Results for 'Laughter'

68 found
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  1. Laughter in Nietzsche’s Thought.Lawrence J. Hatab - 1988 - International Studies in Philosophy 20 (2):67-79.
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    The philosophy of laughter in Moliere’s Theatre (the case study: The Miser).Mohammadi-Aghdash Mohammad - 2024 - Journal of Philosophical Investigations 18 (46):345-362.
    The exploration of laughter’s philosophical significance within the realm of performing arts, particularly the French classical theatre of the seventeenth century, reveals a profound connection to the comedic genre. This literary form, characterized by its gentle yet satirical nature, aims to critique and amend the behavioral and societal flaws of individuals. It often portrays a protagonist whose moral attributes and actions defy societal norms, depicted on stage in an exaggerated manner, amplified and interwoven with theatrical techniques such as verbal (...)
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  3. Laughter and ethnic identity: Flora Nwapa’s Women are Different.Terence Rajivan Edward - manuscript
    This brief paper raises a puzzle, or half-puzzle, about Flora Nwapa’s ethnic identity in light of sentences in her novel Women are Different and presents two solutions.
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  4. From Locus Neoclassicus to Locus Rattus: Notes on Laughter, Comprehensiveness, and Titillation.Karl Pfeifer - 2006 - Res Cogitans 3 (1).
    Abstract. This paper illustrates how philosophy and science may converge and inform one another. I begin with a brief rehearsal of John Morreall’s “formulaic” theory of laughter, that laughter results from a pleasant psychological shift, and of my previously published criticisms and counterproposal that laughter results from titillation (where “titillation” is a semitechnical term). I defend my own position against charges that it is trivial, circular, or vacuous (charges that, if correct, would apply equally to Morreall’s position), (...)
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  5. The epistemic function of contempt and laughter in Nietzsche.Mark Alfano - 2018 - In Michelle Mason (ed.), The Moral Psychology of Contempt. Rowman & Littlefield International.
    Interpreters have noticed that Nietzsche, in addition to sometimes being uproariously funny, reflects more on laughter and having a sense of humor than almost any other philosopher. Several scholars have further noticed that Nietzschean laughter sometimes seems to have an epistemic function. In this chapter, I assume that Nietzsche is a pluralist about the functions of humor and laughter, and seek to establish the uses he finds for them. I offer an interpretation according to which he tactically (...)
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  6. "The Morality of Laughter" by F.H. Buckley. [REVIEW]Tim Crane - unknown
    Why is humour so hard to understand? Rather like attempts to explain how music can move us, attempts to explain why things are funny seem doomed from the outset. Discussions of humour typically distinguish three kinds of theory: the incongruity theory (we are amused by the incongruous), the relief theory (humour is an expression of relief in difficult situations) and the superiority theory (we laugh to express our sense of superiority over others). In the face of genuine humour, theories like (...)
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  7. Going to Bed White and Waking Up Arab: On Xenophobia, Affect Theories of Laughter, and the Social Contagion of the Comic Stage.Cynthia Willett - 2014 - Critical Philosophy of Race 2 (1):84-105.
    Like lynching and other mass hysterias, xenophobia exemplifies a contagious, collective wave of energy and hedonic quality that can point toward a troubling unpredictability at the core of political and social systems. While earlier studies of mass hysteria and popular discourse assume that cooler heads (aka rational individuals with their logic) could and should regain control over those emotions that are deemed irrational, and that boundaries are assumed healthy only when intact, affect studies pose individuals as nodes of biosocial networks (...)
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  8. Kant's Theory of Laughter.Mojca Kuplen - 2021 - Debates in Aesthetics 16 (1):49-62.
    In this paper I offer an alternative interpretation of Immanuel Kant’s theory of laughter that can meet the challenges left behind by the interpretations that have so far been given. I argue that laughter is a reaction to the dissolution of nonsense, which takes the form of realizing our own misconceptions about the object. Laughter reveals something about our cognitive and rational system: namely, that it is insufficient to explain all of our experiences and perceptions of the (...)
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  9. What did Hecker say about laughter? Funny you should ask.Karl Pfeifer - 2020 - Israeli Journal of Humor Research 9 (2):44-48.
    The Darwin-Hecker hypothesis, viz. that laughter induced by tickling and humor share common underlying mechanisms, is so-called in part because of a quotation attributed to Ewald Hecker. However, a German counterpart of the quotation does not appear in the location cited. Some textual sleuthing is undertaken to find out what Hecker actually wrote and where he wrote it.
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  10. Ethical consensus and the truth of laughter: the structure of moral transformations.Hub Zwart - 1996 - Kampen, The Netherlands: Kok Pharos Pub. House.
    There are several strategies for exposing the defects of established moral discourse, one of which is critical argumentation. However, under certain specific historical circumstances, the apparent self-evidence of established moral discourse has gained such dominance, such a capacity of resistance or incorporation, such an ability to conceal its basic vulnerability that its validity simply seems beyond contestation. Notwithstanding the moral subject’s basic discontent, he or she remains unable to challenge the dominant discourse effectively by means of critical argument. Or, to (...)
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  11. The Book of Laughter and Forgetting versus Tompkins' paradox.Terence Rajivan Edward - manuscript
    This paper introduces an obvious interpretation of what Milan Kundera is “saying” about his characters the students Gabrielle and Michelle: don’t be like this. It contrasts the satirical way of developing character with a Tompkins’ paradox situation. I also raise a rather subtle question about the translation.
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  12. Life's Joke: Bergson, Comedy, and the Meaning of Laughter.Russell Ford - 2018 - In Lydia L. Moland (ed.), All Too Human: Laughter, Humor, and Comedy in Nineteenth-Century Philosophy. Cham: Springer. pp. 175-193.
    The present essay argues that Bergson’s account of the comic can only be fully appreciated when read in conjunction with his later metaphysical exposition of the élan vital in Creative Evolution and then by the account of fabulation that Bergson only elaborates fully three decades later in The Two Sources of Morality and Religion. The more substantive account of the élan vital ultimately shows that, in Laughter, Bergson misses his own point: laughter does not simply serve as a (...)
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  13. Kafka’s Empty Law: Laughter and Freedom in The Trial.Dimitris Vardoulakis - 2013 - In Brendan Moran & Carlos Salzani (eds.), Kafka and Philosophy. Lanham, MD 20706, USA: pp. 33-52.
    Through an analysis of Kafka's "Before the Law," Vardoulakis considers both various philosophical responses to Kafka's story and philosophical conceptions of the law. In particular, Vardoulakis suggests an affinity between Kafka and Spinoza's conceptions of the law.
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  14. Taking Laughter Seriously. [REVIEW]Karl Pfeifer - 1984 - Journal of Mind and Behavior 5 (1).
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  15. As if: Connecting Phenomenology, Mirror Neurons, Empathy, and Laughter.Chris A. Kramer - 2012 - PhaenEx 7 (1):275-308.
    The discovery of mirror neurons in both primates and humans has led to an enormous amount of research and speculation as to how conscious beings are able to interact so effortlessly among one another. Mirror neurons might provide an embodied basis for passive synthesis and the eventual process of further communalization through empathy, as envisioned by Edmund Husserl. I consider the possibility of a phenomenological and scientific investigation of laughter as a point of connection that might in the future (...)
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  16. Self- Deprecation and the Habit of Laughter.Camille Atkinson - 2015 - Florida Philosophical Review 15 (1):19-36.
    My objective here is to give an account of self-deprecating humor—examining what works, what doesn't, and why—and to reflect on the significance of the audience response. More specifically, I will be focusing not only on the purpose or intention behind self-deprecating jokes, but considering how their consequences might render them successful or unsuccessful. For example, under what circumstances does self-deprecation tend to put listeners at ease, and when is this type of humor more likely to put people off? I will (...)
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  17. Freedom from the Free Will: On Kafka’s Laughter.Dimitris Vardoulakis - 2016 - Albany, NY, USA: SUNY.
    Vardoulakis examines the history of the free will, arguing that there is no necessary connection with the concept of freedom. To illustrate this point, Vardoulakis turns to the stories of Franz Kafka, an author obsessed with narratives that show characters in confinement. However, these situations of confinement are only produced by the comical attempts of the characters to assert their free will.
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  18. Tradition as Gelotopoesis: An Essay on the Hermeneutics of Laughter in Martin Heidegger.Tziovanis Georgakis - 2011 - Cosmos and History : The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 7 (2):179-203.
    In this essay, I argue that laughter stands as the tricky possibility of the question of the meaning of Being, which ridiculously limits and gets limited by tradition beyond limitation. I introduce a hermeneutics of laughter and contend that the event of Ereignis receives its meaning from Gelotopoesis—the poetic act of laughter. Moreover, I claim that the echo of Gelotopoesis becomes the possibility of the transmission of tradition and is attested by a hypertonic boastfulness and a hypotonic (...)
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  19. The Benefits of Comedy: Teaching Ethics Through Shared Laughter.Christine James - 2005 - Academic Exchange Extra (April).
    Over the last three years I have been fortunate to teach an unusual class, one that provides an academic background in ethical and social and political theory using the medium of comedy. I have taught the class at two schools, a private liberal arts college in western Pennsylvania and a public regional state university in southern Georgia. While the schools vary widely in a number of ways, there are characteristics that the students share: the school in Pennsylvania had a large (...)
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  20. Einstein's Quandary, Socrates' Irony, and Jesus' Laughter: A 'Post-Modern' Meditation on Faith, Reason, Love, and the Paradox of the One and the Many.Richard Oxenberg - manuscript
    The paradox of 'the One and the Many' might, more generally, be understood as the paradox of relationship. In order for there to be relationship there must be at least two parties in relation. The relation must, at once, hold the parties apart (otherwise they would collapse into unity) while holding them together (otherwise relationship itself would cease). It must do so, further, without itself becoming a third party which would then, itself, need to be related. This paper considers this (...)
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  21. World-Traveling, Double Consciousness, and Laughter.Chris A. Kramer - 2017 - Israeli Journal for Humor Research 2 (6):93-119.
    In this paper I borrow from Maria Lugones’ work on playful “world-traveling” and W.E.B. Du Bois’ notion of “double consciousness” to make the case that humor can facilitate an openness and cooperative attitude among an otherwise closed, even adversarial audience. I focus on what I call “subversive” humor, that which is employed by or on behalf of those who have been continually marginalized. When effectively used, such humor can foster the inclination and even desire to listen to others and, if (...)
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  22. the Seriously erotic Politics of feminist laughter.Cynthia Willett, Julie Willett & Yael D. Sherman - 2012 - Social Research: An International Quarterly 79 (1):217-246.
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  23. Review of Feminism and Contemporary Art: The Revolutionary Power of Women's Laughter and The Emptiness of the Image: Psychoanalysis and Sexual Differences. [REVIEW]Peg Brand Weiser, Jo Anna Isaak & Parveen Adams - 1998 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 56 (3):299.
    Both books published in 1996 explore the role that gender plays in the psychology of art (dealing with both making and viewing), complicating current philosophical distinctions between the aesthetic and the cognitive, and providing new insights into basic topics in the history and psychology of perception, representation, and disinterestedness.
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  24. Censoring Emotional Discourse.Rachel Aumiller - 2016 - In Žarko Cvejić, Andrija Filipović & Ana Petrov (eds.), The Crisis in the Humanities: Transdisciplinary Solutions. Cambridge Scholars. pp. 8-15.
    This paper critiques of the privileging of seriousness in modern scholarship and particularly in the humanities, on account of its purported neutrality and objectivity, the resulting foreclosing of all other emotions and insights, and the potentially subversive and enriching potential of laughter, as discussed in Karl Marx’s dichotomy of laughter and seriousness.
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  25. On Cheerfulness and Seriousness in Nietzsche and Jaspers.Ruth Burch - 2022 - Existenz 15 (2):65-72.
    Cheerfulness and seriousness are an integral part of philosophizing in Friedrich Nietzsche and Karl Jaspers. The main reason for this lies in the fact that both regard philosophers as being inseparable from their respective philosophies. Yet also the fact that their respective philosophies have multiple meanings shifts the focus away from truth toward style and rhetoric, that is, from the true and false to mood and laughter as well as to passionate interpretation and playful conversation.
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  26. Laughing at Trans Women: A Theory of Transmisogyny (Author Preprint).Amy Marvin - forthcoming - In Trans Philosophy: Meaning and Mattering. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    This essay meditates on the short film American Reflexxx and the violent laughter directed at a non-trans woman in public space when she was assumed to be trans. Drawing from work on the ideological and institutional dimensions of transphobia by Talia Bettcher and Viviane Namaste, alongside Sara Ahmed's writing on the cultural politics of disgust, I reverse engineer this specific instance of laughter into a meditation on the social meaning of transphobic laughter in public space. I then (...)
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  27. Is Laughing at Morally Oppressive Jokes Like Being Disgusted by Phony Dog Feces? An Analysis of Belief and Alief in the Context of Questionable Humor.Chris A. Kramer - 2022 - The Philosophy of Humor Yearbook 3 (1):179-207.
    In two very influential papers from 2008, Tamar Gendler introduced the concept of “alief” to describe the mental state one is in when acting in ways contrary to their consciously professed beliefs. For example, if asked to eat what they know is fudge, but shaped into the form of dog feces, they will hesitate, and behave in a manner that would be consistent with the belief that the fudge is really poop. They alieve that it is disgusting, while they believe (...)
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  28. Laughing at the Other: Toward an Understanding of the Alt-Right with Adorno.Claudia Leeb - 2019 - In Amirhosein Khandizaji (ed.), Reading Adorno: The Endless Road. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 75-100.
    What is the growing appeal of the “Alt-Right” (Alternative Right), a white-supremacist and anti-feminist movement, for young, primarily male, Millennials in the United States? In this chapter, I outline how the Alt-Right uses laughter in its culture industry on the internet to recruit new members to its right extremist ideas. I also explain how laughter connects Alt-Right extremism with Trumpism. Throughout the chapter, I draw on Theodor W. Adorno’s critical theorizing of laughter fabricated by the culture industry (...)
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  29. The Dark Side of Humor and Happiness.Karl Pfeifer - manuscript
    This is the commentary on Richard C. Richards, "Humor and Happiness”, read at the Lighthearted Philosophers' Society 5th Annual Conference, 14 October 2011, Treasure Island, Florida.
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  30. The Sudden, the Sudded, and the Sidesplitting.Karl Pfeifer - 1995 - In Kjell S. Johannessen & Tore Nordenstam (eds.), Culture and Value: Philosophy and the Cultural Sciences (Contributions of the Austrian Ludwig Wittgenstein Society, Vol. 3, 1995). Austrian Ludwig Wittgenstein Society. pp. 224-232.
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  31. Russell reading Bergson.Andreas Vrahimis - 2021 - In Mark Sinclair & Yaron Wolf (eds.), The Bergsonian Mind. Oxon: Routledge. pp. 350-366.
    This chapter examines Bertrand Russell’s various confrontations with Bergson’s work. Russell’s meetings with Bergson during 1911 would be followed in 1912 by the publication of Russell’s earliest polemical pieces. His 1912 review of Bergson’s Laughter ridicules the effort to develop a philosophical account of humour on the basis of some formula. In his 1912 “The Philosophy of Bergson”, Russell develops a series of objections against Bergson’s accounts of number, space, and duration. Bergson’s position is defended against Russell’s onslaught by (...)
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  32. The Animal Mind: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Animal Cognition.Kristin Andrews - 2014 - Routledge.
    The study of animal cognition raises profound questions about the minds of animals and philosophy of mind itself. Aristotle argued that humans are the only animal to laugh, but in recent experiments rats have also been shown to laugh. In other experiments, dogs have been shown to respond appropriately to over two hundred words in human language. In this introduction to the philosophy of animal minds Kristin Andrews introduces and assesses the essential topics, problems and debates as they cut across (...)
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  33. "How Humor Works" Introduction - The "Holy Grail" Humor Theory in One Page.E. Garrett Ennis - manuscript
    This paper introduces the "Status Loss Theory of Humor," as detailed in "How Humor Works" and "How Humor Works, Part II" , in a single page. This theory has the potential to fully, clearly, and naturally explain the human humor instinct, and has made predictions that are being confirmed by other studies.
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  34. Nietzsche's Moral Psychology.Mark Alfano - 2019 - New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Introduction -/- 1 Précis -/- 2 Methodology: Introducing digital humanities to the history of philosophy 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Core constructs 2.3 Operationalizing the constructs 2.4 Querying the Nietzsche Source 2.5 Cleaning the data 2.6 Visualizations and preliminary analysis 2.6.1 Visualization of the whole corpus 2.6.2 Book visualizations 2.7 Summary -/- Nietzsche’s Socio-Moral Framework -/- 3 From instincts and drives to types 3.1 Introduction 3.2 The state of the art on drives, instincts, and types 3.2.1 Drives 3.2.2 Instincts 3.2.3 Types 3.3 (...)
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  35. Humour in Nietzsche's style.Charles Boddicker - 2020 - European Journal of Philosophy 29 (2):447-458.
    Nietzsche's writing style is designed to elicit affective responses in his readers. Humour is one of the most common means by which he attempts to engage his readers' affects. In this article, I explain how and why Nietzsche uses humour to achieve his philosophical ends. The article has three parts. In part 1, I reject interpretations of Nietzsche's humour on which he engages in self‐parody in order to mitigate the charge of decadence or dogmatism by undermining his own philosophical authority. (...)
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  36. Having a sense of humor as a virtue.Mark Alfano, Mandi Astola & Paula Urbanowicz - forthcoming - Journal of Value Inquiry:1-22.
    Could having a sense of humor be a virtue? In this paper, we argue for an affirmative answer to this question. Like other virtues, a sense of humor enhances and inhibits the expression of various emotions, especially amusement, contempt, trust, and hope. Someone possesses a virtuous sense of humor to the extent that they are well-disposed to appropriately enhance or inhibit these emotions in themselves and others through both embodied reactions (e.g., smiling, laughter, eyerolls) and language (e.g., telling jokes, (...)
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  37. What's the Deal with Standup Comedy?Alan Daboin - 2022 - In V. Vinogradovs (ed.), Aesthetic Literacy vol I: a book for everyone. Melbourne: Mont Publishing House. pp. 128-140.
    The artform of standup comedy can be seen as having much in common with the discipline of philosophy, particularly with the way philosophy is carried out or “performed,” whether professionally or otherwise. There are, for instance, certain basic similarities between how standup comedians and philosophers value ideals of clarity and precision when it comes to the issue of determining what kind of language is best to employ if one seeks to either effectively deliver a funny joke, as in the case (...)
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  38. Charles Darwin a naturalistické koncepce člověka.Filip Tvrdý - 2011 - In Tomáš Nejeschleba, Václav Němec & Monika Recinová (eds.), Pojetí člověka v dějinách a současnosti filozofie II: Od Kanta po současnost. pp. 33-41.
    In 2009, we celebrated the bicentennial of the birth of Charles Darwin and the sesquicentennial of the publication of his book The Origin of Species. This seems to be a good opportunity to evaluate the importance of Darwin’s work for the social sciences, mainly for philosophical anthropology. The aim of this paper is to discuss the traditional anthropocentric conceptions of man, which consider our biological species to be exceptional – qualitatively higher than other living organisms. Over the course of the (...)
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  39. Cyborg activism: Exploring the reconfigurations of democratic subjectivity in Anonymous.Hans Asenbaum - 2018 - New Media and Society 20 (4):1543-1563.
    This article develops the concept of cyborg activism as novel configuration of democratic subjectivity in the Information Age by exploring the online collectivity Anonymous as a prototype. By fusing elements of human/machine and organic/digital, the cyborg disrupts modern logics of binary thinking. Cyborg activism emerges as the reconfiguration of equality/hierarchy, reason/emotion and nihilism/idealism. Anonymous demonstrates how through the use of contingent and ephemeral digital personae hierarchies in cyborg activism prove more volatile than in face-to-face settings. Emotions appear as an essential (...)
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  40. Forms of Life of Mathematical Objects.Jedrzejewski Franck - 2020 - Rue Descartes 97 (1):115-130.
    What could be more inert than mathematical objects? Nothing distinguishes them from rocks and yet, if we examine them in their historical perspective, they don't actually seem to be as lifeless as they do at first. Conceived as they are by humans, they offer a glimpse of the breath that brings them to life. Caught in the web of a language, they cannot extricate themselves from the form that the tensive forces constraining them have given them. While they do not (...)
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  41. What Could It Mean to Say That Today's Stand‐Up Audiences Are Too Sensitive?Phillip Deen - 2020 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 78 (4):501-512.
    Contemporary comedy audiences are accused by some comedians of being too morally sensitive to appreciate humor. To get closer to an idea of what this means, I will first briefly present the argument over audience sensitivity as found in the non-philosophical literature. Second, I then turn to the philosophical literature and begin from the idea that “funny” is a response-dependent property. I present a criticism of this response-dependence account of “funny” based in the claim that funniness is not de- termined (...)
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  42. The Social Account of Humour.Daniel Abrahams - 2021 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 51 (2):81-93.
    Philosophical accounts of humour standardly account for humour in terms of what happens within a person. On these internalist accounts, humour is to be understood in terms of cognition, perception, and sensation. These accounts, while valuable, are poorly-situated to engage the social functions of humour. They have difficulty engaging why we value humour, why we use it define ourselves and our friendships, and why it may be essential to our self-esteem. In opposition to these internal accounts, I offer a social (...)
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  43. Verbal irony in the wild.Gregory A. Bryant - 2011 - Pragmatics and Cognition 19 (2):291-309.
    Verbal irony constitutes a rough class of indirect intentional communication involving a complex interaction of language-specific and communication-general phenomena. Conversationalists use verbal irony in conjunction with paralinguistic signals such as speech prosody. Researchers examining acoustic features of speech communication usually focus on how prosodic information relates to the surface structure of utterances, and often ignore prosodic phenomena associated with implied meaning. In the case of verbal irony, there exists some debate concerning how these prosodic features manifest themselves in conversation. A (...)
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  44. "Ubi fracassorium, ibi fuggitorium": Pulcinella e l’enigma della ricapitolazione del tempo.Marta Cassina - 2020 - LEA – Lingue E Letterature d'Oriente E d'Occidente 9:303-315.
    Who is Pulcinella? What does his laughter have to say about the "end of time" and the end of life of Giandomenico Tiepolo? How can the end of a life make anyone laugh like Carnival’s popular mask does? This article tries to answer such questions. By unfolding the tools that come from the realm of Giorgio Agamben’s philosophy – notably the notion of "recapitulation of time" in its relation to comedy – we will trace a path which links Michail (...)
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  45. No Hugging, No Learning: The Limitations of Humour.Cochrane Tom - 2017 - British Journal of Aesthetics 57 (1):51-66.
    I claim that the significance of comic works to influence our attitudes is limited by the conditions under which we find things funny. I argue that we can only find something funny if we regard it as norm-violating in a way that doesn’t make certain cognitive or pragmatic demands upon us. It is compatible with these conditions that humour reinforces our attitude that something is norm-violating. However, it is not compatible with these conditions that, on the basis of finding it (...)
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  46. The identity of Milan Kundera as astrologer.Terence Rajivan Edward - manuscript
    In his The Book of Laughter and Forgetting, Milan Kundera describes how he was fired from his job and secretly wrote astrology columns. I register a puzzle that various readers should feel about this information, owing to the distinctive style of Kundera: how can this be kept a secret? I also propose solutions.
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  47. Artificial Intelligence, Phenomenology, and the Molyneux Problem.Chris A. Kramer - 2023 - The Philosophy of Humor Yearbook 4 (1):225-226.
    This short article is a “conversation” in which an android, Mort, replies to Richard Marc Rubin’s android named Sol in “The Robot Sol Explains Laughter to His Android Brethren” (The Philosophy of Humor Yearbook, 2022). There Sol offers an explanation for how androids can laugh--largely a reaction to frustration and unmet expectations: “my account says that laughter is one of four ways of dealing with frustration, difficulties, and insults. It is a way of getting by. If you need (...)
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  48. Which Direction Do We Punch: The Powers and Perils of Humour Against the New Conspiracism.Chris A. Kramer - 2023 - In Rashi Bhargava & Richa Chilana (eds.), Punching Up in Stand-Up Comedy. London, UK: pp. 235-254.
    This chapter will evaluate humor used with the specific intent to reveal glaring epistemic errors that lead to injustice; flaws in reasoning so transparent that straightforward logic, argument, and evidence seem ineffectual against them, and in some cases, just silly to think such tools would be needed. Laughter seems to be one of the only sane responses. In particular, I will assess how humor can combat conspiracy theories, propaganda, lies, and bullshit. The last one I view in Harry Frankfurt's (...)
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  49. Criticism of the ostrich scenes from Milan Kundera.Terence Rajivan Edward - manuscript
    This paper presents critical reactions to the use of the ostriches in Milan Kundera’s The Book of Laughter and Forgetting, focusing on the fact that he does not use their most striking quality. But, despite the demand, I struggle to find much to criticize, though I do flag a worry about Kundera’s consistency regarding what is common knowledge.
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  50. Bakhtin on Shakespeare (Excerpt from “Additions and Changes to Rabelais”).Mikhail Bakhtin - 2014 - PMLA 129 (3):522-537.
    This is the English translation (with a brief introduction and relatively detailed commentary) of a long excerpt from Mikhail Bakhtin's notes titled "Additions and changes to Rabelais", written in the mid-1940s with reworking his then unpublished manuscript on François Rabelais in mind. This excerpt is most notable for being the only extant text in which Bakhtin discusses and analyses Shakespear's tragedies at relative length—a discussion interesting not only as a reading of Shakespeare, but also as an unusual and revealing example (...)
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