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Truthmakers, Truthbearers and the Objectivity of Truth

In Jaako Hintikka (ed.), Philosophy and Logic: In Search of the Polish Tradition. Boston: Kluwer. pp. 229-268 (2003)

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  1. Truth-Makers.Kevin Mulligan, Peter Simons & Barry Smith - 1984 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 44 (3):287-321.
    A realist theory of truth for a class of sentences holds that there are entities in virtue of which these sentences are true or false. We call such entities ‘truthmakers’ and contend that those for a wide range of sentences about the real world are moments (dependent particulars). Since moments are unfamiliar, we provide a definition and a brief philosophical history, anchoring them in our ontology by showing that they are objects of perception. The core of our theory is the (...)
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  • Sachverhalt.Barry Smith - 1992 - In Historisches Wörterbuch der Philosophie, Volume 8. Basel: Schwabe. pp. 1102–1113.
    Both ‘Sachverhalt’ and ‘state of affairs’ seem to have been derived from the juridical ‘status’ in the sense of 'status rerum' meaning: state or constitution of things. ‘Status’ signifies also in an extended sense ‘the way things stand, the condition or peculiarity of a thing in regard to its circumstances, position, order’. We describe the history of usage of ‘Sachverhalt’ from these beginnings, addressing the role of Goclenius, Lotze, Stumpf, Husserl and Adolf Reinach, whose theory of the relations between judgment (...)
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  • On the Cognition of States of Affairs.Barry Smith - 1987 - In Kevin Mulligan (ed.), Speech Act and Sachverhalt: Reinach and the Foundations of Realist Phenomenology. Dordrecht: M. Nijhoff. pp. 189-225.
    The theory of speech acts put forward by Adolf Reinach in his "The A Priori Foundations of the Civil Law" of 1913 rests on a systematic account of the ontological structures associated with various different sorts of language use. One of the most original features of Reinach's account lies in hIs demonstration of how the ontological structure of, say, an action of promising or of commanding, may be modified in different ways, yielding different sorts of non-standard instances of the corresponding (...)
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  • An Essay in Formal Ontology.Barry Smith - 1978 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 6 (1):39-62.
    As conceived by analytic philosophers ontology consists in the application of the methods of mathematical logic to the analysis of ontological discourse. As conceived by realist philosophers such as Meinong and the early Husserl, Reinach and Ingarden, it consists in the investigation of the forms of entities of various types. The suggestion is that formal methods be employed by phenomenological ontologists, and that phenomenological insights may contribute to the construction of adequate formal-ontological languages. The paper sketches an account of what (...)
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  • Parts and Moments. Studies in Logic and Formal Ontology.Barry Smith (ed.) - 1982 - Philosophia Verlag.
    A collection of material on Husserl's Logical Investigations, and specifically on Husserl's formal theory of parts, wholes and dependence and its influence in ontology, logic and psychology. Includes translations of classic works by Adolf Reinach and Eugenie Ginsberg, as well as original contributions by Wolfgang Künne, Kevin Mulligan, Gilbert Null, Barry Smith, Peter M. Simons, Roger A. Simons and Dallas Willard. Documents work on Husserl's ontology arising out of early meetings of the Seminar for Austro-German Philosophy.
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  • On the Origins of Analytic Philosophy. [REVIEW]Barry Smith - 1989 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 35 (1):153-173.
    Analytic philosophers have until recently been reluctant to pursue historical investigations into the Central European roots of their own philosophical tradition. The most recent book by Michael Dummett, however, entitled Origins of Analytic Philosophy, shows how fruitful such investigations can be, not only as a means of coming to see familiar philosophical problems in a new light, but also as a means of clarifying what, precisely, ‘analytic philosophy’ might mean. As Dummett points out, the newly fashionable habit of referring to (...)
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  • Towards a History of Speech Act Theory.Barry Smith - 1990 - In Armin Burkhardt (ed.), Speech Acts, Meanings and Intentions. Critical Approaches to the Philosophy of John R. Searle. New York: de Gruyter. pp. 29--61.
    That uses of language not only can, but even normally do, have the character of actions was a fact largely unrealised by those engaged in the study of language before the present century, at least in the sense that there was lacking any attempt to come to terms systematically with the action-theoretic peculiarities of language use. Where the action-character of linguistic phenomena was acknowledged, it was normally regarded as a peripheral matter, relating to derivative or nonstandard aspects of language which (...)
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  • Sprache und Sinn.Kasimir Ajdukiewicz - 1934 - Erkenntnis 4 (1):100-138.
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  • Frege's Theory of Judgement. [REVIEW]Thomas G. Ricketts - 1984 - Philosophical Review 93 (2):313-315.
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  • Logic and Formal Ontology.Barry Smith - 2000 - Manuscrito 23 (2):275-323.
    Revised version of chapter in J. N. Mohanty and W. McKenna (eds.), Husserl’s Phenomenology: A Textbook, Lanham: University Press of America, 1989, 29–67. -/- Logic for Husserl is a science of science, a science of what all sciences have in common in their modes of validation. Thus logic deals with universal laws relating to truth, to deduction, to verification and falsification, and with laws relating to theory as such, and to what makes for theoretical unity, both on the side of (...)
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  • Questions: An Essay in Daubertian Phenomenology.Karl Schuhmann & Barry Smith - 1987 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 47 (3):353-384.
    A number of logicians and philosophers have turned their attention in recent years to the problem of developing a logic of interrogatives. Their work has thrown a great deal of light on the formal properties of questions and question-sentences and has led also to interesting innovations in our understanding of the structures of performatives in general and, for example, in the theory of presuppositions. When, however, we examine the attempts of logicians such as Belnap or Åqvist to specify what, precisely, (...)
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  • Characteristica Universalis.Barry Smith - 1992 - In Kevin Mulligan (ed.), Language, Truth and Ontology. London: Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 48--77.
    Recent work in formal philosophy has concentrated over-whelmingly on the logical problems pertaining to epistemic shortfall - which is to say on the various ways in which partial and sometimes incorrect information may be stored and processed. A directly depicting language, in contrast, would reflect a condition of epistemic perfection. It would enable us to construct representations not of our knowledge but of the structures of reality itself, in much the way that chemical diagrams allow the representation (at a certain (...)
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  • Truthmaker Realism.Barry Smith - 1999 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 77 (3):274 – 291.
    We take as our starting point a thesis to the effect that, at least for true judgments of many varieties, there are parts of reality which make such judgments are true. We argue that two distinct components are involved in this truthmaker relation. On the one hand is the relation of necessitation, which holds between an object x and a judgment p when the existence of x entails the truth of p. On the other hand is the dual notion of (...)
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  • Logic, Semantics, Metamathematics: Papers From 1923 to 1938.I. Grattan-Guinness - 1956 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 54 (1):281-282.
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  • Frege’s Theory of Judgment.D. Bell - 1981 - Erkenntnis 16 (1):183-190.
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  • Die Intentionalitätstheorie Anton Martys.Arkadiusz Chrudzimski - 2001 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 62 (1):175-214.
    The point of departure for Anton Marty's theory of intentionality is Franz Brentano's ontology of intentionality as outlined in the unpublished manuscript of his logic-lectures from the second half of the 1880's. This rich ontology comprises immanent objects, immanent propositional contents and states of affairs. The late Marty rejects all immanent entities in Brentano's sense and explains intentionality in terms of counterfactualconditionals.However,contraryto the late Brentano,he insists on the indispensability of the category of states of affairs. Consequently Marty can formulate a (...)
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  • Theories of Judgment.Artur Rojszczak & Barry Smith - 2003 - In Thomas Baldwin (ed.), The Cambridge History of Philosophy 1870-1945. Cambridge University Press. pp. 157--173.
    The dominant theory of judgment in 1870 was one or other variety of combination theory: the act of judgment is an act of combining concepts or ideas in the mind of the judging subject. In the decades to follow a succession of alternative theories arose to address defects in the combination theory, starting with Bolzano’s theory of propositions in themselves, Brentano’s theory of judgment as affirmation or denial of existence, theories distinguishing judgment act from judgment content advanced by Brentano’s students (...)
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  • Psychologism -- Substantively Revised.Martin Kusch - 2015 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  • Why Should a Physical Object Take on the Role of Truth-Bearer?Artur Rojszczak - 1999 - Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook 6:115-125.
    The topic of this paper I would like to divide into two other questions than that of its title. The first question is the historical one and sounds like this: Why had Tarski chosen physical objects as truth-bearers in his original work from 1933 about truth in formalized languages?1 This historical problem may be still of importance not only from a historical point of view. Tarski’s truth-definition is still seen as one of undeniable importance for any contemporary philosophical analysis of (...)
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  • Logic, Semantics, Metamathematics Papers From 1923 to 1938.Alfred Tarski & J. H. Woodger - 1956 - Clarendon Press.
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  • Urteilstheorien Und Sachverhalte.Artur Rojszczak & Barry Smith - 2001 - In Satz Und Sachverhalt. Academia Verlag. pp. 9-72.
    The dominant theory of judgment in 1870 was one or other variety of combination theory: the act of judgment is an act of combining concepts or ideas in the mind of the judging subject. In the decades to follow a succession of alternative theories arose to address defects in the combination theory, starting with Bolzano’s theory of propositions in themselves, Brentano’s theory of judgment as affirmation or denial of existence, theories distinguishing judgment act from judgment content advanced by Brentano’s students (...)
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  • On Understanding Leśniewski.Peter M. Simons - 1982 - History and Philosophy of Logic 3 (2):165-191.
    This paper assesses those features of Lesniewski's Ontology which make it difficult to understand for logicians accustomed to more orthodox systems of logic. It is seen that certain general features of presentation and content can, by selective acceptance or modification, be accommodated with a fairly orthodox viewpoint. The chief difficulty lies in the interpretation of Le?niewski's names, and the constant ???. Four interpretations are suggested in turn: Le?niewski's names as monadic predicates; as class terms; as common nouns; and as empty, (...)
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  • Die Lehre vom richtigen Urteil.Franz Brentano - 1956 - Francke.
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  • On the Principle of the Excluded Middle.Jan Łukasiewicz, Jan Woleński & Peter Simons - 1987 - History and Philosophy of Logic 8 (1):67-69.
    The brief article of 1910 which is translated here is, as the prefatory note explains, significant for understanding both the way in which ?ukasiewicz came to many-valued logic and the influences under which he stood at the time.
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  • Zur Einteilung der Wissenschaften.C. Stumpf - 1908 - Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 5 (10):271-275.
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  • Psychologism: The Sociology of Philosophical Knowledge.Martin Kusch - 1995 - Routledge.
    First published in 1995. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
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  • Theories of the Proposition.Gabriël Nuchelmans - 1973 - Amsterdam: North-Holland Pub. Co..
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  • Truth-Bearers From Twardowski to Tarski.Artur Rojszczak - 1998 - In Katarzyna Kijania-Placek & Jan Woleński (eds.), The Lvov-Warsaw School and Contemporary Philosophy. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 73--84.
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  • Logic and Philosophy in the Lvov-Warsaw School.Jan Wole'nski - 1989 - Kluwer Academic Publisher.
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  • Vom Sinnlichen Und Noetischen Bewußtsein.Franz Brentano - 1928 - Meiner.
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  • Über Gegenstände Höherer Ordnung Und Deren Verhältnisse Zur Inneren Wahrnehmung.Alexius Meinong - 1899 - Zeitschrift für Psychologie Und Physiologie Der Sinnesorgane 21:182--272.
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  • Od sądów do zdań. Nosnik prawdy a obiektywizacja wiedzy.Artur Rojszczak - 1997 - Filozofia Nauki 2.
    In the article a historical and systematical presentation of pros and cons of different theories of truth-bearers is contained. Different definitions of truth-bearers are presented. In author's opinion, in the Brentanian tradition metaphysical rather than epistemological arguments for the objectivity of truth are typical.
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  • Nominalism in Poland.Peter Simons - 1993 - In Jan Wolenski, Roberto Poli & Francesco Coniglione (eds.), Polish Scientific Philosophy: The Lvov-Warsaw School. Rodopi. pp. 207-231.
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