Results for 'AI drawings'

999 found
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  1. Making AI Meaningful Again.Jobst Landgrebe & Barry Smith - 2021 - Synthese 198 (March):2061-2081.
    Artificial intelligence (AI) research enjoyed an initial period of enthusiasm in the 1970s and 80s. But this enthusiasm was tempered by a long interlude of frustration when genuinely useful AI applications failed to be forthcoming. Today, we are experiencing once again a period of enthusiasm, fired above all by the successes of the technology of deep neural networks or deep machine learning. In this paper we draw attention to what we take to be serious problems underlying current views of artificial (...)
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  2. The Whiteness of AI.Stephen Cave & Kanta Dihal - 2020 - Philosophy and Technology 33 (4):685-703.
    This paper focuses on the fact that AI is predominantly portrayed as white—in colour, ethnicity, or both. We first illustrate the prevalent Whiteness of real and imagined intelligent machines in four categories: humanoid robots, chatbots and virtual assistants, stock images of AI, and portrayals of AI in film and television. We then offer three interpretations of the Whiteness of AI, drawing on critical race theory, particularly the idea of the White racial frame. First, we examine the extent to which this (...)
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  3.  96
    Sinful AI?Michael Wilby - 2023 - In Critical Muslim, 47. London: Hurst Publishers. pp. 91-108.
    Could the concept of 'evil' apply to AI? Drawing on PF Strawson's framework of reactive attitudes, this paper argues that we can understand evil as involving agents who are neither fully inside nor fully outside our moral practices. It involves agents whose abilities and capacities are enough to make them morally responsible for their actions, but whose behaviour is far enough outside of the norms of our moral practices to be labelled 'evil'. Understood as such, the paper argues that, when (...)
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  4. Ethical AI at work: the social contract for Artificial Intelligence and its implications for the workplace psychological contract.Sarah Bankins & Paul Formosa - 2021 - In Redefining the psychological contract in the digital era: issues for research and practice. Cham, Switzerland: pp. 55-72.
    Artificially intelligent (AI) technologies are increasingly being used in many workplaces. It is recognised that there are ethical dimensions to the ways in which organisations implement AI alongside, or substituting for, their human workforces. How will these technologically driven disruptions impact the employee–employer exchange? We provide one way to explore this question by drawing on scholarship linking Integrative Social Contracts Theory (ISCT) to the psychological contract (PC). Using ISCT, we show that the macrosocial contract’s ethical AI norms of beneficence, non-maleficence, (...)
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  5. Medical AI: Is Trust Really the Issue?Jakob Thrane Mainz - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics.
    I discuss an influential argument put forward by Joshua Hatherley. Drawing on influential philosophical accounts of inter-personal trust, Hatherley claims that medical Artificial Intelligence is capable of being reliable, but not trustworthy. Furthermore, Hatherley argues that trust generates moral obligations on behalf of the trustee. For instance, when a patient trusts a clinician, it generates certain moral obligations on behalf of the clinician for her to do what she is entrusted to do. I make three objections to Hatherley’s claims: (1) (...)
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  6. AI, alignment, and the categorical imperative.Fritz McDonald - 2023 - AI and Ethics 3:337-344.
    Tae Wan Kim, John Hooker, and Thomas Donaldson make an attempt, in recent articles, to solve the alignment problem. As they define the alignment problem, it is the issue of how to give AI systems moral intelligence. They contend that one might program machines with a version of Kantian ethics cast in deontic modal logic. On their view, machines can be aligned with human values if such machines obey principles of universalization and autonomy, as well as a deontic utilitarian principle. (...)
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  7. AI Recruitment Algorithms and the Dehumanization Problem.Megan Fritts & Frank Cabrera - 2021 - Ethics and Information Technology (4):1-11.
    According to a recent survey by the HR Research Institute, as the presence of artificial intelligence (AI) becomes increasingly common in the workplace, HR professionals are worried that the use of recruitment algorithms will lead to a “dehumanization” of the hiring process. Our main goals in this paper are threefold: i) to bring attention to this neglected issue, ii) to clarify what exactly this concern about dehumanization might amount to, and iii) to sketch an argument for why dehumanizing the hiring (...)
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  8. Generative AI and photographic transparency.P. D. Magnus - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-6.
    There is a history of thinking that photographs provide a special kind of access to the objects depicted in them, beyond the access that would be provided by a painting or drawing. What is included in the photograph does not depend on the photographer’s beliefs about what is in front of the camera. This feature leads Kendall Walton to argue that photographs literally allow us to see the objects which appear in them. Current generative algorithms produce images in response to (...)
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  9.  71
    Decolonial AI as Disenclosure.Warmhold Jan Thomas Mollema - 2024 - Open Journal of Social Sciences 12 (2):574-603.
    The development and deployment of machine learning and artificial intelligence (AI) engender “AI colonialism”, a term that conceptually overlaps with “data colonialism”, as a form of injustice. AI colonialism is in need of decolonization for three reasons. Politically, because it enforces digital capitalism’s hegemony. Ecologically, as it negatively impacts the environment and intensifies the extraction of natural resources and consumption of energy. Epistemically, since the social systems within which AI is embedded reinforce Western universalism by imposing Western colonial values on (...)
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  10. ChatGPT: towards AI subjectivity.Kristian D’Amato - 2024 - AI and Society 39:1-15.
    Motivated by the question of responsible AI and value alignment, I seek to offer a uniquely Foucauldian reconstruction of the problem as the emergence of an ethical subject in a disciplinary setting. This reconstruction contrasts with the strictly human-oriented programme typical to current scholarship that often views technology in instrumental terms. With this in mind, I problematise the concept of a technological subjectivity through an exploration of various aspects of ChatGPT in light of Foucault’s work, arguing that current systems lack (...)
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  11. Emergent Models for Moral AI Spirituality.Mark Graves - 2021 - International Journal of Interactive Multimedia and Artificial Intelligence 7 (1):7-15.
    Examining AI spirituality can illuminate problematic assumptions about human spirituality and AI cognition, suggest possible directions for AI development, reduce uncertainty about future AI, and yield a methodological lens sufficient to investigate human-AI sociotechnical interaction and morality. Incompatible philosophical assumptions about human spirituality and AI limit investigations of both and suggest a vast gulf between them. An emergentist approach can replace dualist assumptions about human spirituality and identify emergent behavior in AI computation to overcome overly reductionist assumptions about computation. Using (...)
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  12. Ameliorating Algorithmic Bias, or Why Explainable AI Needs Feminist Philosophy.Linus Ta-Lun Huang, Hsiang-Yun Chen, Ying-Tung Lin, Tsung-Ren Huang & Tzu-Wei Hung - 2022 - Feminist Philosophy Quarterly 8 (3).
    Artificial intelligence (AI) systems are increasingly adopted to make decisions in domains such as business, education, health care, and criminal justice. However, such algorithmic decision systems can have prevalent biases against marginalized social groups and undermine social justice. Explainable artificial intelligence (XAI) is a recent development aiming to make an AI system’s decision processes less opaque and to expose its problematic biases. This paper argues against technical XAI, according to which the detection and interpretation of algorithmic bias can be handled (...)
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  13. From Confucius to Coding and Avicenna to Algorithms: Cultivating Ethical AI Development through Cross-Cultural Ancient Wisdom.Ammar Younas & Yi Zeng - manuscript
    This paper explores the potential of integrating ancient educational principles from diverse eastern cultures into modern AI ethics curricula. It draws on the rich educational traditions of ancient China, India, Arabia, Persia, Japan, Tibet, Mongolia, and Korea, highlighting their emphasis on philosophy, ethics, holistic development, and critical thinking. By examining these historical educational systems, the paper establishes a correlation with modern AI ethics principles, advocating for the inclusion of these ancient teachings in current AI development and education. The proposed integration (...)
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  14.  87
    Có thể giúp minh họa truyện bằng tranh của AI không?Ngài Bói Cá - 2023 - Ai Drawings.
    Tiết trời oi nồng cuối tháng 7. Chờ tắt nắng. Chờ thời tiết mát hơn. Vậy thử xem AI sau suốt vài tháng cãi cọ, có công năng đủ để giúp làm cho việc viết lách (cho xuất bản) được sinh động hơn hay không.
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  15. The Ethical Implications of Artificial Intelligence (AI) For Meaningful Work.Sarah Bankins & Paul Formosa - 2023 - Journal of Business Ethics (4):1-16.
    The increasing workplace use of artificially intelligent (AI) technologies has implications for the experience of meaningful human work. Meaningful work refers to the perception that one’s work has worth, significance, or a higher purpose. The development and organisational deployment of AI is accelerating, but the ways in which this will support or diminish opportunities for meaningful work and the ethical implications of these changes remain under-explored. This conceptual paper is positioned at the intersection of the meaningful work and ethical AI (...)
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  16.  49
    Feminist Re-Engineering of Religion-Based AI Chatbots.Hazel T. Biana - 2024 - Philosophies 9 (1):20.
    Religion-based AI chatbots serve religious practitioners by bringing them godly wisdom through technology. These bots reply to spiritual and worldly questions by drawing insights or citing verses from the Quran, the Bible, the Bhagavad Gita, the Torah, or other holy books. They answer religious and theological queries by claiming to offer historical contexts and providing guidance and counseling to their users. A criticism of these bots is that they may give inaccurate answers and proliferate bias by propagating homogenized versions of (...)
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  17. Bridging East-West Differences in Ethics Guidance for AI and Robots.Nancy S. Jecker & Eisuke Nakazawa - 2022 - AI 3 (3):764-777.
    Societies of the East are often contrasted with those of the West in their stances toward technology. This paper explores these perceived differences in the context of international ethics guidance for artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics. Japan serves as an example of the East, while Europe and North America serve as examples of the West. The paper’s principal aim is to demonstrate that Western values predominate in international ethics guidance and that Japanese values serve as a much-needed corrective. We recommend (...)
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  18. Fairness as Equal Concession: Critical Remarks on Fair AI.Christopher Yeomans & Ryan van Nood - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (6):1-14.
    Although existing work draws attention to a range of obstacles in realizing fair AI, the field lacks an account that emphasizes how these worries hang together in a systematic way. Furthermore, a review of the fair AI and philosophical literature demonstrates the unsuitability of ‘treat like cases alike’ and other intuitive notions as conceptions of fairness. That review then generates three desiderata for a replacement conception of fairness valuable to AI research: (1) It must provide a meta-theory for understanding tradeoffs, (...)
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  19. A plea for integrated empirical and philosophical research on the impacts of feminized AI workers.Hannah Read, Javier Gomez-Lavin, Andrea Beltrama & Lisa Miracchi Titus - 2022 - Analysis (1):89-97.
    Feminist philosophers have long emphasized the ways in which women’s oppression takes a variety of forms depending on complex combinations of factors. These include women’s objectification, dehumanization and unjust gendered divisions of labour caused in part by sexist ideologies regarding women’s social role. This paper argues that feminized artificial intelligence (feminized AI) poses new and important challenges to these perennial feminist philosophical issues. Despite the recent surge in theoretical and empirical attention paid to the ethics of AI in general, a (...)
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  20. Making Sense of the Conceptual Nonsense 'Trustworthy AI'.Ori Freiman - 2022 - AI and Ethics 4.
    Following the publication of numerous ethical principles and guidelines, the concept of 'Trustworthy AI' has become widely used. However, several AI ethicists argue against using this concept, often backing their arguments with decades of conceptual analyses made by scholars who studied the concept of trust. In this paper, I describe the historical-philosophical roots of their objection and the premise that trust entails a human quality that technologies lack. Then, I review existing criticisms about 'Trustworthy AI' and the consequence of ignoring (...)
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  21. Good Robot, Bad Robot: Dark and Creepy Sides of Robotics, Automated Vehicles, and Ai.Jo Ann Oravec - 2022 - New York, NY, USA: Palgrave-Macmillan.
    This book explores how robotics and artificial intelligence can enhance human lives but also have unsettling “dark sides.” It examines expanding forms of negativity and anxiety about robots, AI, and autonomous vehicles as our human environments are reengineered for intelligent military and security systems and for optimal workplace and domestic operations. It focuses on the impacts of initiatives to make robot interactions more humanlike and less creepy. It analyzes the emerging resistances against these entities in the wake of omnipresent AI (...)
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  22. Saliva Ontology: An ontology-based framework for a Salivaomics Knowledge Base.Jiye Ai, Barry Smith & David Wong - 2010 - BMC Bioinformatics 11 (1):302.
    The Salivaomics Knowledge Base (SKB) is designed to serve as a computational infrastructure that can permit global exploration and utilization of data and information relevant to salivaomics. SKB is created by aligning (1) the saliva biomarker discovery and validation resources at UCLA with (2) the ontology resources developed by the OBO (Open Biomedical Ontologies) Foundry, including a new Saliva Ontology (SALO). We define the Saliva Ontology (SALO; http://www.skb.ucla.edu/SALO/) as a consensus-based controlled vocabulary of terms and relations dedicated to the salivaomics (...)
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  23. Bioinformatics advances in saliva diagnostics.Ji-Ye Ai, Barry Smith & David T. W. Wong - 2012 - International Journal of Oral Science 4 (2):85--87.
    There is a need recognized by the National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research and the National Cancer Institute to advance basic, translational and clinical saliva research. The goal of the Salivaomics Knowledge Base (SKB) is to create a data management system and web resource constructed to support human salivaomics research. To maximize the utility of the SKB for retrieval, integration and analysis of data, we have developed the Saliva Ontology and SDxMart. This article reviews the informatics advances in saliva (...)
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  24. Towards a Body Fluids Ontology: A unified application ontology for basic and translational science.Jiye Ai, Mauricio Barcellos Almeida, André Queiroz De Andrade, Alan Ruttenberg, David Tai Wai Wong & Barry Smith - 2011 - Second International Conference on Biomedical Ontology , Buffalo, Ny 833:227-229.
    We describe the rationale for an application ontology covering the domain of human body fluids that is designed to facilitate representation, reuse, sharing and integration of diagnostic, physiological, and biochemical data, We briefly review the Blood Ontology (BLO), Saliva Ontology (SALO) and Kidney and Urinary Pathway Ontology (KUPO) initiatives. We discuss the methods employed in each, and address the project of using them as starting point for a unified body fluids ontology resource. We conclude with a description of how the (...)
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  25. Uma história da educação química brasileira: sobre seu início discutível apenas a partir dos conquistadores.Ai Chassot - 1996 - Episteme 1 (2):129-145.
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  26.  73
    Đổi mới chế độ sở hữu trong nền kinh tế thị trường định hướng xã hội chủ nghĩa ở Việt Nam.Võ Đại Lược - 2021 - Tạp Chí Khoa Học Xã Hội Việt Nam 7:3-13.
    Hiện nay, chế độ sở hữu ở Việt Nam đã có những đổi mới cơ bản, nhưng vẫn còn những khác biệt rất lớn so với chế độ sở hữu ở các nền kinh tế thị trường hiện đại. Trong cơ cấu của chế độ sở hữu ở Việt Nam, tỷ trọng của sở hữu nhà nước còn quá lớn; kinh tế nhà nước giữ vai trò chủ đạo… Chính những khác biệt này đã làm cho nền kinh tế thị (...)
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  27.  34
    Đề cương học phần Văn hóa kinh doanh.Đại học Thuongmai - 2012 - Thuongmai University Portal.
    ĐỀ CƯƠNG HỌC PHẦN VĂN HÓA KINH DOANH 1. Tên học phần: VĂN HÓA KINH DOANH (BUSINESS CULTURE) 2. Mã học phần: BMGM1221 3. Số tín chỉ: 2 (24,6) (để học được học phần này, người học phải dành ít nhất 60 giờ chuẩn bị cá nhân).
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  28. Tiếp tục đổi mới, hoàn thiện chế độ sở hữu trong nền kinh tế thị trường định hướng XHCN ở Việt Nam.Võ Đại Lược - 2021 - Tạp Chí Mặt Trận 2021 (8):1-7.
    (Mặt trận) - Chế độ sở hữu trong nền kinh tế thị trường định hướng xã hội chủ nghĩa Việt Nam trước hết phải tuân theo các nguyên tắc của nền kinh tế thị trường hiện đại. Trong các nguyên tắc của nền kinh tế thị trường hiện đại, nguyên tắc sở hữu tư nhân là nền tảng của nền kinh tế thị trường - là nguyên tắc quan trọng. Xa rời nguyên tắc này, dù chúng ta cố gắng xây (...)
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  29.  86
    Đổi mới chế độ sở hữu trong nền kinh tế thị trường định hướng xã hội chủ nghĩa ở Việt Nam.Võ Đại Lược - 2021 - Khoa Học Xã Hội Việt Nam 2021 (7):3-13.
    Hiện nay, chế độ sở hữu ở Việt Nam đã có những đổi mới cơ bản, nhưng vẫn còn những khác biệt rất lớn so với chế độ sở hữu ở các nền kinh tế thị trường hiện đại. Trong cơ cấu của chế độ sở hữu ở Việt Nam, tỷ trọng của sở hữu nhà nước còn quá lớn; kinh tế nhà nước giữ vai trò chủ đạo… Chính những khác biệt này đã làm cho nền kinh tế thị (...)
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  30. The Blood Ontology: An ontology in the domain of hematology.Almeida Mauricio Barcellos, Proietti Anna Barbara de Freitas Carneiro, Ai Jiye & Barry Smith - 2011 - In Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Biomedical Ontology, Buffalo, NY, July 28-30, 2011 (CEUR 883). pp. (CEUR Workshop Proceedings, 833).
    Despite the importance of human blood to clinical practice and research, hematology and blood transfusion data remain scattered throughout a range of disparate sources. This lack of systematization concerning the use and definition of terms poses problems for physicians and biomedical professionals. We are introducing here the Blood Ontology, an ongoing initiative designed to serve as a controlled vocabulary for use in organizing information about blood. The paper describes the scope of the Blood Ontology, its stage of development and some (...)
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  31. Understanding Biology in the Age of Artificial Intelligence.Adham El Shazly, Elsa Lawerence, Srijit Seal, Chaitanya Joshi, Matthew Greening, Pietro Lio, Shantung Singh, Andreas Bender & Pietro Sormanni - manuscript
    Modern life sciences research is increasingly relying on artificial intelligence (AI) approaches to model biological systems, primarily centered around the use of machine learning (ML) models. Although ML is undeniably useful for identifying patterns in large, complex data sets, its widespread application in biological sciences represents a significant deviation from traditional methods of scientific inquiry. As such, the interplay between these models and scientific understanding in biology is a topic with important implications for the future of scientific research, yet it (...)
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  32. Human Goals Are Constitutive of Agency in Artificial Intelligence.Elena Popa - 2021 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (4):1731-1750.
    The question whether AI systems have agency is gaining increasing importance in discussions of responsibility for AI behavior. This paper argues that an approach to artificial agency needs to be teleological, and consider the role of human goals in particular if it is to adequately address the issue of responsibility. I will defend the view that while AI systems can be viewed as autonomous in the sense of identifying or pursuing goals, they rely on human goals and other values incorporated (...)
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  33. Why machines cannot be moral.Robert Sparrow - 2021 - AI and Society (3):685-693.
    The fact that real-world decisions made by artificial intelligences (AI) are often ethically loaded has led a number of authorities to advocate the development of “moral machines”. I argue that the project of building “ethics” “into” machines presupposes a flawed understanding of the nature of ethics. Drawing on the work of the Australian philosopher, Raimond Gaita, I argue that ethical dilemmas are problems for particular people and not (just) problems for everyone who faces a similar situation. Moreover, the force of (...)
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  34. Against the opacity, and for a qualitative understanding, of artificially intelligent technologies.Mahdi Khalili - 2023 - AI and Ethics.
    This paper aims, first, to argue against using opaque AI technologies in decision making processes, and second to suggest that we need to possess a qualitative form of understanding about them. It first argues that opaque artificially intelligent technologies are suitable for users who remain indifferent to the understanding of decisions made by means of these technologies. According to virtue ethics, this implies that these technologies are not well-suited for those who care about realizing their moral capacity. The paper then (...)
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  35. Wittgenstein and the Aesthetic Robot's Handicap.Julian Friedland - 2005 - Philosophical Investigations 28 (2):177-192.
    Ask most any cognitive scientist working today if a digital computational system could develop aesthetic sensibility and you will likely receive the optimistic reply that this remains an open empirical question. However, I attempt to show, while drawing upon the later Wittgenstein, that the correct answer is in fact available. And it is a negative a priori. It would seem, for example, that recent computational successes in generative AI and textual attribution, most notably those of Donald Foster (famed finder of (...)
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  36. Where there’s no will, there’s no way.Alex Thomson, Jobst Landgrebe & Barry Smith - 2023 - Ukcolumn.
    An interview by Alex Thomson of UKColumn on Landgrebe and Smith's book: Why Machines Will Never Rule the World. The subtitle of the book is Artificial Intelligence Without Fear, and the interview begins with the question of the supposedly imminent takeover of one profession or the other by artificial intelligence. Is there truly reason to be afraid that you will lose your job? The interview itself is titled 'Where this is no will there is no way', drawing on one thesis (...)
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  37. ANNs and Unifying Explanations: Reply to Erasmus, Brunet, and Fisher.Yunus Prasetya - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (2):1-9.
    In a recent article, Erasmus, Brunet, and Fisher (2021) argue that Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are explainable. They survey four influential accounts of explanation: the Deductive-Nomological model, the Inductive-Statistical model, the Causal-Mechanical model, and the New-Mechanist model. They argue that, on each of these accounts, the features that make something an explanation is invariant with regard to the complexity of the explanans and the explanandum. Therefore, they conclude, the complexity of ANNs (and other Machine Learning models) does not make them (...)
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  38. Real Sparks of Artificial Intelligence and the Importance of Inner Interpretability.Alex Grzankowski - forthcoming - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy.
    The present paper looks at one of the most thorough articles on the intelligence of GPT, research conducted by engineers at Microsoft. Although there is a great deal of value in their work, I will argue that, for familiar philosophical reasons, their methodology, ‘Black-box Interpretability’ is wrongheaded. But there is a better way. There is an exciting and emerging discipline of ‘Inner Interpretability’ (also sometimes called ‘White-box Interpretability’) that aims to uncover the internal activations and weights of models in order (...)
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  39. Authenticity and co-design: On responsibly creating relational robots for children.Milo Phillips-Brown, Marion Boulicault, Jacqueline Kory-Westland, Stephanie Nguyen & Cynthia Breazeal - 2023 - In Mizuko Ito, Remy Cross, Karthik Dinakar & Candice Odgers (eds.), Algorithmic Rights and Protections for Children. MIT Press. pp. 85-121.
    Meet Tega. Blue, fluffy, and AI-enabled, Tega is a relational robot: a robot designed to form relationships with humans. Created to aid in early childhood education, Tega talks with children, plays educational games with them, solves puzzles, and helps in creative activities like making up stories and drawing. Children are drawn to Tega, describing him as a friend, and attributing thoughts and feelings to him ("he's kind," "if you just left him here and nobody came to play with him, he (...)
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  40. Babbling stochastic parrots? On reference and reference change in large language models.Steffen Koch - manuscript
    Recently developed large language models (LLMs) perform surprisingly well in many language-related tasks, ranging from text correction or authentic chat experiences to the production of entirely new texts or even essays. It is natural to get the impression that LLMs know the meaning of natural language expressions and can use them productively. Recent scholarship, however, has questioned the validity of this impression, arguing that LLMs are ultimately incapable of understanding and producing meaningful texts. This paper develops a more optimistic view. (...)
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  41. Predictive Analysis of Lottery Outcomes Using Deep Learning and Time Series Analysis.Asil Mustafa Alghoul & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2023 - International Journal of Engineering and Information Systems (IJEAIS) 7 (10):1-6.
    Abstract: Lotteries have long been a source of fascination and intrigue, offering the tantalizing prospect of unexpected fortunes. In this research paper, we delve into the world of lottery predictions, employing cutting-edge AI techniques to unlock the secrets of lottery outcomes. Our dataset, obtained from Kaggle, comprises historical lottery draws, and our goal is to develop predictive models that can anticipate future winning numbers. This study explores the use of deep learning and time series analysis to achieve this elusive feat. (...)
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  42. Moral Perspective from a Holistic Point of View for Weighted DecisionMaking and its Implications for the Processes of Artificial Intelligence.Mina Singh, Devi Ram, Sunita Kumar & Suresh Das - 2023 - International Journal of Research Publication and Reviews 4 (1):2223-2227.
    In the case of AI, automated systems are making increasingly complex decisions with significant ethical implications, raising questions about who is responsible for decisions made by AI and how to ensure that these decisions align with society's ethical and moral values, both in India and the West. Jonathan Haidt has conducted research on moral and ethical decision-making. Today, solving problems like decision-making in autonomous vehicles can draw on the literature of the trolley dilemma in that it illustrates the complexity of (...)
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  43.  79
    Shared decision-making and maternity care in the deep learning age: Acknowledging and overcoming inherited defeaters.Keith Begley, Cecily Begley & Valerie Smith - 2021 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 27 (3):497–503.
    In recent years there has been an explosion of interest in Artificial Intelligence (AI) both in health care and academic philosophy. This has been due mainly to the rise of effective machine learning and deep learning algorithms, together with increases in data collection and processing power, which have made rapid progress in many areas. However, use of this technology has brought with it philosophical issues and practical problems, in particular, epistemic and ethical. In this paper the authors, with backgrounds in (...)
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  44. Book: Cognitive Design for Artificial Minds.Antonio Lieto - 2021 - London, UK: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Ltd.
    Book Description (Blurb): Cognitive Design for Artificial Minds explains the crucial role that human cognition research plays in the design and realization of artificial intelligence systems, illustrating the steps necessary for the design of artificial models of cognition. It bridges the gap between the theoretical, experimental and technological issues addressed in the context of AI of cognitive inspiration and computational cognitive science. -/- Beginning with an overview of the historical, methodological and technical issues in the field of Cognitively-Inspired Artificial Intelligence, (...)
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  45. Incorporating Ethics into Artificial Intelligence.Amitai Etzioni & Oren Etzioni - 2017 - The Journal of Ethics 21 (4):403-418.
    This article reviews the reasons scholars hold that driverless cars and many other AI equipped machines must be able to make ethical decisions, and the difficulties this approach faces. It then shows that cars have no moral agency, and that the term ‘autonomous’, commonly applied to these machines, is misleading, and leads to invalid conclusions about the ways these machines can be kept ethical. The article’s most important claim is that a significant part of the challenge posed by AI-equipped machines (...)
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  46. Learning to Discriminate: The Perfect Proxy Problem in Artificially Intelligent Criminal Sentencing.Benjamin Davies & Thomas Douglas - 2022 - In Jesper Ryberg & Julian V. Roberts (eds.), Sentencing and Artificial Intelligence. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    It is often thought that traditional recidivism prediction tools used in criminal sentencing, though biased in many ways, can straightforwardly avoid one particularly pernicious type of bias: direct racial discrimination. They can avoid this by excluding race from the list of variables employed to predict recidivism. A similar approach could be taken to the design of newer, machine learning-based (ML) tools for predicting recidivism: information about race could be withheld from the ML tool during its training phase, ensuring that the (...)
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  47. Machine Learning and Irresponsible Inference: Morally Assessing the Training Data for Image Recognition Systems.Owen C. King - 2019 - In Matteo Vincenzo D'Alfonso & Don Berkich (eds.), On the Cognitive, Ethical, and Scientific Dimensions of Artificial Intelligence. Springer Verlag. pp. 265-282.
    Just as humans can draw conclusions responsibly or irresponsibly, so too can computers. Machine learning systems that have been trained on data sets that include irresponsible judgments are likely to yield irresponsible predictions as outputs. In this paper I focus on a particular kind of inference a computer system might make: identification of the intentions with which a person acted on the basis of photographic evidence. Such inferences are liable to be morally objectionable, because of a way in which they (...)
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  48. The fight for digital sovereignty: what it is, and why it matters, especially for the EU.Luciano Floridi - 2020 - Philosophy and Technology 33 (3):369-378.
    Digital sovereignty, and the question of who ultimately controls AI seems, at first glance, to be an issue that concerns only specialists, politicians and corporate entities. And yet the fight for who will win digital sovereignty has far-reaching societal implications. Drawing on five case studies, the paper argues that digital sovereignty affects everyone, whether digital users or not, and makes the case for a hybrid system of control which has the potential to offer full democratic legitimacy as well as innovative (...)
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  49. Beneficial Artificial Intelligence Coordination by means of a Value Sensitive Design Approach.Steven Umbrello - 2019 - Big Data and Cognitive Computing 3 (1):5.
    This paper argues that the Value Sensitive Design (VSD) methodology provides a principled approach to embedding common values in to AI systems both early and throughout the design process. To do so, it draws on an important case study: the evidence and final report of the UK Select Committee on Artificial Intelligence. This empirical investigation shows that the different and often disparate stakeholder groups that are implicated in AI design and use share some common values that can be used to (...)
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  50. What Matters for Moral Status: Behavioral or Cognitive Equivalence?John Danaher - 2021 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 30 (3):472-478.
    Henry Shevlin’s paper—“How could we know when a robot was a moral patient?” – argues that we should recognize robots and artificial intelligence (AI) as psychological moral patients if they are cognitively equivalent to other beings that we already recognize as psychological moral patients (i.e., humans and, at least some, animals). In defending this cognitive equivalence strategy, Shevlin draws inspiration from the “behavioral equivalence” strategy that I have defended in previous work but argues that it is flawed in crucial respects. (...)
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