lead to shifts in the norms that guide healthcare providers and patients. Continuous critical normative reflection is called for to track such potential changes. This article presents the results of an interview-based study with 20 German and Swiss experts from the fields of medicine, life science research, informatics and humanities (...)
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  • Four Responsibility Gaps with Artificial Intelligence: Why they Matter and How to Address them.Filippo Santoni de Sio & Giulio Mecacci - 2021 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (4):1057-1084.
    The notion of “responsibility gap” with artificial intelligence (AI) was originally introduced in the philosophical debate to indicate the concern that “learning automata” may make more difficult or impossible to attribute moral culpability to persons for untoward events. Building on literature in moral and legal philosophy, and ethics of technology, the paper proposes a broader and more comprehensive analysis of the responsibility gap. The responsibility gap, it is argued, is not one problem but a set of at least four interconnected (...)
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  • The ethics of machine learning-based clinical decision support: an analysis through the lens of professionalisation theory.Sabine Salloch & Nils B. Heyen - 2021 - BMC Medical Ethics 22 (1):1-9.
    BackgroundMachine learning-based clinical decision support systems (ML_CDSS) are increasingly employed in various sectors of health care aiming at supporting clinicians’ practice by matching the characteristics of individual patients with a computerised clinical knowledge base. Some studies even indicate that ML_CDSS may surpass physicians’ competencies regarding specific isolated tasks. From an ethical perspective, however, the usage of ML_CDSS in medical practice touches on a range of fundamental normative issues. This article aims to add to the ethical discussion by using professionalisation theory (...)
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  • Sentencing Disparity and Artificial Intelligence.Jesper Ryberg - 2023 - Journal of Value Inquiry 57 (3):447-462.
    The idea of using artificial intelligence as a support system in the sentencing process has attracted increasing attention. For instance, it has been suggested that machine learning algorithms may help in curbing problems concerning inter-judge sentencing disparity. The purpose of the present article is to examine the merits of this possibility. It is argued that, insofar as the unfairness of sentencing disparity is held to reflect a retributivist view of proportionality, it is not necessarily the case that increasing inter-judge uniformity (...)
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  • Agency Laundering and Information Technologies.Alan Rubel, Clinton Castro & Adam Pham - 2019 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 22 (4):1017-1041.
    When agents insert technological systems into their decision-making processes, they can obscure moral responsibility for the results. This can give rise to a distinct moral wrong, which we call “agency laundering.” At root, agency laundering involves obfuscating one’s moral responsibility by enlisting a technology or process to take some action and letting it forestall others from demanding an account for bad outcomes that result. We argue that the concept of agency laundering helps in understanding important moral problems in a number (...)
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  • Legal and human rights issues of AI: Gaps, challenges and vulnerabilities.Rowena Rodrigues - 2020 - Journal of Responsible Technology 4 (C):100005.
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  • Getting into the engine room: a blueprint to investigate the shadowy steps of AI ethics.Johan Rochel & Florian Evéquoz - 2021 - AI and Society 36 (2):609-622.
    Enacting an AI system typically requires three iterative phases where AI engineers are in command: selection and preparation of the data, selection and configuration of algorithmic tools, and fine-tuning of the different parameters on the basis of intermediate results. Our main hypothesis is that these phases involve practices with ethical questions. This paper maps these ethical questions and proposes a way to address them in light of a neo-republican understanding of freedom, defined as absence of domination. We thereby identify different (...)
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  • Hippocratic Oaths for Mathematicians?Colin Jakob Rittberg - 2022 - Philosophia 51 (3):1579-1603.
    In this paper I ask whether mathematicians should swear an oath similar to the Hippocratic oath sworn by some medical professionals as a means to foster morally praiseworthy engagement with the ethical dimensions of mathematics. I individuate four dimensions in which mathematics is ethically charged: (1) applying mathematical knowledge to the world can cause harm, (2) participation of mathematicians in morally contentious practices is an ethical issue, (3) mathematics as a social activity faces relevant ethical concerns, (4) mathematical knowledge itself (...)
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  • Testimonial injustice in medical machine learning.Giorgia Pozzi - 2023 - Journal of Medical Ethics 49 (8):536-540.
    Machine learning (ML) systems play an increasingly relevant role in medicine and healthcare. As their applications move ever closer to patient care and cure in clinical settings, ethical concerns about the responsibility of their use come to the fore. I analyse an aspect of responsible ML use that bears not only an ethical but also a significant epistemic dimension. I focus on ML systems’ role in mediating patient–physician relations. I thereby consider how ML systems may silence patients’ voices and relativise (...)
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  • Automated opioid risk scores: a case for machine learning-induced epistemic injustice in healthcare.Giorgia Pozzi - 2023 - Ethics and Information Technology 25 (1):1-12.
    Artificial intelligence-based (AI) technologies such as machine learning (ML) systems are playing an increasingly relevant role in medicine and healthcare, bringing about novel ethical and epistemological issues that need to be timely addressed. Even though ethical questions connected to epistemic concerns have been at the center of the debate, it is going unnoticed how epistemic forms of injustice can be ML-induced, specifically in healthcare. I analyze the shortcomings of an ML system currently deployed in the USA to predict patients’ likelihood (...)
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  • Promoting responsible AI : A European perspective on the governance of artificial intelligence in media and journalism.Colin Porlezza - 2023 - Communications 48 (3):370-394.
    Artificial intelligence and automation have become pervasive in news media, influencing journalism from news gathering to news distribution. As algorithms are increasingly determining editorial decisions, specific concerns have been raised with regard to the responsible and accountable use of AI-driven tools by news media, encompassing new regulatory and ethical questions. This contribution aims to analyze whether and to what extent the use of AI technology in news media and journalism is currently regulated and debated within the European Union and the (...)
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  • The right to refuse diagnostics and treatment planning by artificial intelligence.Thomas Ploug & Søren Holm - 2020 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 23 (1):107-114.
    In an analysis of artificially intelligent systems for medical diagnostics and treatment planning we argue that patients should be able to exercise a right to withdraw from AI diagnostics and treatment planning for reasons related to (1) the physician’s role in the patients’ formation of and acting on personal preferences and values, (2) the bias and opacity problem of AI systems, and (3) rational concerns about the future societal effects of introducing AI systems in the health care sector.
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