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  1. Helpful Lessons and Cautionary Tales: How Should COVID-19 Drug Development and Access Inform Approaches to Non-Pandemic Diseases?Holly Fernandez Lynch, Arthur Caplan, Patricia Furlong & Alison Bateman-House - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (12):4-19.
    After witnessing extraordinary scientific and regulatory efforts to speed development of and access to new COVID-19 interventions, patients facing other serious diseases have begun to ask “where’s...
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  • The Frailty of Disability: A Controversial Triage Criterion.Rosana Triviño-Caballero, Jon Rueda, Belén Liedo & Joaquín Hortal-Carmona - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (11):82-84.
    Disability has been traditionally understood as a medical condition. However, people with disabilities have claimed in recent decades for a dephatologized social model of disability—i.e. the functi...
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  • Frailty Triage: Is Rationing Intensive Medical Treatment on the Grounds of Frailty Ethical?Dominic J. C. Wilkinson - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (11):48-63.
    In early 2020, a number of countries developed and published intensive care triage guidelines for the pandemic. Several of those guidelines, especially in the UK, encouraged the explicit assessment...
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  • Experience Adjusted Life Years and Critical Medical Allocations Within the British Context: Which Patient Should Live?Michal Pruski - 2018 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 21 (4):561-568.
    Medical resource allocation is a controversial topic, because in the end it prioritises some peoples’ medical problems over those of others. This is less controversial when there is a clear clinical reason for such a prioritisation, but when such a reason is not available people might perceive it as deeming certain individuals more important than others. This article looks at the role of social utility in medical resource allocation, in a situation where the clinical outcome would be identical if either (...)
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  • What’s the Appropriate Target of Allocative Justification?Zara Anwarzai & Ricky Mouser - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 12 (2-3):167-168.
    Building on work by Peterman, Aas, and Wasserman (2021), we modify their prospective benefit analysis to include only medically-relevant information about patients as persons without reference to their broader lives. Because patients (not their lives) must be treated equally, we argue that patients are the appropriate targets of allocative justification. We go on to challenge some of our current data-collection practices on this basis.
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  • Currents in Contemporary Ethics.Mary R. Anderlik & Mark A. Rothstein - 2003 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 31 (3):450-454.
    In financial disputes involving research, the parties are traditionally individual researchers and their institutions, biotech and pharmaceutical companies, and other entities engaged in the commercial development of biomedical research. Occasionally, research subjects claim that researchers have misled them or misappropriated their biological materials to derive financial gain. The best known example is the case of Moore v. Regents of the University of California, decided in 1990.With new developments in genomics, large-scale repositories of tissue and other biological specimens are increasingly important. (...)
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  • The Grandview Medical Center Bioethics Consultation Service Perspective on the Peril of Isolated and Vulnerable Individuals Due to COVID-19.Jeffrey Kaufhold, Sharon Merryman, Leland Cancilla & Nicholas Salupo - 2021 - Asian Bioethics Review 13 (4):463-471.
    We present the perspective of a Bioethics Consultation Service operating in an urban hospital in Dayton, Ohio, USA, as it adapted to treating Sars-CoV-2 patients throughout 2020. Since the first case of COVID-19 was reported in Ohio on 9 March 2020, until 1 January 2021, the Bioethics Consultation Service was consulted 60 times, a 22.5% increase from the same period of 2019. The most common diagnoses requiring consultation included end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis, out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, and sepsis. Only 10% (...)
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  • Partiality and Distributive Justice in African Bioethics.Christopher Wareham - 2017 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 38 (2):127-144.
    African ethical theories tend to hold that moral agents ought to be partial, in the sense that they should favour members of their family or close community. This is considered an advantage over the impartiality of many Western moral theories, which are regarded as having counterintuitive implications, such as the idea that it is unethical to save a family member before a stranger. The partiality of African ethics is thought to be particularly valuable in the context of bioethics. Thaddeus Metz, (...)
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  • Allocating Scarce Medical Resources: Using Social Usefulness as a Criterion.D. Selvaraj, A. McClelland & A. Furnham - 2019 - Ethics and Behavior 29 (4):274-286.
    This study aimed to determine if people would use social usefulness as a criterion when allocating a kidney to potential recipients. Participants ranked hypothetical patients in order of priority to receive the kidney, using only information on the patients’ volunteering record, intelligence, emotional intelligence, and attractiveness. The results showed that volunteers were prioritized over nonvolunteers, highly intelligent patients over those with average intelligence, patients with high emotional intelligence over those with average emotional intelligence, and good-looking patients over average-looking patients. There (...)
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  • Context is Needed When Assessing Fair Subject Selection.G. Owen Schaefer - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (2):20-22.
    Volume 20, Issue 2, February 2020, Page 20-22.
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  • Problems With Prioritization: Exploring Ethical Solutions to Inequalities in HIV Care.Kjell Arne Johansson & Ole Frithjof Norheim - 2011 - American Journal of Bioethics 11 (12):32-40.
    Enormous gaps between HIV burden and health care availability in low-income countries raise severe ethical problems. This article analyzes four HIV-priority dilemmas with interest across contexts and health systems. We explore principled distributive conflicts and use the Atkinson index to make explicit trade-offs between health maximization and equality in health. We find that societies need a relatively low aversion to inequality to favor treatment for children, even with large weights assigned to extending the lives of adults: higher inequality aversion is (...)
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  • The Badness of Death and Priorities in Health.Carl Tollef Solberg & Espen Gamlund - 2016 - BMC Medical Ethics 17 (1):1-9.
    BackgroundThe state of the world is one with scarce medical resources where longevity is not equally distributed. Given such facts, setting priorities in health entails making difficult yet unavoidable decisions about which lives to save. The business of saving lives works on the assumption that longevity is valuable and that an early death is worse than a late death. There is a vast literature on health priorities and badness of death, separately. Surprisingly, there has been little cross-fertilisation between the academic (...)
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  • Do Healthcare Professionals Have Different Views About Healthcare Rationing Than College Students? A Mixed Methods Study in Portugal.Micaela Pinho, Ana Pinto Borges & Richard Cookson - 2018 - Public Health Ethics 11 (1):90-102.
    The main aim of this paper is to investigate the views of healthcare professionals in Portugal about healthcare rationing, and compare them with the views of college students. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample of 60 healthcare professionals and 180 college students. Respondents faced a hypothetical rationing dilemma where they had to order four patients and justify their choices. Multinomial logistic regressions were used to test for differences in orderings, and content analysis to categorize the (...)
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  • Priority to the Young or to Those with Least Lifetime Health?Ole Frithjof Norheim - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics 10 (4):60 – 61.
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  • Complete Lives in the Balance.Samuel J. Kerstein & Greg Bognar - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics 10 (4):37 – 45.
    The allocation of scarce health care resources such as flu treatment or organs for transplant presents stark problems of distributive justice. Persad, Wertheimer, and Emanuel have recently proposed a novel system for such allocation. Their “complete lives system” incorporates several principles, including ones that prescribe saving the most lives, preserving the most life-years, and giving priority to persons between 15 and 40 years old. This paper argues that the system lacks adequate moral foundations. Persad and colleagues' defense of giving priority (...)
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  • First Come, First Served?Tyler M. John & Joseph Millum - 2020 - Ethics 130 (2):179-207.
    Waiting time is widely used in health and social policy to make resource allocation decisions, yet no general account of the moral significance of waiting time exists. We provide such an account. We argue that waiting time is not intrinsically morally significant, and that the first person in a queue for a resource does not ipso facto have a right to receive that resource first. However, waiting time can and sometimes should play a role in justifying allocation decisions. First, there (...)
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  • Bursting Bubbles? QALYs and Discrimination.Ben Davies - 2019 - Utilitas 31 (2):191-202.
    The use of Quality-Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) in healthcare allocation has been criticized as discriminatory against people with disabilities. This article considers a response to this criticism from Nick Beckstead and Toby Ord. They say that even if QALYs are discriminatory, attempting to avoid discrimination – when coupled with other central principles that an allocation system should favour – sometimes leads to irrationality in the form of cyclic preferences. I suggest that while Beckstead and Ord have identified a problem, it (...)
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  • Autonomous Driving Ethics: From Trolley Problem to Ethics of Risk.Maximilian Geisslinger, Franziska Poszler, Johannes Betz, Christoph Lütge & Markus Lienkamp - forthcoming - Philosophy and Technology:1-23.
    In 2017, the German ethics commission for automated and connected driving released 20 ethical guidelines for autonomous vehicles. It is now up to the research and industrial sectors to enhance the development of autonomous vehicles based on such guidelines. In the current state of the art, we find studies on how ethical theories can be integrated. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, no framework for motion planning has yet been published which allows for the true implementation of any practical (...)
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  • Between Hoping to Die and Longing to Live Longer.Christopher S. Wareham - 2021 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 43 (2):1-20.
    Drawing on Ezekiel Emanuel’s controversial piece ‘Why I hope to die at 75,’ I distinguish two types of concern in ethical debates about extending the human lifespan. The first focusses on the value of living longer from prudential and social perspectives. The second type of concern, which has received less attention, focusses on the value of aiming for longer life. This distinction, which is overlooked in the ethical literature on life extension, is significant because there are features of human psychology (...)
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  • One and Done? Equality of Opportunity and Repeated Access to Scarce, Indivisible Medical Resources.Marco D. Huesch - 2012 - BMC Medical Ethics 13 (1):11.
    Background: Existing ethical guidelines recommend that, all else equal, past receipt of a medical resource (e.g. a scarce organ) should not be considered in current allocation decisions (e.g. a repeat transplantation).DiscussionOne stated reason for this ethical consensus is that formal theories of ethics and justice do not persuasively accept or reject repeated access to the same medical resources. Another is that restricting attention to past receipt of a particular medical resource seems arbitrary: why couldn't one just as well, it is (...)
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  • Opportunity Costs Pacifism.James Pattison - 2020 - Law and Philosophy 39 (5):545-576.
    If the resources used to wage wars could be spent elsewhere and save more lives, does this mean that wars are unjustified? This article considers this question, which has been largely overlooked by Just War Theorists and pacifists. It focuses on whether the opportunity costs of war lead to a form of pacifism, which it calls ‘Opportunity Costs Pacifism’. The article argues that Opportunity Costs Pacifism is, at the more ideal level, compelling. It suggests that the only plausible response to (...)
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  • Against ‘Saving Lives’: Equal Concern and Differential Impact.Richard Yetter Chappell - 2016 - Bioethics 30 (3):159-164.
    Bioethicists often present ‘saving lives’ as a goal distinct from, and competing with, that of extending lives by as much as possible. I argue that this usage of the term is misleading, and provides unwarranted rhetorical support for neglecting the magnitudes of the harms and benefits at stake in medical allocation decisions, often to the detriment of the young. Equal concern for all persons requires weighting equal interests equally, but not all individuals have an equal interest in ‘life-saving’ treatment.
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  • Balancing Principles, QALYs and the Straw Men of Resource Allocation.John McMillan & Tony Hope - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics 10 (4):48 – 50.
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  • The Seminal Contribution of Rabbi Moshe Feinstein to the Development of Modern Jewish Medical Ethics.Alan Jotkowitz - 2014 - Journal of Religious Ethics 42 (2):285-309.
    The purpose of this essay is to show how, on a wide variety of issues, Rabbi Moshe Feinstein broke new ground with the established Orthodox rabbinic consensus and blazed a new trail in Jewish medical ethics. Rabbi Feinstein took power away from the rabbis and let patients decide their treatment, he opened the door for a Jewish approach to palliative care, he supported the use of new technologies to aid in reproduction, he endorsed altruistic living organ donation and recognized brain (...)
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  • Medical Need: Evaluating a Conceptual Critique of Universal Health Coverage.Lynette Reid - 2017 - Health Care Analysis 25 (2):114-137.
    Some argue that the concept of medical need is inadequate to inform the design of a universal health care system—particularly an institutional rather than a residual system. They argue that the concept contradicts the idea of comprehensiveness; leads to unsustainable expenditures; is too indeterminate for policy; and supports only a prioritarian distribution. I argue that ‘comprehensive’ understood as ‘including the full continuum of care’ and ‘medically necessary’ understood as ‘prioritized by medical criteria’ are not contradictory, and that UHC is a (...)
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  • Challenges for Principles of Need in Health Care.Niklas Juth - 2015 - Health Care Analysis 23 (1):73-87.
    What challenges must a principle of need for prioritisations in health care meet in order to be plausible and practically useful? Some progress in answering this question has recently been made by Hope, Østerdal and Hasman. This article continue their work by suggesting that the characteristic feature of principles of needs is that they are sufficientarian, saying that we have a right to a minimally acceptable or good life or health, but nothing more. Accordingly, principles of needs must answer two (...)
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  • Public Preferences About Fairness and the Ethics of Allocating Scarce Medical Interventions.Govind Persad - 2017 - In Meng Li & David Tracer (eds.), Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Fairness, Equity, and Justice. pp. 51-65.
    This chapter examines how social- scientific research on public preferences bears on the ethical question of how those resources should in fact be allocated, and explain how social-scientific researchers might find an understanding of work in ethics useful as they design mechanisms for data collection and analysis. I proceed by first distinguishing the methodologies of social science and ethics. I then provide an overview of different approaches to the ethics of allocating scarce medical interventions, including an approach—the complete lives system—which (...)
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  • Severity as a Priority Setting Criterion: Setting a Challenging Research Agenda.Mathias Barra, Mari Broqvist, Erik Gustavsson, Martin Henriksson, Niklas Juth, Lars Sandman & Carl Tollef Solberg - 2019 - Health Care Analysis 1:1-20.
    Priority setting in health care is ubiquitous and health authorities are increasingly recognising the need for priority setting guidelines to ensure efficient, fair, and equitable resource allocation. While cost-effectiveness concerns seem to dominate many policies, the tension between utilitarian and deontological concerns is salient to many, and various severity criteria appear to fill this gap. Severity, then, must be subjected to rigorous ethical and philosophical analysis. Here we first give a brief history of the path to today’s severity criteria in (...)
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  • Resource Allocation During COVID-19: A Focus on Vulnerable Populations.C. De V. Castelyn, I. M. Viljoen, A. Dhai & M. S. Pepper - 2020 - South African Journal of Bioethics and Law 13 (2):83.
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  • Beyond Ventilators and Prematurity: Most Rationing Dilemmas Are Morally Fraught.Anne Sullivan, Sadath Sayeed & Christy L. Cummings - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (7):174-177.
    Volume 20, Issue 7, July 2020, Page 174-177.
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  • A Conceptual Framework for Clearer Ethical Discussions About COVID-19 Response.Govind C. Persad - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (7):98-101.
    In this Commentary, I propose an ethical framework for ethical discussions around the allocation of scarce resources in COVID-19 response. The framework incorporates four principles: beneficence (benefiting people by saving lives or years of life), equality, remedying disadvantage, and recognizing past conduct. I then discuss how the framework interacts with ethical constraints against using people as a mere means and against causing death. The commentary closes by criticizing the equation of deontological ethics with random or first-come, first-served allocation and of (...)
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  • Ethical Challenges Arising in the COVID-19 Pandemic: An Overview From the Association of Bioethics Program Directors (ABPD) Task Force.Amy L. McGuire, Mark P. Aulisio, F. Daniel Davis, Cheryl Erwin, Thomas D. Harter, Reshma Jagsi, Robert Klitzman, Robert Macauley, Eric Racine, Susan M. Wolf, Matthew Wynia & Paul Root Wolpe - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (7):15-27.
    The COVID-19 pandemic has raised a host of ethical challenges, but key among these has been the possibility that health care systems might need to ration scarce critical care resources. Rationing p...
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  • Should Extremely Premature Babies Get Ventilators During the COVID-19 Crisis?Marlyse F. Haward, Annie Janvier, Gregory P. Moore, Naomi Laventhal, Jessica T. Fry & John Lantos - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (7):37-43.
    In a crisis, societal needs take precedence over a patient’s best interests. Triage guidelines, however, differ on whether limited resources should focus on maximizing lives or life-years. Choosing...
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  • Prioritising Access to Pandemic Influenza Vaccine: A Review of the Ethics Literature. [REVIEW]Jane H. Williams & Angus Dawson - 2020 - BMC Medical Ethics 21 (1):1-8.
    Background The world is threatened by future pandemics. Vaccines can play a key role in preventing harm, but there will inevitably be shortages because there is no possibility of advance stockpiling. We therefore need some method of prioritising access. Main text This paper reports a critical interpretative review of the published literature that discusses ethical arguments used to justify how we could prioritise vaccine during an influenza pandemic. We found that the focus of the literature was often on proposing different (...)
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  • The Rule of Rescue: An Investigation Into Age-Related Preferences and the Imperative to Save a Life.Sarah Watters - 2015 - Clinical Ethics 10 (3):70-79.
    The dominant rule of economic evaluation within health care posits that resources are distributed in order to maximize health benefit. There are instances, however, where the public has demonstrated that they do not prefer such an allocation scheme, particularly in the context of life-saving interventions. Objectives Deviations from preferences of maximizing health benefit have important implications on both financial and distributive levels. This study sought to specify the circumstances in which respondent preferences are inconsistent with maximizing health benefit. Methods Ninety (...)
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  • Wir müssen abwägen – aber wie sollen wir abwägen?: Fragen der Moral in einer pandemischen Corona-Krise.Lutz Wingert - 2021 - Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 69 (1):29-66.
    The global Covid-19 crisis raises at least three moral questions, which my contribution answers as follows: Which patient should get treatment according to triage criteria? The patient whose treatment has the best prospect of success. How should we resolve the conflict between public health measures and economic needs? Public health should have priority, but reaches its limits where the individual right to stay afloat through one’s own work is violated. How should we resolve the conflict between public health measures and (...)
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  • 'Playing God Because You Have To': Health Professionals' Narratives of Rationing Care in Humanitarian and Development Work.C. Sinding, L. Schwartz, M. Hunt, L. Redwood-Campbell, L. Elit & J. Ranford - 2010 - Public Health Ethics 3 (2):147-156.
    This article explores the accounts of Canadian-trained health professionals working in humanitarian and development organizations who considered not treating a patient or group of patients because of resource limitations. In the narratives, not treating the patient(s) was sometimes understood as the right thing to do, and sometimes as wrong. In analyzing participants’ narratives we draw attention to how medications and equipment are represented. In one type of narrative, medications and equipment are represented primarily as scarce resources; in another, they are (...)
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  • The Ethics of the Reuse of Disposable Medical Supplies.Anjan Kumar Das, Taketoshi Okita, Aya Enzo & Atsushi Asai - 2020 - Asian Bioethics Review 12 (2):103-116.
    The use of single-use items is now ubiquitous in medical practice. Because of the high costs of these items, the practice of reusing them after sterilisation is also widespread especially in resource-poor economies. However, the ethics of reusing disposable items remain unclear. There are several analogous conditions, which could shed light on the ethics of reuse of disposables. These include the use of restored kidney transplantation and the use of generic drugs etc. The ethical issues include the question of patient (...)
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  • Incorporating Stakeholder Perspectives on Scarce Resource Allocation: Lessons Learned From Policymaking in a Time of Crisis.Bethany Bruno, Heather Mckee Hurwitz, Marybeth Mercer, Hilary Mabel, Lauren Sankary, Georgina Morley, Paul J. Ford, Cristie Cole Horsburgh & Susannah L. Rose - 2021 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 30 (2):390-402.
    The coronavirus disease crisis provoked an organizational ethics dilemma: how to develop ethical pandemic policy while upholding our organizational mission to deliver relationship- and patient-centered care. Tasked with producing a recommendation about whether healthcare workers and essential personnel should receive priority access to limited medical resources during the pandemic, the bioethics department and survey and interview methodologists at our institution implemented a deliberative approach that included the perspectives of healthcare professionals and patient stakeholders in the policy development process. Involving the (...)
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  • The Challenge of Selecting Participants Fairly in High-Demand Clinical Trials.Annette Rid, Saskia Hendriks & Alexander A. Iyer - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (2):35-38.
    Volume 20, Issue 2, February 2020, Page 35-38.
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  • Clinical Research Subject Selection During Public Health Disasters: Reconceptualizing Fairness in a Global Ethical Context.Ikeolu O. Afolabi, Stephen O. Sodeke & Michael O. S. Afolabi - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (2):38-41.
    Volume 20, Issue 2, February 2020, Page 38-41.
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  • Public Preference for Allocation of Donated Livers for Transplantation: A Conjoint Analysis.Ahmad Danesh, Fariba Asghari, Hojjat Zeraati, Kamran Yazdani, Saharnaz Nedjat, Mohammad-Ali Mansournia, Ali Jafarian & Akbar Fotouhi - 2016 - Clinical Ethics 11 (4):176-181.
    Despite the fact that the criteria for allocation of donated livers have been laid down for years, these criteria may not help to select a potential recipient from those with the same medical requirements. This study used conjoint analysis method to determine the importance of certain non-medical factors from the public’s point of view. Through a population based study, a sample of 899 randomly selected persons filled a questionnaire where in each question the respondents had to choose one out of (...)
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  • Currents in Contemporary Bioethics.Mark A. Rothstein - 2012 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (2):394-400.
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  • Currents in Contemporary Ethics.Mark A. Rothstein - 2010 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 38 (2):412-419.
    The 2009 pandemic of influenza A was relatively mild, but a subsequent outbreak of pandemic influenza could be much worse. According to projections from the Department of Health and Human Services, the potential health consequences of a severe influenza pandemic in the United States could be literally overwhelming: up to 1.9 million deaths; 90 million people sick; 45 million people needing outpatient care; 9.9 million people hospitalized, of whom 1.485 million would need treatment in an intensive care unit ; and (...)
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  • We Need to Talk About Rationing: The Need to Normalize Discussion About Healthcare Rationing in a Post COVID-19 Era.Neera Bhatia - 2020 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 17 (4):731-735.
    The global COVID-19 pandemic has brought the issue of rationing finite healthcare resources to the fore. There has been much academic debate, media attention, and conversation in the homes of everyday individuals about the allocation of medical resources, diagnostic testing kits, ventilators, and personal protective equipment. Yet decisions to prioritize treatment for some individuals over others occur implicitly and explicitly in everyday practices. The pandemic has propelled the socially taboo and unavoidably prickly issue of healthcare rationing into the public spotlight—and (...)
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  • Prioritization of Referrals in Outpatient Physiotherapy Departments in Québec and Implications for Equity in Access.Simon Deslauriers, Marie-Hélène Raymond, Maude Laliberté, Anne Hudon, François Desmeules, Debbie E. Feldman & Kadija Perreault - unknown
    In the context of long waiting time to access rehabilitation services, a large majority of settings use referral prioritization to help manage waiting lists. Prioritization practices vary greatly between settings and there is little consensus on how best to prioritize referrals. This paper describes the prioritization processes for physiotherapy services in Québec and its potential implications in terms of equity in access to services. This is a secondary analysis of a survey of outpatient physiotherapy departments conducted in 2015 across publicly (...)
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  • Benefit in liver transplantation: a survey among medical staff, patients, medical students and non-medical university staff and students.Christine Englschalk, Daniela Eser, Ralf J. Jox, Alexander Gerbes, Lorenz Frey, Derek A. Dubay, Martin Angele, Manfred Stangl, Bruno Meiser, Jens Werner & Markus Guba - 2018 - BMC Medical Ethics 19 (1):7.
    The allocation of any scarce health care resource, especially a lifesaving resource, can create profound ethical and legal challenges. Liver transplant allocation currently is based upon urgency, a sickest-first approach, and does not utilize capacity to benefit. While urgency can be described reasonably well with the MELD system, benefit encompasses multiple dimensions of patients’ well-being. Currently, the balance between both principles is ill-defined. This survey with 502 participants examines how urgency and benefit are weighted by different stakeholders. Liver transplant patients (...)
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  • Vulnerability Identified in Clinical Practice: A Qualitative Analysis.Laura Sossauer, Mélinée Schindler & Samia Hurst - 2019 - BMC Medical Ethics 20 (1):1-10.
    Background Although it is the moral duty of physicians to protect vulnerable patients, there are no data on how vulnerability is perceived in clinical practice. This study explores how physicians classify someone as “vulnerable”. Method Thirty-three physicians were initially questioned about resource allocation problems in their work. The results of these interviews were examined with qualitative study software to identify characteristics associated with vulnerability in patients. Data were conceptualized, classified and cross-linked to highlight the major determinants of vulnerability. The findings (...)
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  • Disability Discrimination, Medical Rationing and COVID-19.Bo Chen & Donna Marie McNamara - 2020 - Asian Bioethics Review 12 (4):511-518.
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  • A Costly Separation Between Withdrawing and Withholding Treatment in Intensive Care.Dominic Wilkinson & Julian Savulescu - 2014 - Bioethics 28 (3):127-137.
    Ethical analyses, professional guidelines and legal decisions support the equivalence thesis for life-sustaining treatment: if it is ethical to withhold treatment, it would be ethical to withdraw the same treatment. In this paper we explore reasons why the majority of medical professionals disagree with the conclusions of ethical analysis. Resource allocation is considered by clinicians to be a legitimate reason to withhold but not to withdraw intensive care treatment. We analyse five arguments in favour of non-equivalence, and find only relatively (...)
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