Results for '19th Century German Idealism'

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  1.  58
    Selfhood and Relationality.Jacqueline Mariña - 2017 - In Joel Rasmussen, Judith Wolfe & Johannes Zachhuber (eds.), Oxford Handbook for Nineteenth Century Christian Thought. Oxford University Press. pp. 127-142.
    Nineteenth century Christian thought about self and relationality was stamped by the reception of Kant’s groundbreaking revision to the Cartesian cogito. For René Descartes (1596-1650), the self is a thinking thing (res cogitans), a simple substance retaining its unity and identity over time. For Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), on the other hand, consciousness is not a substance but an ongoing activity having a double constitution, or two moments: first, the original activity of consciousness, what Kant would call original apperception, and (...)
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  2. The Role of Skepticism in the Emergence of German Idealism.Michael Baur - 1999 - In Michael Baur & Daniel Dahlstrom (eds.), The Emergence of German Idealism. Washington, DC, USA: pp. 63-91.
    According to Immanuel Kant’s well-known account of his own intellectual development, it was the skeptic David Hume who roused him from his dogmatic slumber. According to some popular accounts of post-Kantian philosophy, it was the soporific speculation of the idealists that quickly returned German philosophy to the Procrustean bed of unverifiable metaphysics, where it dogmatically slept for half of the nineteenth century. This popular picture of post-Kantian German philosophy receives some apparent support from the relevant evidence. After (...)
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  3. Hegel on Saying and Showing.Susan Hahn - 1994 - Journal of Value Inquiry 28 (2):151-168.
    Hegel's most interesting and controversial claims about nonconceptual knowledge arise in contexts of value. This paper examines the relation between nonconceptual and conceptual knowledge in Hegel's Phenomenology, specifically in connection with early Greek aesthetics. I take up Hegel's claim that the ancient Greeks expressed in their myths, religious narratives, sculpture, and artistic materials certain high powered philosophical truths which they shouldn't express in words. I raise a paradox about his claims and show how his claims about ineffable knowledge clash with (...)
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  4. Personal Identity.Jacqueline Mariña - 2008 - In Transformation of the Self in the thought of Schleiermacher. Oxford University Press.
    This is the third chapter of my book Transformation of the self, which covers Schleiermacher's reception of Kant on the problem of personal identity.
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  5.  73
    The Principle of Individuation.Jacqueline Mariña - 2008 - In Transformation of the Self in the thought of Schleiermacher. Oxford University Press.
    This is the second chapter of my book Transformation of the Self. It concerns Schleiermacher's understanding of the principle of individuation, in dialogue with Kant, Jacobi, Leibniz and Spinoza.
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  6.  47
    Where Have All the Monads Gone? Substance and Transcedental Freedom in Schleiermacher.Jacqueline Mariña - 2015 - Journal of Religion 95 (4):477-505.
    This article explores the later Schleiermacher’s metaphysics of substance and what it entails concerning the question of transcendental freedom. I show that in espousing a metaphysics of substance, Schleiermacher also abandoned an understanding of nature as a mere mechanism, a view implying what I call a “state-state view of causation” (“SSV” for short). Adoption of the view of the self as substance was motivated by the primacy of practical and religious concerns in Schleiermacher’s later work: in Christian Faith, an analysis (...)
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  7.  39
    The Philosopher's Stone.Jacqueline Mariña - 2008 - In Transformation of the Self in the thought of Schleiermacher. Oxford University Press.
    This is the first chapter of my book Transformation of the Self in the Thought of Friedrich Schleiermacher. It is a look as some of Schleiermacher's early attempts to critique Kant's ethics, in particular with respect to the idea of transcendental freedom and the problem of act attribution.
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  8. Markus Gabriel: Der Mensch Im Mythos. [REVIEW]Bruce Matthews - 2010 - Internationales Jahrbuch des Deutschen Idealismus 7:293-300.
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  9. The Grounding of Positive Philosophy: The Berlin Lectures.Bruce Matthews - 2007 - SUNY.
    _The first English translation of Schelling’s final “existential system.”_.
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  10. Life as the Schema of Freedom: Schelling’s Organic Form of Philosophy.Bruce Matthews - 2011 - SUNY.
    The life and ideas of F. W. J. Schelling are often overlooked in favor of the more familiar Kant, Fichte, or Hegel. What these three lack, however, is Schelling’s evolving view of philosophy. Where others saw the possibility for a single, unflinching system of thought, Schelling was unafraid to question the foundations of his own ideas. In this book, Bruce Matthews argues that the organic view of philosophy is the fundamental idea behind Schelling’s thought. Focusing in particular on Schelling’s early (...)
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  11.  57
    Relativism in German Idealism, Historicism and Neo-Kantianism.Katherina Kinzel - forthcoming - In Martin Kusch (ed.), Routledge Handbook on Relativism. London: Routladge.
    This chapter traces the development of relativist ideas in nineteenth-century debates about history and historical knowledge. It distinguishes between two contexts in which these ideas first emerged. First, the early-to-mid nineteenth-century encounter between speculative German idealism and professional historiography. Second, the late nineteenth-century debate between hermeneutic philosophy and orthodox Neo-Kantianism. The paper summarizes key differences between these two contexts: in the former, historical ontology and historical methodology formed a unity, in the latter, they came apart. (...)
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  12.  86
    The Age of German Idealism.Robert C. Solomon & Kathleen Marie Higgins (eds.) - 1993 - Routledge.
    The turn of the nineteenth century marked a rich and exciting explosion of philosophical energy and talent. The enormity of the revolution set off in philosophy by Immanuel Kant was comparable, in Kant's own estimation, with the Copernican Revolution that ended the Middle Ages. The movement he set in motion, the fast-moving and often cantankerous dialectic of "German Idealism," inspired some of the most creative philosophers in modern times: including G. W. F. Hegel and Arthur Schopenhauer as (...)
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  13. Frege and German Philosophical Idealism.Nikolay Milkov - 2015 - In Dieter Schott (ed.), Frege: Freund(e) und Feind(e): Proceedings of the International Conference 2013. Logos. pp. 88-104.
    The received view has it that analytic philosophy emerged as a rebellion against the German Idealists (above all Hegel) and their British epigones (the British neo-Hegelians). This at least was Russell’s story: the German Idealism failed to achieve solid results in philosophy. Of course, Frege too sought after solid results. He, however, had a different story to tell. Frege never spoke against Hegel, or Fichte. Similarly to the German Idealists, his sworn enemy was the empiricism (in (...)
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  14.  62
    Euteleology Meets/Needs Idealism.Thomas Schärtl - 2019 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 11 (1):83-116.
    The paper compares the non-standard theistic notion of God as presented by John Bishop and Ken Perszyk in their so-called “euteleological” concept of God with idealistic, especially Hegelian and post-Hegelian, concepts of the divine. Both frameworks not only share striking similarities, based on their guiding intuitions, but also have remarkably parallel problems that have already been discussed in 19th-century speculative German theology in the aftermath of German Idealism. The article offers some proposals to strengthen the (...)
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  15. De la Vida Histórica: Auge y Aporías Del Historicismo Decimonónico.Jethro Masís - 2009 - Konvergencias (21):208-250.
    This study deals with the philosophical problems of historical conscience which arose in conjunction with the wake of 19th century Historicism, whose aim was to do away with the metaphysical presuppositions of German Idealism. The heyday of the historicist movement will be dealt with as well as its vacillating contradictions (its metaphysics).
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  16. Schemes of Historical Method in the Late 19th Century: Cross-References Between Langlois and Seignobos, Bernheim, and Droysen.Arthur Alfaix Assis - 2015 - In Luiz Estevam de Oliveira Fernandes, Luísa Rauter Pereira & Sérgio da Mata (eds.), Contributions to Theory and Comparative History of Historiography German and Brazilian Perspectives. Frankfurt: Peter Lang. pp. 105-125.
    At the end of the 19th century, most professional historians – wherever they existed – deemed history to be a form of knowledge ruled by a method that bears no resemblance with those most commonly traceable in the natural sciences. The bulk of the historian’s task was then frequently regarded as being the application of procedures frequently referred to as ‘historical method’. In the context of such an emerging interest on historical methods and methodology, at least three textbooks (...)
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  17.  87
    Religion and Early German Romanticism.Jacqueline Mariña - forthcoming - In Elizabeth Millan (ed.), Palgrave Handbook of German Romantic Philosophy.
    This paper explores the reception of Kant's understanding of consciousness by both Romantics and Idealists from 1785 to 1799, and traces its impact on the theory of religion. I first look at Kant's understanding of consciousness as developed in the first Critique, and then looks at how figures such as Fichte, Jacobi, Hölderlin, Novalis, and Schleiermacher received this theory of consciousness and its implications for their understanding of religion.
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  18. Kant's Career in German Idealism.Steve Naragon - 2014 - In Matthew Altman (ed.), The Palgrave Handbook of German Idealism. Palgrave-Macmillan. pp. 15-33.
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  19.  78
    Honore de Balzac as a Critic of the 19th Century French Society and Morals.V. Gluchman - 2003 - Filozofia 58 (6):409-425.
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  20.  23
    Legacies of German Idealism: From the Great War to the Analytic-Continental Divide.Andreas Vrahimis - 2015 - Parrhesia 24:83-106.
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  21. All or Nothing: Systematicity, Transcendental Arguments, and Skepticism in German Idealism by Paul W. Franks. [REVIEW]Jacqueline Mariña - 2007 - Zeitschrift für Neuere Theologiegeschichte/Journal for the History of Modern Theology 14 (1):145-149.
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  22.  72
    Review of Ezequiel L Posesorski, Between Reinhold and Fichte: August Ludwig Hülsen's Contribution to the Emergence of German Idealism (Karlsruhe: KIT, 2012).Yitzhak Melamed - 2014 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 52 (2):382-383.
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  23.  35
    Will Dudley, Understanding German Idealism.Meade McCloughan - 2009 - Philosophy in Review 29 (5):326.
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  24.  74
    Evolution of Philosophical Strategies for Interacting with Chaos.Oleksandr Kulyk - 2015 - Dissertation, Oles Honchar Dnipro National University
    After the discoveries of such scholars as J. H. Poincaré, E. N. Lorenz, I. Prigogine, etc. the term ‘chaos’ is used actively by representatives of various scientific fields; however, one important aspect remains uninvestigated: which attitude one should have toward chaotic phenomena. This is a philosophical question and my dissertation aims to find the answer in the history of philosophy, where chaos theme has had its investigators from ancient philosophy to the philosophical theories of the 21st century. My dissertation (...)
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  25.  46
    Review of Thomas Stern (Ed.), The New Cambridge Companion to Nietzsche, Cambridge. [REVIEW]Jonathan Mitchell - forthcoming - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews.
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  26.  26
    Training the Pupilary Vision: Didactic Image, Slides, and Film in the Context of Media of the Late 19th Century.Lucie Česálková - 2011 - Teorie Vědy / Theory of Science 33 (2):251-269.
    The study examines the modes of representation and communication of information through illustrative teaching aids in the 19th century. It focuses primarily on the didactic wall paintings and the tradition of lectures with slides and notes, how could the experience of these types of collectively observed images influence impressions and expectations of early film audiences. Didactic images are here analyzed primarily in terms of their compositional features, but in an effort to explain how processuality penetrated into the didactic (...)
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  27. Frederick Charles Beiser: The Genesis of Neo-Kantianism, 1796-1880. [REVIEW]Matko Globačnik - 2016 - Synthesis Philosophica 31 (1):210-215.
    Review of Frederick Charles Beiser's "The Genesis of Neo-Kantianism, 1796-1880".
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  28. Nietzschean Wholeness.Gabriel Zamosc - forthcoming - In Paul Katsafanas (ed.), Routledge Philosophy Minds: Nietzsche. Routledge.
    In this paper I investigate affinities between Nietzsche’s early philosophy and some aspects of Kant’s moral theory. In so doing, I develop further my reading of Nietzschean wholeness as an ideal that consists in the achievement of cultural—not psychic—integration by pursuing the ennoblement of humanity in oneself and in all. This cultural achievement is equivalent to the procreation of the genius or the perfection of nature. For Nietzsche, the process by means of which we come to realize the genius in (...)
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  29. “Conquerors of The Künlün”? The Schlagintweit Mission to High Asia, 1854–57.Gabriel Finkelstein - 2000 - History of Science 38 (2):179-218.
    Backstory of "The Man Who Would Be King." A meditation on the limits of scientific and historical representation.
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  30. Psychology Without a Soul, Philosophy Without an I: Nietzsche and 19th Century Psychophysics.Pietro Gori - 2015 - In Bartholomew Ryan, Maria Joao Mayer Branco & João Constancio (eds.), Nietzsche and the Problem of Subjectivity. De Gruyter. pp. 166-195.
    Friedrich Nietzsche’s criticism towards the substance-concept „I“ plays an important role in his late thought, and can be properly understood by making reference to the 19th century debate on the scientific psychology. Friedrich Lange and Ernst Mach gave an important contribution to that debate. Both of them developed the ideas of Gustav Fechner, and thought about a „psychology without soul“, i.e. an investigation that gives up with the old metaphysics of substance in dealing with the mind-body problem. In (...)
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  31. A Libertarian Re-Examination of Early 19th-Century Politics in Brazil.Bruno Goncalves Rosi - unknown - Libertarian Papers 8.
    This article offers a libertarian re-examination of Brazilian political history focusing mainly on the first few decades of the 19th century. The article finds two main tendencies lurking behind the various political parties and labels of the time: one, associated mainly with the Conservative Party, leaned dangerously away from the individual liberties advocated by classical liberalism and instead more toward authoritarian forms of government. The other, associated mainly with the Liberal Party, was more libertarian in nature. This article (...)
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  32.  40
    Honoré de Balsac As a Critic of the French Society and Morals of the 19th Century.V. Gluchman - 2003 - Filozofia 58:409-425.
    Analyses of Honoré de Balzac's literary works and their ethical issues, especially concerning his critique of French society and its morals of the 19th century.
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  33.  16
    Translating the Idiom of Oppression: A Genealogical Deconstruction of FIlipinization and the 19th Century Construction of the Modern Philippine Nation.Michael Roland Hernandez - 2019 - Dissertation, Ateneo de Manila University
    This doctoral thesis examines the phenomenon of Filipinization, specifically understood as the ideological construction of a “Filipino identity” or ‘Filipino subject-consciousness” within the highly determinate context provided by the Filipino ilustrado nationalists such as José Rizal, Marcelo H. del Pilar and their fellow propagandists inasmuch as it leads to the nineteenth (19th) century construction of the modern Philippine nation. Utilizing Jacques Derrida’s deconstructive thinking, this study undertakes a genealogical critique engaged on the concrete historical examination of what is (...)
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  34.  14
    The Philosophy of Nature of Kant, Schelling and Hegel.Dieter Wandschneider - 2010 - In Dean Moyar (ed.), The Routledge Companion to Nineteenth Century Philosophy: London, New York. London, New York: Routledge. pp. 64—‘l03.
    The present investigation brings into view the philosophy of nature of German Idealism, a philosophical movement which emerged around the beginning of the nineteenth century. German Idealism appro- priated certain motivations of the Kantian philosophy and developed them further in a "speculative" manner (Engelhardt 1972, 1976, 2002). This powerful philosophical movement, associated above all with the names of Fichte, Schelling and Hegel - and moreover having nothing whatsoever to do with the "subjective idealism" of (...)
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  35. Theism in 19th and 20th Century Intellectual Life.Jacqueline Mariña - 2012 - In Charles Taliaferro, Victoria Harrison & Stewart Goetz (eds.), Routledge Companion to Theism. Routledge.
    This chapter traces how theism was developed by leading 19th and 20th century figures (Schleiermacher, Hegel, Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Rahner, and Tillich) responding to Kant’s Copernican revolution in philosophy. Part one deals with the ontological nature of subjectivity itself and what it reveals about the conditions of the possibility of a subject’s relation to the Absolute. Part two explores the role of subjectivity and interiority in the individual’s relation to God, and part three takes a look at the theme (...)
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  36.  34
    The Expressivist Conception of Language and World: Humboldt and the Charge of Linguistic Idealism and Relativism.Jo-Jo Koo - 2008 - In Jon Burmeister & Mark Sentesy (eds.), On Language: Analytic, Continental and Historical Contributions. Cambridge Scholars Press. pp. 3-26.
    Wilhelm von Humboldt (1767-1835) is rightly regarded as a thinker who extended the development of the so-called expressivist conception of language and world that Johann Georg Hamann (1730-1788) and especially Johann Gottfried Herder (1744-1803) initially articulated. Being immersed as Humboldt was in the intellectual climate of German Romanticism, he aimed not only to provide a systematic foundation for how he believed linguistic research as a science should be conducted, but also to attempt to rectify what he saw as the (...)
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  37. Species, Rules and Meaning: The Politics of Language and the Ends of Definitions in 19th Century Natural History.Gordon R. McOuat - 1996 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 27 (4):473-519.
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  38. Mining Arguments From 19th Century Philosophical Texts Using Topic Based Modelling.John Lawrence, Chris Reed, Simon McAlister, Andrew Ravenscroft, Colin Allen & David Bourget - 2014 - In Proceedings of the First Workshop on Argumentation Mining. Baltimore, USA: pp. 79-87.
    In this paper we look at the manual analysis of arguments and how this compares to the current state of automatic argument analysis. These considerations are used to develop a new approach combining a machine learning algorithm to extract propositions from text, with a topic model to determine argument structure. The results of this method are compared to a manual analysis.
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  39. The Continuing Relevance of 19th-Century Philosophy of Psychology: Brentano and the Autonomy of Psychological Methods.Uljana Feest - 2014 - In M. C. Galavotti & F. Stadler (eds.), New Directions in the Philosophy of Science, The Philosophy of Science in a European Perspective 5. Springer. Springer. pp. 693-709.
    This paper provides an analysis of Franz Brentano’s thesis that psychology employs a distinctive method, which sets it apart from physiology. The aim of the paper is two-fold: First, I situate Brentano’s thesis (and the broader metaphysical system that underwrites it) within the context of specific debates about the nature and status of psychology, arguing that we regard him as engaging in a form of boundary work. Second, I explore the relevance of Brentano’s considerations to more recent debates about autonomy (...)
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  40.  93
    Reflexion of English Morals in the Literature of the 19th Century (Charles Dickens and His Contemporaries).V. Gluchman - 2006 - Filozofia 61 (5):403-423.
    Autor prostredníctvom skúmania literárnych diel Charlesa Dickensa, Williama Makepeaca Thackeryho, George Eliotovej a Thomasa Hardyho vytvára mozaiku viktoriánskej morálky Anglicka 19. storočia. Dospel k záveru, že uvedená doba vôbec nebola taká puritánska, ako si ju zvykneme predstavovať a morálne problémy, ktoré ľudstvo rieši v priebehu svojho vývoja sú vo svojej podstate univerzálne, hoci nie totožné. Líšia sa vo svojich individuálnych podobách, v akých sa s nimi stretávame v jednotlivých obdobiach dejín ľudstva.
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  41.  32
    Spirit and Utopia: (German) Idealism as Political Theology.Kirill Chepurin - 2015 - Crisis and Critique 2 (1):326-348.
    Can we understand (German) idealism as emancipatory today, after the new realist critique? In this paper, I argue that we can do so by identifying a political theology of revolution and utopia at the theoretical heart of German Idealism. First, idealism implies a certain revolutionary event at its foundation. Kant’s Copernicanism is ingrained, methodologically and ontologically, into the idealist system itself. Secondly, this revolutionary origin remains a “non-place” for the idealist system, which thereby receives a (...)
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  42.  56
    Introduction: German Idealism and Normativity.Brian O’Connor - 2009 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 17 (1):3 – 7.
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  43. Ways of Forgetting and Remembering the Eloquence of the 19th Century: Editors of Romanian Political Speeches.Roxana Patraș - 2016 - Symposion: Theoretical and Applied Inquiries in Philosophy and Social Sciences 3 (1):105-115.
    The paper presents a critical evaluation of the existing anthologies of Romanian oratory and analyzes the pertinence of a new research line: how to trace back the foundations of Romanian versatile political memory, both from a lexical and from an ideological point of view. As I argue in the first part of the paper, collecting and editing the great speeches of Romanian orators seems crucial for today’s understanding of politics (politicians’ speaking/ actions as well as voters’ behavior/ electoral habits). In (...)
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  44. Proofs Are Programs: 19th Century Logic and 21st Century Computing.Philip Wadler - manuscript
    As the 19th century drew to a close, logicians formalized an ideal notion of proof. They were driven by nothing other than an abiding interest in truth, and their proofs were as ethereal as the mind of God. Yet within decades these mathematical abstractions were realized by the hand of man, in the digital stored-program computer. How it came to be recognized that proofs and programs are the same thing is a story that spans a century, a (...)
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  45. On Diffident and Dissident Practices: A Picture of Romania at the End of the 19th Century.Roxana Patraș - 2015 - Symposion: Theoretical and Applied Inquiries in Philosophy and Social Sciences 2 (1):35-51.
    The present paper explores diffident and dissident practices reflected by the political talk at the end of the 19th-century in Romania. Relying on Jacques Rancière’s theories on the ‘aesthetic regime of politics,’ the introduction sketches a historical frame and proposes a focus change: the relation between ‘politics’ and ‘aesthetics’ does not stand on a set of literary cases, but on political scripts as such. Thus, the hypotheses investigated by the next three parts can be formulated as follows: 1. (...)
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  46.  77
    Maimon’s ‘Law of Determinability’ and the Impossibility of Shared Attributes.Yitzhak Melamed - forthcoming - Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale.
    Apart from his critique of Kant, Maimon’s significance for the history of philosophy lies in his crucial role in the rediscovery of Spinoza by the German Idealists. Specifically, Maimon initiated a change from the common eighteenth-century view of Spinoza as the great ‘atheist’ to the view of Spinoza as an ‘acosmist’, i.e., a thinker who propounded a deep, though unorthodox, religious view denying the reality of the world and taking God to be the only real being. I have (...)
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  47.  65
    Hegel and Hermeneutics.Michael Baur - 2014 - In G.W.F. Hegel: Key Concepts. New York, USA: Routledge. pp. 208-221.
    Understood in its widest sense, the term “hermeneutics” can be taken to refer to the theory and/or practice of any interpretation aimed at uncovering the meaning of any expression, regardless of whether such expression was produced by a human or non-human source. Understood in a narrower sense, the term “hermeneutics” can be taken to refer to a particular stream of thought regarding the theory and/or practice of interpretation, developed mainly by German-speaking theorists from the late eighteenth through to the (...)
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  48. German Philosophers: Kant, Hegel, Schelling, Nietzsche, and Heidegger.Daniel Fidel Ferrer - 2011 - archive.org.
    German Philosophers: Kant, Hegel, Schelling, Nietzsche, and Heidegger By Daniel Fidel Ferrer. -/- Includes bibliographical references. Index. 1. Ontology. 2. Metaphysics. 3. Philosophy, German. 4.Thought and thinking. 5. Kant, Immanuel, 1724-1804. 6. Schelling, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von, 1775-1854. 7. Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich, 1770-1831. 8. Philosophy, Asian. 9. Philosophy, Indic. 10. Philosophy, Modern -- 20th century. 11. Philosophy, Modern -- 19th century. 12. Practice (Philosophy). 13. Philosophy and civilization. 14. Postmodernism. 15. Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm, 1844-1900. (...)
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  49.  28
    Goltz Against Cerebral Localization: Methodology and Experimental Practices.J. P. Gamboa - forthcoming - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences:101304.
    In the late 19th century, physiologists such as David Ferrier, Eduard Hitzig, and Hermann Munk argued that cerebral brain functions are localized in discrete structures. By the early 20th century, this became the dominant position. However, another prominent physiologist, Friedrich Goltz, rejected theories of cerebral localization and argued against these physiologists until his death in 1902. I argue in this paper that previous historical accounts have failed to comprehend why Goltz rejected cerebral localization. I show that Goltz (...)
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  50. Nietzsche as Phenomenalist?Pietro Gori - 2012 - In Marco Brusotti, Günter Abel & Helmut Heit (eds.), Nietzsches Wissenschaftsphilosophie. Berlin/Boston: deGruyter. pp. 345-356.
    During the second decade of the 20th century Hans Kleinpeter, an Austrian scholar devoted to the development of the modern science, published some brief papers on Nietzsche’s thought. Kleinpeter has been one of the main upholders of Mach’s epistemology and probably the first who connected his ideas with the philosophy of Nietzsche. In his book on Der Phänomenalismus (1913) he described a new world view that arose in the 19th century, a perspective that ‒ according to him (...)
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