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  1. Navigating Ethical Challenges of Conducting Randomized Clinical Trials on COVID-19.Dan Kabonge Kaye - 2022 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 17 (1):1-11.
    BackgroundThe contemporary frameworks for clinical research require informed consent for research participation that includes disclosure of material information, comprehension of disclosed information and voluntary consent to research participation. There is thus an urgent need to test, and an ethical imperative, to test, modify or refine medications or healthcare plans that could reduce patient morbidity, lower healthcare costs or strengthen healthcare systems.MethodsConceptual review.DiscussionAlthough some allocation principles seem better than others, no single moral principle allocates interventions justly, necessitating combining the moral principles (...)
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  • Allokation von einmalig zu applizierenden Arzneimitteln bei Kindern in globalen Compassionate Use-Programmen.Clemens Miller - 2022 - Ethik in der Medizin 34 (4):497-514.
    Zusammenfassung Compassionate Use beschreibt die Anwendung zulassungsüberschreitender Arzneimittel für Patient*innengruppen, die an einer lebensbedrohlichen oder zu einer schweren Behinderung führenden Erkrankung leiden, ohne dass eine alternative Therapieoption besteht. An Ärzt*innen vorbei werden solche Programme ausschließlich von Pharmaunternehmen initiiert, was viele ethische Konflikte mit sich bringt. Eine neue Dimension erreichte das 2020 gestartete Programm für _Onasemnogenum abeparvovecum_ zur Therapie von Spinaler Muskelatrophie bei Kindern, welches die Krankheit nach nur einmaliger Gabe stoppen sollte. Die globale Allokation von nur 100 zur Verfügung gestellten (...)
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  • Allokation von einmalig zu applizierenden Arzneimitteln bei Kindern in globalen Compassionate Use-Programmen.Clemens Miller - 2022 - Ethik in der Medizin 34 (4):497-514.
    ZusammenfassungCompassionate Use beschreibt die Anwendung zulassungsüberschreitender Arzneimittel für Patient*innengruppen, die an einer lebensbedrohlichen oder zu einer schweren Behinderung führenden Erkrankung leiden, ohne dass eine alternative Therapieoption besteht. An Ärzt*innen vorbei werden solche Programme ausschließlich von Pharmaunternehmen initiiert, was viele ethische Konflikte mit sich bringt. Eine neue Dimension erreichte das 2020 gestartete Programm für Onasemnogenum abeparvovecum zur Therapie von Spinaler Muskelatrophie bei Kindern, welches die Krankheit nach nur einmaliger Gabe stoppen sollte. Die globale Allokation von nur 100 zur Verfügung gestellten Dosierungen (...)
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  • What’s the Appropriate Target of Allocative Justification?Zara Anwarzai & Ricky Mouser - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 12 (2-3):167-168.
    Building on work by Peterman, Aas, and Wasserman (2021), we modify their prospective benefit analysis to include only medically-relevant information about patients as persons without reference to their broader lives. Because patients (not their lives) must be treated equally, we argue that patients are the appropriate targets of allocative justification. We go on to challenge some of our current data-collection practices on this basis.
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  • Currents in Contemporary Ethics.Mary R. Anderlik & Mark A. Rothstein - 2003 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 31 (3):450-454.
    In financial disputes involving research, the parties are traditionally individual researchers and their institutions, biotech and pharmaceutical companies, and other entities engaged in the commercial development of biomedical research. Occasionally, research subjects claim that researchers have misled them or misappropriated their biological materials to derive financial gain. The best known example is the case of Moore v. Regents of the University of California, decided in 1990.With new developments in genomics, large-scale repositories of tissue and other biological specimens are increasingly important. (...)
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  • Wir müssen abwägen – aber wie sollen wir abwägen?: Fragen der Moral in einer pandemischen Corona-Krise.Lutz Wingert - 2021 - Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 69 (1):29-66.
    The global Covid-19 crisis raises at least three moral questions, which my contribution answers as follows: Which patient should get treatment according to triage criteria? The patient whose treatment has the best prospect of success. How should we resolve the conflict between public health measures and economic needs? Public health should have priority, but reaches its limits where the individual right to stay afloat through one’s own work is violated. How should we resolve the conflict between public health measures and (...)
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  • Which Newborn Infants Are Too Expensive to Treat? Camosy and Rationing in Intensive Care.Dominic Wilkinson - 2013 - Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (8):502-506.
    Are there some newborn infants whose short- and long-term care costs are so great that treatment should not be provided and they should be allowed to die? Public discourse and academic debate about the ethics of newborn intensive care has often shied away from this question. There has been enough ink spilt over whether or when for the infant's sake it might be better not to provide life-saving treatment. The further question of not saving infants because of inadequate resources has (...)
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  • Prioritising Access to Pandemic Influenza Vaccine: A Review of the Ethics Literature. [REVIEW]Jane H. Williams & Angus Dawson - 2020 - BMC Medical Ethics 21 (1):1-8.
    Background The world is threatened by future pandemics. Vaccines can play a key role in preventing harm, but there will inevitably be shortages because there is no possibility of advance stockpiling. We therefore need some method of prioritising access. Main text This paper reports a critical interpretative review of the published literature that discusses ethical arguments used to justify how we could prioritise vaccine during an influenza pandemic. We found that the focus of the literature was often on proposing different (...)
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  • Frailty Triage: Is Rationing Intensive Medical Treatment on the Grounds of Frailty Ethical?Dominic J. C. Wilkinson - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (11):48-63.
    In early 2020, a number of countries developed and published intensive care triage guidelines for the pandemic. Several of those guidelines, especially in the UK, encouraged the explicit assessment...
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  • A Costly Separation Between Withdrawing and Withholding Treatment in Intensive Care.Dominic Wilkinson & Julian Savulescu - 2014 - Bioethics 28 (3):127-137.
    Ethical analyses, professional guidelines and legal decisions support the equivalence thesis for life-sustaining treatment: if it is ethical to withhold treatment, it would be ethical to withdraw the same treatment. In this paper we explore reasons why the majority of medical professionals disagree with the conclusions of ethical analysis. Resource allocation is considered by clinicians to be a legitimate reason to withhold but not to withdraw intensive care treatment. We analyse five arguments in favour of non-equivalence, and find only relatively (...)
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  • The Rule of Rescue: An Investigation Into Age-Related Preferences and the Imperative to Save a Life.Sarah Watters - 2015 - Clinical Ethics 10 (3):70-79.
    The dominant rule of economic evaluation within health care posits that resources are distributed in order to maximize health benefit. There are instances, however, where the public has demonstrated that they do not prefer such an allocation scheme, particularly in the context of life-saving interventions. Objectives Deviations from preferences of maximizing health benefit have important implications on both financial and distributive levels. This study sought to specify the circumstances in which respondent preferences are inconsistent with maximizing health benefit. Methods Ninety (...)
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  • Substantial Life Extension and the Fair Distribution of Healthspans.Christopher S. Wareham - 2016 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 41 (5):521-539.
    One of the strongest objections to the development and use of substantially life-extending interventions is that they would exacerbate existing unjust disparities of healthy lifespans between rich and poor members of society. In both popular opinion and ethical theory, this consequence is sometimes thought to justify a ban on life-prolonging technologies. However, the practical and ethical drawbacks of banning receive little attention, and the viability of alternative policies is seldom considered. Moreover, where ethicists do propose alternatives, there is scant effort (...)
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  • Partiality and Distributive Justice in African Bioethics.Christopher Wareham - 2017 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 38 (2):127-144.
    African ethical theories tend to hold that moral agents ought to be partial, in the sense that they should favour members of their family or close community. This is considered an advantage over the impartiality of many Western moral theories, which are regarded as having counterintuitive implications, such as the idea that it is unethical to save a family member before a stranger. The partiality of African ethics is thought to be particularly valuable in the context of bioethics. Thaddeus Metz, (...)
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  • Between Hoping to Die and Longing to Live Longer.Christopher S. Wareham - 2021 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 43 (2):1-20.
    Drawing on Ezekiel Emanuel’s controversial piece ‘Why I hope to die at 75,’ I distinguish two types of concern in ethical debates about extending the human lifespan. The first focusses on the value of living longer from prudential and social perspectives. The second type of concern, which has received less attention, focusses on the value of aiming for longer life. This distinction, which is overlooked in the ethical literature on life extension, is significant because there are features of human psychology (...)
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  • Dueling Ethical Frameworks for Allocating Health Resources.Dorothy E. Vawter, J. Eline Garrett, Karen G. Gervais, Angela Witt Prehn & Debra A. DeBruin - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics 10 (4):54 – 56.
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  • The Frailty of Disability: A Controversial Triage Criterion.Rosana Triviño-Caballero, Jon Rueda, Belén Liedo & Joaquín Hortal-Carmona - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (11):82-84.
    Disability has been traditionally understood as a medical condition. However, people with disabilities have claimed in recent decades for a dephatologized social model of disability—i.e. the functi...
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  • The Ethical Unjustifications of COVID-19 Triage Committees.Yi Jiao Tian - 2021 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 18 (4):621-628.
    The ever-debated question of triage and allocating the life-saving ventilator during the COVID-19 pandemic has been repeatedly raised and challenged within the ethical community after shortages propelled doctors before life and death decisions. The British Medical Association’s ethical guidance highlighted the possibility of an initial surge of patients that would outstrip the health system’s ability to deliver care “to existing standards,” where utilitarian measures have to be applied, and triage decisions need to maximize “overall benefit” In these emergency circumstances, triage (...)
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  • Healthcare, Healthcare Resource Allocation, and Rationing: Pragmatist Reflections.Belayneh Taye & Andebet Hailu Assefa - 2022 - Contemporary Pragmatism 19 (3):245-272.
    This article approaches the ethical dilemma of healthcare allocation and rationing from the perspective of pragmatist ethics, mainly following John Dewey’s ethics. The moral dilemma of healthcare allocation arises whenever we allocate limited resources, and rationing is a necessary option for distributing available resources. In a broader sense, the moral problems of healthcare allocation also encompass the issue of access to primary healthcare, especially for low-income sections of communities. In this sense, allocation always entails rationing – denying service to someone (...)
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  • Beyond Ventilators and Prematurity: Most Rationing Dilemmas Are Morally Fraught.Anne Sullivan, Sadath Sayeed & Christy L. Cummings - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (7):174-177.
    Volume 20, Issue 7, July 2020, Page 174-177.
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  • Vulnerability Identified in Clinical Practice: A Qualitative Analysis.Laura Sossauer, Mélinée Schindler & Samia Hurst - 2019 - BMC Medical Ethics 20 (1):1-10.
    Background Although it is the moral duty of physicians to protect vulnerable patients, there are no data on how vulnerability is perceived in clinical practice. This study explores how physicians classify someone as “vulnerable”. Method Thirty-three physicians were initially questioned about resource allocation problems in their work. The results of these interviews were examined with qualitative study software to identify characteristics associated with vulnerability in patients. Data were conceptualized, classified and cross-linked to highlight the major determinants of vulnerability. The findings (...)
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  • The Badness of Death and Priorities in Health.Carl Tollef Solberg & Espen Gamlund - 2016 - BMC Medical Ethics 17 (1):1-9.
    BackgroundThe state of the world is one with scarce medical resources where longevity is not equally distributed. Given such facts, setting priorities in health entails making difficult yet unavoidable decisions about which lives to save. The business of saving lives works on the assumption that longevity is valuable and that an early death is worse than a late death. There is a vast literature on health priorities and badness of death, separately. Surprisingly, there has been little cross-fertilisation between the academic (...)
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  • Døden som et onde.Carl Tollef Solberg - 2019 - Norsk Filosofisk Tidsskrift 54 (3):167-186.
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  • 'Playing God Because You Have To': Health Professionals' Narratives of Rationing Care in Humanitarian and Development Work.C. Sinding, L. Schwartz, M. Hunt, L. Redwood-Campbell, L. Elit & J. Ranford - 2010 - Public Health Ethics 3 (2):147-156.
    This article explores the accounts of Canadian-trained health professionals working in humanitarian and development organizations who considered not treating a patient or group of patients because of resource limitations. In the narratives, not treating the patient(s) was sometimes understood as the right thing to do, and sometimes as wrong. In analyzing participants’ narratives we draw attention to how medications and equipment are represented. In one type of narrative, medications and equipment are represented primarily as scarce resources; in another, they are (...)
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  • Iranian Intensive Care Unit Nurses' Moral Distress: A Content Analysis.F. A. Shorideh, T. Ashktorab & F. Yaghmaei - 2012 - Nursing Ethics 19 (4):464-478.
    Researchers have identified the phenomena of moral distress through many studies in Western countries. This research reports the first study of moral distress in Iran. Because of the differences in cultural values and nursing education, nurses working in intensive care units may experience moral distress differently than reported in previous studies. This research used a qualitative method involving semistructured and in-depth interviews of a purposive sample of 31 (28 clinical nurses and 3 nurse educators) individuals to identify the types of (...)
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  • Allocating Scarce Medical Resources: Using Social Usefulness as a Criterion.D. Selvaraj, A. McClelland & A. Furnham - 2019 - Ethics and Behavior 29 (4):274-286.
    This study aimed to determine if people would use social usefulness as a criterion when allocating a kidney to potential recipients. Participants ranked hypothetical patients in order of priority to receive the kidney, using only information on the patients’ volunteering record, intelligence, emotional intelligence, and attractiveness. The results showed that volunteers were prioritized over nonvolunteers, highly intelligent patients over those with average intelligence, patients with high emotional intelligence over those with average emotional intelligence, and good-looking patients over average-looking patients. There (...)
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  • Context is Needed When Assessing Fair Subject Selection.G. Owen Schaefer - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (2):20-22.
    Volume 20, Issue 2, February 2020, Page 20-22.
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  • Assessing the Modified Youngest-First Principle and the Idea of Non-Persons at the Bedside: A Clinical Perspective.Sadath A. Sayeed - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics 10 (4):52 – 54.
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  • Currents in Contemporary Bioethics.Mark A. Rothstein - 2012 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (2):394-400.
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  • Currents in Contemporary Ethics.Mark A. Rothstein - 2010 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 38 (2):412-419.
    The 2009 pandemic of influenza A was relatively mild, but a subsequent outbreak of pandemic influenza could be much worse. According to projections from the Department of Health and Human Services, the potential health consequences of a severe influenza pandemic in the United States could be literally overwhelming: up to 1.9 million deaths; 90 million people sick; 45 million people needing outpatient care; 9.9 million people hospitalized, of whom 1.485 million would need treatment in an intensive care unit ; and (...)
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  • The Challenge of Selecting Participants Fairly in High-Demand Clinical Trials.Annette Rid, Saskia Hendriks & Alexander A. Iyer - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (2):35-38.
    Volume 20, Issue 2, February 2020, Page 35-38.
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  • Public Health Doctors' Ancillary-Care Obligations.H. S. Richardson - 2010 - Public Health Ethics 3 (1):63-67.
    This comment on the case presented in ‘Cholera and Nothing More’ argues that the physicians at this public-health centre did not have an ordinary clinician's obligations to promote the health of the people who came to them for care, as they were instead set up to serve a laudable and urgent public-health goal, namely, controlling a cholera outbreak. It argues that, nonetheless, these physicians did have some limited moral duties to care for other diseases they encountered—some ancillary-care duties—arising from their (...)
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  • Medical Need: Evaluating a Conceptual Critique of Universal Health Coverage.Lynette Reid - 2017 - Health Care Analysis 25 (2):114-137.
    Some argue that the concept of medical need is inadequate to inform the design of a universal health care system—particularly an institutional rather than a residual system. They argue that the concept contradicts the idea of comprehensiveness; leads to unsustainable expenditures; is too indeterminate for policy; and supports only a prioritarian distribution. I argue that ‘comprehensive’ understood as ‘including the full continuum of care’ and ‘medically necessary’ understood as ‘prioritized by medical criteria’ are not contradictory, and that UHC is a (...)
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  • Experience Adjusted Life Years and Critical Medical Allocations Within the British Context: Which Patient Should Live?Michal Pruski - 2018 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 21 (4):561-568.
    Medical resource allocation is a controversial topic, because in the end it prioritises some peoples’ medical problems over those of others. This is less controversial when there is a clear clinical reason for such a prioritisation, but when such a reason is not available people might perceive it as deeming certain individuals more important than others. This article looks at the role of social utility in medical resource allocation, in a situation where the clinical outcome would be identical if either (...)
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  • Do Healthcare Professionals Have Different Views About Healthcare Rationing Than College Students? A Mixed Methods Study in Portugal.Micaela Pinho, Ana Pinto Borges & Richard Cookson - 2018 - Public Health Ethics 11 (1):90-102.
    The main aim of this paper is to investigate the views of healthcare professionals in Portugal about healthcare rationing, and compare them with the views of college students. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample of 60 healthcare professionals and 180 college students. Respondents faced a hypothetical rationing dilemma where they had to order four patients and justify their choices. Multinomial logistic regressions were used to test for differences in orderings, and content analysis to categorize the (...)
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  • Conceptions of Care: Altruism, Feminism, and Mature Care.Tove Pettersen - 2012 - Hypatia 27 (2):366-389.
    In “Conceptions of Care,” Tove Pettersen discusses and articulates select ways in which care can be comprehended. Several difficulties related to an altruistic understanding of care are examined before the author presents the case for a more favorable concept: mature care. Mature care is intended to take into account the interests of both parties to the caring relationship. This understanding of care facilitates the expression of the relational and reciprocal aspects of caring while emphasizing the equal worth of all involved. (...)
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  • Standing by Our Principles: Meaningful Guidance, Moral Foundations, and Multi-Principle Methodology in Medical Scarcity.Govind C. Persad, Alan Wertheimer & Ezekiel J. Emanuel - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics 10 (4):46 – 48.
    In this short response to Kerstein and Bognar, we clarify three aspects of the complete lives system, which we propose as a system of allocating scarce medical interventions. We argue that the complete lives system provides meaningful guidance even though it does not provide an algorithm. We also defend the investment modification to the complete lives system, which prioritizes adolescents and older children over younger children; argue that sickest-first allocation remains flawed when scarcity is absolute and ongoing; and argue that (...)
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  • A Conceptual Framework for Clearer Ethical Discussions About COVID-19 Response.Govind C. Persad - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (7):98-101.
    In this Commentary, I propose an ethical framework for ethical discussions around the allocation of scarce resources in COVID-19 response. The framework incorporates four principles: beneficence (benefiting people by saving lives or years of life), equality, remedying disadvantage, and recognizing past conduct. I then discuss how the framework interacts with ethical constraints against using people as a mere means and against causing death. The commentary closes by criticizing the equation of deontological ethics with random or first-come, first-served allocation and of (...)
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  • Pandemic Ventilator Rationing and Appeals Processes.Daniel Patrone & David Resnik - 2011 - Health Care Analysis 19 (2):165-179.
    In a severe influenza pandemic, hospitals will likely experience serious and widespread shortages of patient pulmonary ventilators and of staff qualified to operate them. Deciding who will receive access to mechanical ventilation will often determine who lives and who dies. This prospect raises an important question whether pandemic preparedness plans should include some process by which individuals affected by ventilator rationing would have the opportunity to appeal adverse decisions. However, the issue of appeals processes to ventilator rationing decisions has been (...)
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  • Opportunity Costs Pacifism.James Pattison - 2020 - Law and Philosophy 39 (5):545-576.
    If the resources used to wage wars could be spent elsewhere and save more lives, does this mean that wars are unjustified? This article considers this question, which has been largely overlooked by Just War Theorists and pacifists. It focuses on whether the opportunity costs of war lead to a form of pacifism, which it calls ‘Opportunity Costs Pacifism’. The article argues that Opportunity Costs Pacifism is, at the more ideal level, compelling. It suggests that the only plausible response to (...)
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  • Priority Setting in the Assessment for Kidney Transplant Candidacy: A Canadian Case Study.Faisal Omar - 2012 - Journal of Clinical Research and Bioethics 3 (S1).
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  • Priority to the Young or to Those with Least Lifetime Health?Ole Frithjof Norheim - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics 10 (4):60 – 61.
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  • Balancing Relevant Criteria in Allocating Scarce Life-Saving Interventions.Erik Nord - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics 10 (4):56 – 58.
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  • Public Attitudes Toward COVID-19 Vaccinations Before Dawn in Japan: Ethics and Future Perspectives.Haruka Nakada, Kyoko Takashima, Yuichi Maru, Tsunakuni Ikka, Koichiro Yuji, Sachie Yoshida & Kenji Matsui - 2022 - Asian Bioethics Review 14 (3):287-302.
    Improving public understanding and acceptance are critical for promoting coronavirus vaccination. However, how to promote COVID-19 vaccine programs remains controversial due to various ethical issues. This study, thus, aimed to survey the acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines among Japanese citizens and discuss relevant ethical issues. A cross-sectional survey was conducted via an online platform. An anonymous, quantitative, self-administered online questionnaire was sent to 6965 registered Japanese residents, which included questions regarding the respondent’s general knowledge, experience, and opinions of vaccines, vaccine development, (...)
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  • Goal-Concordant Care Within the Range of the Possible.Wynne Morrison - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (3):63-65.
    Volume 20, Issue 3, March 2020, Page 63-65.
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  • End-of-Life Decisions as Bedside Rationing. An Ethical Analysis of Life Support Restrictions in an Indian Neonatal Unit.I. Miljeteig, K. A. Johansson, S. A. Sayeed & O. F. Norheim - 2010 - Journal of Medical Ethics 36 (8):473-478.
    Introduction Hundreds of thousands of premature neonates born in low-income countries are implicitly denied treatment each year. Studies from India show that treatment is rationed even for neonates born at 32 gestational age weeks (GAW), and multiple external factors influence treatment decisions. Is withholding of life-saving treatment for children born between 28 and 32 GAW acceptable from an ethical perspective? Method A seven-step impartial ethical analysis, including outcome analysis of four accepted priority criteria: severity of disease, treatment effect, cost effectiveness (...)
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  • Sozial-epidemiologische und ethische Ansätze zur Bewertung der gesundheitlichen Ungleichheit.Andreas Mielck - 2010 - Ethik in der Medizin 22 (3):235-248.
    ZusammenfassungEin niedriger sozialer Status ist oft mit erhöhter Morbidität und Mortalität verbunden. In dem Beitrag wird versucht, diese „gesundheitliche Ungleichheit“ aus sozial-epidemiologischer Sicht zu bewerten. Im Mittelpunkt steht dabei die Frage nach der Verantwortung für die erhöhte gesundheitliche Gefährdung der unteren Statusgruppen. Nur ein kleiner Teil der gesundheitlichen Ungleichheit kann durch das Gesundheitsverhalten erklärt werden. Umso wichtiger sind andere Ursachen. Dazu gehören die sozialen Unterschiede bei den Belastungen in der Wohnumgebung, bei den Arbeitsbedingungen und auch beim Zugang zur gesundheitlichen Versorgung. (...)
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  • Complete Lives, Short Lives, and the Challenge of Legitimacy.Paul T. Menzel - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics 10 (4):50 – 52.
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  • Systemising Triage: COVID-19 Guidelines and Their Underlying Theories of Distributive Justice.Lukas J. Meier - 2022 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 25 (4):703-714.
    The COVID-19 pandemic has been overwhelming public health-care systems around the world. With demand exceeding the availability of medical resources in several regions, hospitals have been forced to invoke triage. To ensure that this difficult task proceeds in a fair and organised manner, governments scrambled experts to draft triage guidelines under enormous time pressure. Although there are similarities between the documents, they vary considerably in how much weight their respective authors place on the different criteria that they propose. Since most (...)
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  • Balancing Principles, QALYs and the Straw Men of Resource Allocation.John McMillan & Tony Hope - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics 10 (4):48 – 50.
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  • Ethical Challenges Arising in the COVID-19 Pandemic: An Overview From the Association of Bioethics Program Directors (ABPD) Task Force.Amy L. McGuire, Mark P. Aulisio, F. Daniel Davis, Cheryl Erwin, Thomas D. Harter, Reshma Jagsi, Robert Klitzman, Robert Macauley, Eric Racine, Susan M. Wolf, Matthew Wynia & Paul Root Wolpe - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (7):15-27.
    The COVID-19 pandemic has raised a host of ethical challenges, but key among these has been the possibility that health care systems might need to ration scarce critical care resources. Rationing p...
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