Switch to: Citations

Add references

You must login to add references.
  1. Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Values in Science: Rethinking the Dichotomy.Helen E. Longino - 1996 - In Lynn Hankinson Nelson & Jack Nelson (eds.), Feminism, Science, and the Philosophy of Science. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 39--58.
    Underdetermination arguments support the conclusion that no amount of empirical data can uniquely determine theory choice. The full content of a theory outreaches those elements of it (the observational elements) that can be shown to be true (or in agreement with actual observations).2 A number of strategies have been developed to minimize the threat such arguments pose to our aspirations to scientific knowledge. I want to focus on one such strategy: the invocation of additional criteria drawn from a pool of (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   88 citations  
  • Pre-Theoretical Assumptions in Evolutionary Explanations of Female Sexuality.Elisabeth A. Lloyd - 1993 - Philosophical Studies 69 (2-3):139-153.
    My contribution to this Symposium focuses on the links between sexuality and reproduction from the evolutionary point of view.' The relation between women's sexuality and reproduction is particularly importantb ecause of a vital intersectionb etweenp olitics and biology feminists have noticed, for more than a century, that women's identity is often defined in terms of her reproductive capacity. More recently, in the second wave of the feminist movement in the United States, debates about women'si dentityh ave explicitlyi ncludeds exuality;m uch (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   21 citations  
  • A Tapestry of Values: An Introduction to Values in Science.Kevin C. Elliott - 2017 - Oxford University Press USA.
    The role of values in scientific research has become an important topic of discussion in both scholarly and popular debates. Pundits across the political spectrum worry that research on topics like climate change, evolutionary theory, vaccine safety, and genetically modified foods has become overly politicized. At the same time, it is clear that values play an important role in science by limiting unethical forms of research and by deciding what areas of research have the greatest relevance for society. Deciding how (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   48 citations  
  • Science, Policy, and the Value-Free Ideal.Heather Douglas - 2009 - University of Pittsburgh Press.
    Douglas proposes a new ideal in which values serve an essential function throughout scientific inquiry, but where the role values play is constrained at key points, protecting the integrity and objectivity of science.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   301 citations  
  • Inductive Risk and Values in Science.Heather Douglas - 2000 - Philosophy of Science 67 (4):559-579.
    Although epistemic values have become widely accepted as part of scientific reasoning, non-epistemic values have been largely relegated to the "external" parts of science (the selection of hypotheses, restrictions on methodologies, and the use of scientific technologies). I argue that because of inductive risk, or the risk of error, non-epistemic values are required in science wherever non-epistemic consequences of error should be considered. I use examples from dioxin studies to illustrate how non-epistemic consequences of error can and should be considered (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   232 citations  
  • Science as Social Knowledge: Values and Objectivity in Scientific Inquiry.Helen E. Longino (ed.) - 1990 - Princeton University Press.
    This is an important book precisely because there is none other quite like it.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   685 citations  
  • Experimentation by Industrial Selection.Bennett Holman & Justin Bruner - 2017 - Philosophy of Science 84 (5):1008-1019.
    Industry is a major source of funding for scientific research. There is also a growing concern for how it corrupts researchers faced with conflicts of interest. As such, the debate has focused on whether researchers have maintained their integrity. In this article we draw on both the history of medicine and formal modeling to argue that given methodological diversity and a merit-based system, industry funding can bias a community without corrupting any particular individual. We close by considering a policy solution (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   26 citations  
  • Experience and Prediction: An Analysis of the Foundations and the Structure of Knowledge.Hans Reichenbach - 1938 - Chicago, IL, USA: University of Chicago Press.
    First published in 1949 expressly to introduce logical positivism to English speakers. Reichenbach, with Rudolph Carnap, founded logical positivism, a form of epistemofogy that privileged scientific over metaphysical truths.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   333 citations  
  • Laws and Symmetry.Bas C. van Fraassen - 1989 - Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
    Metaphysicians speak of laws of nature in terms of necessity and universality; scientists, in terms of symmetry and invariance. In this book van Fraassen argues that no metaphysical account of laws can succeed. He analyzes and rejects the arguments that there are laws of nature, or that we must believe there are, and argues that we should disregard the idea of law as an adequate clue to science. After exploring what this means for general epistemology, the author develops the empiricist (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   633 citations  
  • Experience and Prediction. An Analysis of the Foundations and the Structure of Knowledge. [REVIEW]E. N. & Hans Reichenbach - 1938 - Journal of Philosophy 35 (10):270.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   292 citations  
  • Feminism, Underdetermination, and Values in Science.Kristen Intemann - 2005 - Philosophy of Science 72 (5):1001-1012.
    Several feminist philosophers of science have tried to open up the possibility that feminist ethical or political commitments could play a positive role in good science by appealing to the Duhem-Quine thesis and underdetermination of theories by observation. I examine several different interpretations of the claim that feminist values could play a legitimate role in theory justification and show that none of them follow from a logical gap between theory and observation. Finally, I sketch an alternative approach for defending the (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   31 citations  
  • The Best Explanation: Criteria for Theory Choice.Paul R. Thagard - 1978 - Journal of Philosophy 75 (2):76-92.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   202 citations  
  • The Inference to the Best Explanation.Gilbert H. Harman - 1965 - Philosophical Review 74 (1):88-95.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   421 citations  
  • Abduction.Igorn D. Douven - 2011 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Most philosophers agree that abduction (in the sense of Inference to the Best Explanation) is a type of inference that is frequently employed, in some form or other, both in everyday and in scientific reasoning. However, the exact form as well as the normative status of abduction are still matters of controversy. This entry contrasts abduction with other types of inference; points at prominent uses of it, both in and outside philosophy; considers various more or less precise statements of it; (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   96 citations  
  • Social Empiricism.Miriam Solomon - 2001 - Cambridge, MA, USA: MIT Press.
    For the last forty years, two claims have been at the core of disputes about scientific change: that scientists reason rationally and that science is progressive. For most of this time discussions were polarized between philosophers, who defended traditional Enlightenment ideas about rationality and progress, and sociologists, who espoused relativism and constructivism. Recently, creative new ideas going beyond the polarized positions have come from the history of science, feminist criticism of science, psychology of science, and anthropology of science. Addressing the (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   64 citations  
  • Inference to the Best Explanation.Peter Lipton - 2007 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 74 (2):421-423.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   371 citations  
  • The Structure of Scientific Revolutions.Thomas Samuel Kuhn - 1962 - Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    A scientific community cannot practice its trade without some set of received beliefs. These beliefs form the foundation of the "educational initiation that prepares and licenses the student for professional practice". The nature of the "rigorous and rigid" preparation helps ensure that the received beliefs are firmly fixed in the student's mind. Scientists take great pains to defend the assumption that scientists know what the world is like...To this end, "normal science" will often suppress novelties which undermine its foundations. Research (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2692 citations  
  • The Heuristic Conception of Inference to the Best Explanation.Finnur Dellsén - 2018 - Philosophical Studies 175 (7):1745-1766.
    An influential suggestion about the relationship between Bayesianism and inference to the best explanation holds that IBE functions as a heuristic to approximate Bayesian reasoning. While this view promises to unify Bayesianism and IBE in a very attractive manner, important elements of the view have not yet been spelled out in detail. I present and argue for a heuristic conception of IBE on which IBE serves primarily to locate the most probable available explanatory hypothesis to serve as a working hypothesis (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   9 citations  
  • Objectivity, Value Judgment, and Theory Choice.Thomas S. Kuhn - 1977 - In The Essential Tension: Selected Studies in Scientific Tradition and Change. University of Chicago Press. pp. 320--39.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   333 citations  
  • Bayes or Bust? A Critical Examination of Bayesian Confirmation Theory.John Earman - 1992 - MIT Press.
    There is currently no viable alternative to the Bayesian analysis of scientific inference, yet the available versions of Bayesianism fail to do justice to several aspects of the testing and confirmation of scientific hypotheses. Bayes or Bust? provides the first balanced treatment of the complex set of issues involved in this nagging conundrum in the philosophy of science. Both Bayesians and anti-Bayesians will find a wealth of new insights on topics ranging from Bayes’s original paper to contemporary formal learning theory.In (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   215 citations  
  • The Fate of Knowledge.Helen E. Longino - 2001 - Princeton University Press.
    "--Richard Grandy, Rice University "This is the first compelling diagnosis of what has gone awry in the raging 'science wars.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   394 citations  
  • The Manufacture of Knowledge: An Essay on the Constructivist and Contextual Nature of Science.K. D. KNORR-CETINA - 1981 - Pergamon Press.
    The anthropological approach is the central focus of this study. Laboratories are looked upon with the innocent eye of the traveller in exotic lands, and the societies found in these places are observed with the objective yet compassionate eye of the visitor from a quite other cultural milieu. There are many surprises that await us if we enter a laboratory in this frame of mind... This study is a realistic enterprise, an attempt to truly represent the social order of life (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   243 citations  
  • String Theory and the Scientific Method.Richard Dawid - 2013 - Cambridge University Press.
    String theory has played a highly influential role in theoretical physics for nearly three decades and has substantially altered our view of the elementary building principles of the Universe. However, the theory remains empirically unconfirmed, and is expected to remain so for the foreseeable future. So why do string theorists have such a strong belief in their theory? This book explores this question, offering a novel insight into the nature of theory assessment itself. Dawid approaches the topic from a unique (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   70 citations  
  • Some Problems for Bayesian Confirmation Theory.Charles S. Chihara - 1987 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 38 (4):551-560.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   18 citations  
  • Notes on Bayesian Confirmation Theory.Michael Strevens -
    Bayesian confirmation theory—abbreviated to in these notes—is the predominant approach to confirmation in late twentieth century philosophy of science. It has many critics, but no rival theory can claim anything like the same following. The popularity of the Bayesian approach is due to its flexibility, its apparently effortless handling of various technical problems, the existence of various a priori arguments for its validity, and its injection of subjective and contextual elements into the process of confirmation in just the places where (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   20 citations  
  • The Scientist Q Ua Scientist Makes Value Judgments.Richard Rudner - 1953 - Philosophy of Science 20 (1):1-6.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   262 citations  
  • The No Alternatives Argument.Richard Dawid, Stephan Hartmann & Jan Sprenger - 2015 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 66 (1):213-234.
    Scientific theories are hard to find, and once scientists have found a theory, H, they often believe that there are not many distinct alternatives to H. But is this belief justified? What should scientists believe about the number of alternatives to H, and how should they change these beliefs in the light of new evidence? These are some of the questions that we will address in this article. We also ask under which conditions failure to find an alternative to H (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   41 citations  
  • Scientific Discovery: Logic and Tinkering.Aharon Kantorovich - 1993 - State University of New York Press.
    The main message of this volume is that the creative process of discovery is not a purely rational enterprise in the traditional sense which equates rationality with logical reasoning, yet it is a manifestation of a universal phenomenon ...
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   45 citations  
  • The Structure of Scientific Revolutions.David Bohm - 1964 - Philosophical Quarterly 14 (57):377-379.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1155 citations  
  • Gender and the Biological Sciences.Kathleen Okruhlik - 1994 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 24 (sup1):21-42.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   46 citations  
  • Science and Human Values.Carl G. Hempel - 1965 - In Aspects of Scientific Explanation and Other Essays in the Philosophy of Science. The Free Press. pp. 81-96.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   71 citations  
  • How Values in Scientific Discovery and Pursuit Alter Theory Appraisal.Kevin C. Elliott & Daniel J. McKaughan - 2009 - Philosophy of Science 76 (5):598-611.
    Philosophers of science readily acknowledge that nonepistemic values influence the discovery and pursuit of scientific theories, but many tend to regard these influences as epistemically uninteresting. The present paper challenges this position by identifying three avenues through which nonepistemic values associated with discovery and pursuit in contemporary pollution research influence theory appraisal: (1) by guiding the choice of questions and research projects, (2) by altering experimental design, and (3) by affecting the creation and further investigation of theories or hypotheses. This (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   23 citations  
  • The Case of the Female Orgasm: Bias in the Science of Evolution.Letitia Meynell - 2007 - Hypatia 22 (3):218-222.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   37 citations  
  • Theory and Evidence.Clark Glymour - 1981 - Philosophy of Science 48 (3):498-500.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   227 citations  
  • New Theory About Old Evidence. A Framework for Open-Minded Bayesianism.Sylvia9 Wenmackers & Jan-Willem Romeijn - 2016 - Synthese 193 (4).
    We present a conservative extension of a Bayesian account of confirmation that can deal with the problem of old evidence and new theories. So-called open-minded Bayesianism challenges the assumption—implicit in standard Bayesianism—that the correct empirical hypothesis is among the ones currently under consideration. It requires the inclusion of a catch-all hypothesis, which is characterized by means of sets of probability assignments. Upon the introduction of a new theory, the former catch-all is decomposed into a new empirical hypothesis and a new (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   11 citations  
  • Abductively Robust Inference.Finnur Dellsén - 2017 - Analysis 77 (1):20-29.
    Inference to the Best Explanation (IBE) is widely criticized for being an unreliable form of ampliative inference – partly because the explanatory hypotheses we have considered at a given time may all be false, and partly because there is an asymmetry between the comparative judgment on which an IBE is based and the absolute verdict that IBE is meant to license. In this paper, I present a further reason to doubt the epistemic merits of IBE and argue that it motivates (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  • Probabilities for New Theories.Patrick Maher - 1995 - Philosophical Studies 77 (1):103 - 115.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  • Theory and Evidence.Paul Horwich - 1982 - Journal of Philosophy 79 (12):775-781.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   21 citations  
  • Philosophy of Natural Science.Carl G. Hempel - 1967 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 18 (1):70-72.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   427 citations  
  • A Mind of One's Own: Feminist Essays on Reason and Objectivity.[author unknown] - 1993 - Hypatia 8 (4):140-149.
    The contributors to two new anthologies A Mind of One's Own: Feminist Essays on Reason and Objectivity and Feminist Epistemologies are philosophers for whom feminism is an intellectual as well as political commitment and they produce original, valuable feminist and philosophical work. I focus on differences between the anthologies and on two themes: the social character of knowledge and the allegedly oppressive "masculinism" of epistemological ideals.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   41 citations  
  • Theory and Evidence.Clark Glymour - 1982 - Erkenntnis 18 (1):105-130.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   91 citations  
  • Social Empiricism.Miriam Solomon - 2005 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 70 (2):495-498.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   95 citations  
  • Social Empiricism.Miriam Solomon - 2003 - Philosophy 78 (303):132-136.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   84 citations  
  • Theory and Reality. An Introduction to the Philosophy of Science.Peter Godfrey-Smith - 2005 - Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 67 (2):393-394.
    Download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   79 citations