Results for 'Deep Brain Stimulation'

998 found
Order:
  1. Deep Brain Stimulation, Authenticity and Value.Pugh Jonathan, Maslen Hannah & Savulescu Julian - 2017 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 26 (4):640-657.
    Deep brain stimulation has been of considerable interest to bioethicists, in large part because of the effects that the intervention can occasionally have on central features of the recipient’s personality. These effects raise questions regarding the philosophical concept of authenticity. In this article, we expand on our earlier work on the concept of authenticity in the context of deep brain stimulation by developing a diachronic, value-based account of authenticity. Our account draws on both existentialist (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   37 citations  
  2. Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation on the lived experience of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder patients.Sanneke de Haan, Erik Rietveld, Martin Stokhof & Damiaan Denys - 2015 - PLoS ONE 10 (8):1-29.
    Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is a relatively new, experimental treatment for patients suffering from treatment-refractory Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). The effects of treatment are typically assessed with psychopathological scales that measure the amount of symptoms. However, clinical experience indicates that the effects of DBS are not limited to symptoms only: patients for instance report changes in perception, feeling stronger and more confident, and doing things unreflectively. Our aim is to get a better overview of the whole variety (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   32 citations  
  3. Deep brain stimulation and revising the Mental Health Act: the case for intervention-specific safeguards.Jonathan Pugh, Tipu Aziz, Jonathan Herring & Julian Savulescu - forthcoming - British Journal of Psychiatry.
    Under the current Mental Health Act of England and Wales, it is lawful to perform deep brain stimulation in the absence of consent and independent approval. We argue against the Care Quality Commission's preferred strategy of addressing this problematic issue, and offer recommendations for deep brain stimulation-specific provisions in a revised Mental Health Act.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  4. Deep Brain Stimulation, Authenticity and Value.Sven Nyholm & Elizabeth O’Neill - 2017 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 26 (4):658-670.
    In this paper, we engage in dialogue with Jonathan Pugh, Hannah Maslen, and Julian Savulescu about how to best interpret the potential impacts of deep brain stimulation on the self. We consider whether ordinary people’s convictions about the true self should be interpreted in essentialist or existentialist ways. Like Pugh et al., we argue that it is useful to understand the notion of the true self as having both essentialist and existentialist components. We also consider two ideas (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  5. The phenomenology of Deep Brain Stimulation-induced changes in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder patients: An enactive affordance-based model.Sanneke de Haan, Erik Rietveld, Martin Stokhof & Damiaan Denys - 2013 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7:1-14.
    People suffering from Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) do things they do not want to do, and/or they think things they do not want to think. In about 10 percent of OCD patients, none of the available treatment options is effective. A small group of these patients is currently being treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS). Deep brain stimulation involves the implantation of electrodes in the brain. These electrodes give a continuous electrical pulse to the (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   58 citations  
  6. Some ethics of deep brain stimulation.Joshua August Skorburg & Walter Sinnott Armstrong - 2020 - In Dan Stein & Ilina Singh (eds.), Global Mental Health and Neuroethics. London, UK: pp. 117-132.
    Case reports about patients undergoing Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) for various motor and psychiatric disorders - including Parkinson’s Disease, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, and Treatment Resistant Depression - have sparked a vast literature in neuroethics. Questions about whether and how DBS changes the self have been at the fore. The present chapter brings these neuroethical debates into conversation with recent research in moral psychology. We begin in Section 1 by reviewing the recent clinical literature on DBS. In Section (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  7. The Moral Obligation to Prioritize Research Into Deep Brain Stimulation Over Brain Lesioning Procedures for Severe Enduring Anorexia Nervosa.Jonathan Pugh, Jacinta Tan, Tipu Aziz & Rebecca J. Park - forthcoming - Frontiers in Psychiatry 9:523.
    Deep Brain Stimulation is currently being investigated as an experimental treatment for patients suffering from treatment-refractory AN, with an increasing number of case reports and small-scale trials published. Although still at an exploratory and experimental stage, initial results have been promising. Despite the risks associated with an invasive neurosurgical procedure and the long-term implantation of a foreign body, DBS has a number of advantageous features for patients with SE-AN. Stimulation can be fine-tuned to the specific needs (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  8.  16
    Views of stakeholders at risk for dementia about deep brain stimulation for cognition.Eran Klein, Natalia Montes Daza, Ishan Dasgupta, Kate MacDuffie, Andreas Schönau, Garrett Flynn, Dong Song & Sara Goering - 2023 - Brain Stimulation 16 (3):742-747.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  9. Stimulating good practice - What an embodied cognition approach could mean for Deep Brain Stimulation practice.Sanneke de Haan, Erik Rietveld & Damiaan Denys - 2014 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 5 (4).
    We whole-heartedly agree with Mecacci and Haselager(2014) on the need to investigate the psychosocial effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS), and particularly to find out how to prevent adverse psychosocial effects. We also agree with the authors on the value of an embodied, embedded, enactive approach (EEC) to the self and the mind–brain problem. However, we do not think this value primarily lies in dissolving a so-called “maladaptation” of patients to their DBS device. In this comment, (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  10. Pattern theory of self and situating moral aspects: the need to include authenticity, autonomy and responsibility in understanding the effects of deep brain stimulation.Przemysław Zawadzki - 2022 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 21 (3):559-582.
    The aims of this paper are to: (1) identify the best framework for comprehending multidimensional impact of deep brain stimulation on the self; (2) identify weaknesses of this framework; (3) propose refinements to it; (4) in pursuing (3), show why and how this framework should be extended with additional moral aspects and demonstrate their interrelations; (5) define how moral aspects relate to the framework; (6) show the potential consequences of including moral aspects on evaluating DBS’s impact on (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  11. Dimensions of the Threat to the Self Posed by Deep Brain Stimulation: Personal Identity, Authenticity, and Autonomy.Przemysław Zawadzki - 2020 - Diametros 18 (69):71-98.
    Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is an invasive therapeutic method involving the implantation of electrodes and the electrical stimulation of specific areas of the brain to modulate their activity. DBS brings therapeutic benefits, but can also have adverse side effects. Recently, neuroethicists have recognized that DBS poses a threat to the very fabric of human existence, namely, to the selves of patients. This article provides a review of the neuroethical literature examining this issue, and identifies the (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  12. Insight and the no‐self in deep brain stimulation.Laura Specker Sullivan - 2018 - Bioethics 33 (4):487-494.
    Ethical analyses of the effects of neural interventions commonly focus on changes to personality and behavior, interpreting these changes in terms of authenticity and identity. These phenomena have led to debate among ethicists about the meaning of these terms for ethical analysis of such interventions. While these theoretical approaches have different criteria for ethical significance, they agree that patients’ reports are concerning because a sense of self is valuable. In this paper, I question this assumption. I propose that the Buddhist (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  13. The Role of Family Members in Psychiatric Deep Brain Stimulation Trials: More Than Psychosocial Support.Marion Boulicault, Sara Goering, Eran Klein, Darin Dougherty & Alik S. Widge - 2023 - Neuroethics 16 (2):1-18.
    Family members can provide crucial support to individuals participating in clinical trials. In research on the “newest frontier” of Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS)—the use of DBS for psychiatric conditions—family member support is frequently listed as a criterion for trial enrollment. Despite the significance of family members, qualitative ethics research on DBS for psychiatric conditions has focused almost exclusively on the perspectives and experiences of DBS recipients. This qualitative study is one of the first to include both DBS (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  14. Does Belief in Dualism Protect against Maladaptive Psycho-Social Responses to Deep Brain Stimulation? An Empirical Exploration.Jason Shepard & Joshua May - 2014 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 5 (4):40–42.
    We provide empirical evidence that people who believe in dualism are more likely to be uncomfortable with Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) and to view it as threatening to their identity, humanity, or self. It is (neurocentric) materialists—who think the mind just is the brain—that are less inclined to fear DBS or to see it as threatening. We suggest various possible reasons for this connection. The inspiration for this brief report is a target article that addresses this (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  15. Becoming more oneself? Changes in personality following DBS treatment for psychiatric disorders: Experiences of OCD patients and general considerations.Sanneke De Haan, Erik Rietveld, Martin Stokhof & Damiaan Denys - 2017 - PLoS ONE 12 (4):1-27.
    Does DBS change a patient’s personality? This is one of the central questions in the debate on the ethics of treatment with Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS). At the moment, however, this important debate is hampered by the fact that there is relatively little data available concerning what patients actually experience following DBS treatment. There are a few qualitative studies with patients with Parkinson’s disease and Primary Dystonia and some case reports, but there has been no qualitative study (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   22 citations  
  16. Neurosurgery for psychopaths? The problems of empathy and neurodiversity.Erick Ramirez - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 7 (3):166-168.
    I argue that deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a bad approach for incarcerated psychopaths for two reasons. First, given what we know about psychopathy, empathy, and DBS, it is unlikely to function as an effective treatment for the moral problems that characterize psychopathy. Second, considerations of neurodiversity speak against seeing psychopathy as a mental illness in the first place.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  17. Neurosurgery for Psychopaths? An Ethical Analysis.Dietmar Hübner & Lucie White - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 7 (3):140-149.
    Recent developments in neuroscience have inspired proposals to perform deep brain stimulation on psychopathic detainees. We contend that these proposals cannot meet important ethical requirements that hold for both medical research and therapy. After providing a rough overview of key aspects of psychopathy and the prospects of tackling this condition via deep brain stimulation, we proceed to an ethical assessment of such measures, referring closely to the distinctive features of psychopathic personality, particularly the absence (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   16 citations  
  18. Losing Meaning: Philosophical Reflections on Neural Interventions and their Influence on Narrative Identity.Muriel Https://Orcidorg Leuenberger - 2021 - Neuroethics (3):491-505.
    The profound changes in personality, mood, and other features of the self that neural interventions can induce can be disconcerting to patients, their families, and caregivers. In the neuroethical debate, these concerns are often addressed in the context of possible threats to the narrative self. In this paper, I argue that it is necessary to consider a dimension of impacts on the narrative self which has so far been neglected: neural interventions can lead to a loss of meaning of actions, (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  19. Personal Identity and Self-Regarding Choice in Medical Ethics.Lucie White - 2020 - In Michael Kühler & Veselin Mitrović (eds.), Theories of the Self and Autonomy in Medical Ethics. pp. 31-47.
    When talking about personal identity in the context of medical ethics, ethicists tend to borrow haphazardly from different philosophical notions of personal identity, or to abjure these abstract metaphysical concerns as having nothing to do with practical questions in medical ethics. In fact, however, part of the moral authority for respecting a patient’s self-regarding decisions can only be made sense of if we make certain assumptions that are central to a particular, psychological picture of personal identity, namely, that patients will (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  20. Models in the Brain (book summary).Dan Ryder - manuscript
    The central idea is that the cerebral cortex is a model building machine, where regularities in the world serve as templates for the models it builds. First it is shown how this idea can be naturalized, and how the representational contents of our internal models depend upon the evolutionarily endowed design principles of our model building machine. Current neuroscience suggests a powerful form that these design principles may take, allowing our brains to uncover deep structures of the world hidden (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  21. Should DBS for Psychiatric Disorders be Considered a Form of Psychosurgery? Ethical and Legal Considerations.Devan Stahl, Laura Cabrera & Tyler Gibb - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (4):1119-1142.
    Deep brain stimulation (DBS), a surgical procedure involving the implantation of electrodes in the brain, has rekindled the medical community’s interest in psychosurgery. Whereas many researchers argue DBS is substantially different from psychosurgery, we argue psychiatric DBS—though a much more precise and refined treatment than its predecessors—is nevertheless a form of psychosurgery, which raises both old and new ethical and legal concerns that have not been given proper attention. Learning from the ethical and regulatory failures of (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  22. Brain stimulation for treatment and enhancement in children: an ethical analysis.Hannah Maslen, Brian D. Earp, Roi Cohen Kadosh & Julian Savulescu - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
    Davis called for “extreme caution” in the use of non-invasive brain stimulation to treat neurological disorders in children, due to gaps in scientific knowledge. We are sympathetic to his position. However, we must also address the ethical implications of applying this technology to minors. Compensatory trade-offs associated with NIBS present a challenge to its use in children, insofar as these trade-offs have the effect of limiting the child’s future options. The distinction between treatment and enhancement has some normative (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   16 citations  
  23.  62
    Is punishment backward? On neurointerventions and forward‐looking moral responsibility.Przemysław Zawadzki - 2022 - Bioethics 37 (2):183-191.
    This article focuses on justified responses to “immoral” behavior and crimes committed by patients undergoing neuromodulation therapies. Such patients could be held morally responsible in the basic desert sense—the one that serves as a justification of severe practices such as backward‐looking moral outrage, condemnation, and legal punishment—as long as they possess certain compatibilist capabilities that have traditionally served as the quintessence of free will, that is, reasons‐responsiveness; attributability; answerability; the abilities to act in accordance with moral reasons, second‐order volitions, or (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  24. Relational Agency: Yes—But How Far? Vulnerability and the Moral Self.Nicolae Morar & Joshua August Skorburg - 2017 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 8 (2):83-85.
    Peer commentary on: Goering, S., Klein, E., Dougherty, D. D., & Widge, A. S. (2017). Staying in the loop: Relational agency and identity in next-generation DBS for psychiatry. AJOB Neuroscience, 8(2), 59-70.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  25. Social affordances in context: What is it that we are bodily responsive to.Erik Rietveld, Sanneke de Haan & Damiaan Denys - 2013 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (4):436-436.
    We propose to understand social affordances in the broader context of responsiveness to a field of relevant affordances in general. This perspective clarifies our everyday ability to unreflectively switch between social and other affordances. Moreover, based on our experience with Deep Brain Stimulation for treating obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients, we suggest that psychiatric disorders may affect skilled intentionality, including responsiveness to social affordances.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   15 citations  
  26. Biotechnology, Justice and Health.Ruth Faden & Madison Powers - 2013 - Journal of Practical Ethics 1 (1):49-61.
    New biotechnologies have the potential to both dramatically improve human well-being and dramatically widen inequalities in well-being. This paper addresses a question that lies squarely on the fault line of these two claims: When as a matter of justice are societies obligated to include a new biotechnology in a national healthcare system? This question is approached from the standpoint of a twin aim theory of justice, in which social structures, including nation-states, have double-barreled theoretical objectives with regard to human well-being. (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  27. Personal Identity and Patient-Centered Medical Decision Making.Lucie White - 2017 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 8 (3):194-195.
    Nancy Jecker and Andrew Ko (2017) wish to present an account of personal identity which captures what matters to the patient and places the patient at the center of medical decisions. They focus particularly on medical interventions in the brain that can cause drastic changes in personality; under what circumstances should we say the patient has 'survived' these changes? More specifically, how can we best understand the notion of survival in a way that captures what is of concern to (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  28. Mapping the Dimensions of Agency: The Narrative as Unifying Mechanism.Przemysław Zawadzki - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 12 (2-3):191-193.
    Schönau et al. (2021) identified four dimensions of agency (authenticity, privacy, self–trust, and responsibility) that may be influenced by the use of neurotechnologies, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS) or brain–computer–interfaces (BCI). The Agency Map they proposed depicts the role of each dimension, and indicates how they may interact. The authors emphasize that a strength of their approach is that it allows to capture the agency dimensions that were previously seen as disconnected and independent as intricately (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  29. Detection of Brain Tumor Using Deep Learning.Hamza Rafiq Almadhoun & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2022 - International Journal of Academic Engineering Research (IJAER) 6 (3):29-47.
    Artificial intelligence (AI) is an area of computer science that emphasizes the creation of intelligent machines or software that work and reacts like humans, some of the computer activities with artificial intelligence are designed to include speech, recognition, learning, planning and problem solving. Deep learning is a collection of algorithms used in machine learning, it is part of a broad family of methods used for machine learning that are based on learning representations of data. Deep learning is used (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  30. Does the prefrontal cortex play an essential role in consciousness? Insights from intracranial electrical stimulation of the human brain.Omri Raccah, Ned Block & Kieran C. R. Fox - 2021 - Journal of Neuroscience 1 (41):2076-2087.
    A central debate in philosophy and neuroscience pertains to whether PFC activity plays an essential role in the neural basis of consciousness. Neuroimaging and electrophysiology studies have revealed that the contents of conscious perceptual experience can be successfully decoded from PFC activity, but these findings might be confounded by post- perceptual cognitive processes, such as thinking, reasoning, and decision-making, that are not necessary for con- sciousness. To clarify the involvement of the PFC in consciousness, we present a synthesis of research (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  31. Both Materialist & non-Materialist are correct - about themselves: A brain’s self-identification as "Materialist" or “Non-Materialist” (dualist, panpsychist, idealist etc) as reflecting the absence or presence of an associated real non-material awareness/consciousness, rather than merely as a statement of a philosophical stance. A survey will identify relevant candidates of both types for a proposed brain-experiment to determine a possible correlation to the brain’s deep structure/neural wiring.Avi Rabinowitz - manuscript
    We contest the unsubstantiated assumption of both materialists and non-materialist that the ontological status they propose applies to all humans and that the competing claim is false for all - ie we reject both the claim of non-materialists that all humans share the same fundamental aspect of having a "non-material consciousness" (nmc), as well as the contrasting claim of materialists that none do (being fully material as according to eliminative materialists/reductive physicalists etc). Instead, the basic proposition of this paper, our (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  32. The story of a brain.Arnold Zuboff - 1981 - In Douglas R. Hofstadter & Daniel C. Dennett (eds.), The Mind's I. Basic Books. pp. 202-212.
    Most people will agree that if my brain were made to have within it precisely the same pattern of activity that is in it now but through artificial means, as in its being fed all its stimulation through electrodes as it sits in a vat, an experience would result for me that would be subjectively indistinguishable from that I am now having. In ‘The Story of a Brain’ I ask whether the same subjective experience would be maintained (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   9 citations  
  33. Self-Transcendence Correlates with Brain Function Impairment.Bernardo Kastrup - 2017 - Journal of Cognition and Neuroethics 4 (3):33-42.
    A broad pattern of correlations between mechanisms of brain function impairment and self-transcendence is shown. The pattern includes such mechanisms as cerebral hypoxia, physiological stress, transcranial magnetic stimulation, trance-induced physiological effects, the action of psychoactive substances and even physical trauma to the brain. In all these cases, subjects report self-transcending experiences o en described as ‘mystical’ and ‘awareness-expanding,’ as well as self-transcending skills o en described as ‘savant.’ The idea that these correlations could be rather trivially accounted (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  34. How do Narratives and Brains Mutually Influence each other? Taking both the ‘Neuroscientific Turn’ and the ‘Narrative Turn’ in Explaining Bio-Political Orders.Machiel Keestra - manuscript
    Introduction: the neuroscientific turn in political science The observation that brains and political orders are interdependent is almost trivial. Obviously, political orders require brain processes in order to emerge and to remain in place, as these processes enable action and cognition. Conversely, every since Aristotle coined man as “by nature a political animal” (Aristotle, Pol.: 1252a 3; cf. Eth. Nic.: 1097b 11), this also suggests that the political engagements of this animal has likely consequences for its natural development, including (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  35. How To Make Mind-Brain Relations Clear.Mostyn W. Jones - 2010 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 17 (5-6):135-160.
    The mind-body problem arises because all theories about mind-brain connections are too deeply obscure to gain general acceptance. This essay suggests a clear, simple, mind-brain solution that avoids all these perennial obscurities. (1) It does so, first of all, by reworking Strawson and Stoljar’s views. They argue that while minds differ from observable brains, minds can still be what brains are physically like behind the appearances created by our outer senses. This could avoid many obscurities. But to clearly (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  36. Information Based Hierarchical Brain Organization/Evolution from the Perspective of the Informational Model of Consciousness.Florin Gaiseanu - 2020 - Archives in Neurology and Neuroscience 7 (5):1-9.
    Introduction: This article discusses the brain hierarchical organization/evolution as a consequence of the information-induced brain development, from the perspective of the Informational Model of Consciousness. Analysis: In the frame of the Informational Model of Consciousness, a detailed info-neural analysis ispresented, concerning the specific properties/functions of the informational system of the human body composed by the Center of Acquisition and Storing of Information, Center of Decision and Command, Info-Emotional Center, Maintenance Informational System, Genetic Transmission System, Info Genetic Generator and (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  37. Brain activity and cognition: a connection from thermodynamics and information theory.Guillem Collell & Jordi Fauquet - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
    The connection between brain and mind is an important scientific and philosophical question that we are still far from completely understanding. A crucial point to our work is noticing that thermodynamics provides a convenient framework to model brain activity, whereas cognition can be modeled in information-theoretical terms. In fact, several models have been proposed so far from both approaches. A second critical remark is the existence of deep theoretical connections between thermodynamics and information theory. In fact, some (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  38. Empiricism without Magic: Transformational Abstraction in Deep Convolutional Neural Networks.Cameron Buckner - 2018 - Synthese (12):1-34.
    In artificial intelligence, recent research has demonstrated the remarkable potential of Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (DCNNs), which seem to exceed state-of-the-art performance in new domains weekly, especially on the sorts of very difficult perceptual discrimination tasks that skeptics thought would remain beyond the reach of artificial intelligence. However, it has proven difficult to explain why DCNNs perform so well. In philosophy of mind, empiricists have long suggested that complex cognition is based on information derived from sensory experience, often appealing (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   42 citations  
  39. Artificial Brains and Hybrid Minds.Paul Schweizer - 2017 - In Vincent C. Müller (ed.), Philosophy and Theory of Artificial Intelligence 2017. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. pp. 81-91.
    The paper develops two related thought experiments exploring variations on an ‘animat’ theme. Animats are hybrid devices with both artificial and biological components. Traditionally, ‘components’ have been construed in concrete terms, as physical parts or constituent material structures. Many fascinating issues arise within this context of hybrid physical organization. However, within the context of functional/computational theories of mentality, demarcations based purely on material structure are unduly narrow. It is abstract functional structure which does the key work in characterizing the respective (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  40. Causal Inferences in Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Research: Challenges and Perspectives.Justyna Hobot, Michał Klincewicz, Kristian Sandberg & Michał Wierzchoń - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 14:574.
    Transcranial magnetic stimulation is used to make inferences about relationships between brain areas and their functions because, in contrast to neuroimaging tools, it modulates neuronal activity. The central aim of this article is to critically evaluate to what extent it is possible to draw causal inferences from repetitive TMS data. To that end, we describe the logical limitations of inferences based on rTMS experiments. The presented analysis suggests that rTMS alone does not provide the sort of premises that (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  41. Persons Versus Brains: Biological Intelligence in Human Organisms.E. Steinhart - 2001 - Biology and Philosophy 16 (1):3-27.
    I go deep into the biology of the human organism to argue that the psychological features and functions of persons are realized by cellular and molecular parallel distributed processing networks dispersed throughout the whole body. Persons supervene on the computational processes of nervous, endocrine, immune, and genetic networks. Persons do not go with brains.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  42.  36
    Commentary: Not in the drug, not in the brain: Causality in psychedelic experiences from an enactive perspective.Ignacio Cea - 2023 - Frontiers in Psychology 14.
    I welcome with great enthusiasm Meling and Scheidegger’s (2023; henceforth “M&S”) timely contribution to advance an enactive approach to psychedelic therapy, especially to the complex causality involved. Their two main research questions concerned:(i) the causal interaction between the psychedelic molecule and brain activity; and (ii) the causal interaction between brain activity and the psychedelic experience. While I largely agree with and celebrate much of what is proposed by M&S, especially their employment of key enactive concepts to advance our (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  43. Cortical excitability in patients with focal epilepsy: a study with high frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS).Francesca Gilio, Elisa Iacovelli, Maria Gabriele, Elena Giacomelli, Cinzia Lorenzano, Floriana Picchiorri, Anna M. Cipriani, Maria T. Faedda & Maurizio Inghilleri - 2008 - Dialogues in Philosophy, Mental and Neuro Sciences 1 (1):28-32.
    Epileptogenesis involves an increase in excitatory synaptic strength in the brain in a manner similar to synaptic potentiation. In the present study we investigated the mechanisms of short-term synaptic potentiation in patients with focal epilepsy by using 5 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), a non invasive neurophysiological technique able to investigate the mechanisms of synaptic plasticity in humans. Ten patients with focal idiopathic cortical epilepsy were studied. 5 Hz-rTMS (10 stimuli-trains, 120% of motor threshold, RMT) was delivered (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  44. Augmentation of Mind-body Therapy and Role of Deep Slow Breathing.Jerath Ravinder & Vernon A. Barnes - 2009 - Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine 1:1-7.
    Mind-body therapies have been shown to be effective in clinical treatment of disorders such as high blood pressure and stress. Significant differences in the effectiveness of mind–body therapies have been shown and a common link among the therapies has yet to be defined. This article overviews the role of slow rhythmic breathing in physiological as well as therapeutic effects of mind-body therapies. Slow deep breathing practice has important implications as it may underlie the basic mechanism that synchronizes the (...) with the autonomic response. This article reviews studies that include the effect of deep slow breathing with or without mind-body therapy exercises. In utero studies that monitor patterns of fetal breathing reveal sympathetic activation with irregular, shallow fast breathing movements compared to slow deep breathing. Recognition of respiratory mechanisms in mind-body therapies can lead to development of more effective relaxation exercises that may incorporate deep slow breathing in clinical applications. (shrink)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  45. Human-Aided Artificial Intelligence: Or, How to Run Large Computations in Human Brains? Towards a Media Sociology of Machine Learning.Rainer Mühlhoff - 2019 - New Media and Society 1.
    Today, artificial intelligence, especially machine learning, is structurally dependent on human participation. Technologies such as Deep Learning (DL) leverage networked media infrastructures and human-machine interaction designs to harness users to provide training and verification data. The emergence of DL is therefore based on a fundamental socio-technological transformation of the relationship between humans and machines. Rather than simulating human intelligence, DL-based AIs capture human cognitive abilities, so they are hybrid human-machine apparatuses. From a perspective of media philosophy and social-theoretical critique, (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  46. Muscles or Movements? Representation in the Nascent Brain Sciences.Zina B. Ward - 2023 - Journal of the History of Biology 56 (1):5-34.
    The idea that the brain is a representational organ has roots in the nineteenth century, when neurologists began drawing conclusions about what the brain represents from clinical and experimental studies. One of the earliest controversies surrounding representation in the brain was the “muscles versus movements” debate, which concerned whether the motor cortex represents complex movements or rather fractional components of movement. Prominent thinkers weighed in on each side: neurologists John Hughlings Jackson and F.M.R. Walshe in favor of (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  47. Cortex excitability, epilepsy and brain illness: which are their correct relationships?Massimo Barrella - 2008 - Dialogues in Philosophy, Mental and Neuro Sciences 1 (1):37-39.
    In their work Gilio et al. investigate the mechanisms involved in the regulation of excitability of the cortex in epileptic subjects, and in particular their epileptogenic threshold.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  48. Processing of sub- and supra-second intervals in the primate brain results from the calibration of neuronal oscillators via sensory, motor, and feedback processes.Daya S. Gupta - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
    The processing of time intervals in the sub- to supra-second range by the brain is critical for the interaction of primates with their surroundings in activities, such as foraging and hunting. For an accurate processing of time intervals by the brain, representation of physical time within neuronal circuits is necessary. I propose that time dimension of the physical surrounding is represented in the brain by different types of neuronal oscillators, generating spikes or spike bursts at regular intervals. (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  49. Artificial Intelligence in Life Extension: from Deep Learning to Superintelligence.Alexey Turchin, Denkenberger David, Zhila Alice, Markov Sergey & Batin Mikhail - 2017 - Informatica 41:401.
    In this paper, we focus on the most efficacious AI applications for life extension and anti-aging at three expected stages of AI development: narrow AI, AGI and superintelligence. First, we overview the existing research and commercial work performed by a select number of startups and academic projects. We find that at the current stage of “narrow” AI, the most promising areas for life extension are geroprotector-combination discovery, detection of aging biomarkers, and personalized anti-aging therapy. These advances could help currently living (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  50. Biological Interventions for Crime Prevention.Christopher Chew, Thomas Douglas & Nadira Faber - forthcoming - In David Birks & Thomas Douglas (eds.), Treatment for Crime: Philosophical Essays on Neurointerventions in Criminal Justice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    This chapter sets the scene for the subsequent philosophical discussions by surveying a number of biological interventions that have been used, or might in the future be used, for the purposes of crime prevention. These interventions are pharmaceutical interventions intended to suppress libido, treat substance abuse or attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or modulate serotonin activity; nutritional interventions; and electrical and magnetic brain stimulation. Where applicable, we briefly comment on the historical use of these interventions, and in each case (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
1 — 50 / 998