Results for 'PIT'

29 found
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  1. No Last Resort: Pitting the Right to Die Against the Right to Medical Self-Determination.Michael Cholbi - 2015 - The Journal of Ethics 19 (2):143-157.
    Many participants in debates about the morality of assisted dying maintain that individuals may only turn to assisted dying as alast resort’, i.e., that a (...)patient ought to be eligible for assisted dying only after she has exhausted certain treatment or care options. Here I argue that this last resort condition is unjustified, that it is in fact wrong to require patients to exhaust a prescribed slate of treatment or care options before being eligible for assisted dying. The last resort condition effectively pits one right of patients, their right to refuse medical treatment or interventions, against another patient right acknowledged by advocates of assisted dying, the right to die. Drawing on an analogy with the legal notion of an unconstitutional condition, I argue that the last resort condition unjustly demands that an arguably more fundamental rightthe right to refuse medical treatment or interventionbe foregone in order to acquire a less fundamental rightthe right to die. I then address three rationales for the last resort condition and find that they subject individuals to arbitrarily stringent standards for exercising the right to die, standards to which those who seek to end their lives by voluntarily ending life-sustaining treatments are not subject. Subjecting those who seek assisted dying to the last resort condition therefore wrongfully infringes on their right to refuse medical treatment or interventions. (shrink)
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  2.  17
    The Pit. Analele Universitatii Bucuresti.Mihai Nadin - 1973 - Analele Universitatii Bucuresti 22.
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  3. Wave/Particle Duality: The La Brea Tar Pit of Quantum Theory.Paul Klevgard - 2007 - Physics Essays 20:119-126.
    Why do photons and speeding electrons have both wave features and particle features when common sense tells us that they should be either particle or wave and (...)
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  4. Damage to the Prefrontal Cortex Increases Utilitarian Moral Judgements.Michael Koenigs, Liane Young, Ralph Adolphs, Daniel Tranel, Fiery Cushman, Marc Hauser & Antonio Damasio - 2007 - Nature 446 (7138):908-911.
    The psychological and neurobiological processes underlying moral judgement have been the focus of many recent empirical studies111. Of central interest is whether emotions play a causal (...)role in moral judgement, and, in parallel, how emotion-related areas of the brain contribute to moral judgement. Here we show that six patients with focal bilateral damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPC), a brain region necessary for the normal generation of emotions and, in particular, social emotions1214, produce an abnor- mallyutilitarianpattern of judgements on moral dilemmas that pit compelling considerations of aggregate welfare against highly emotionally aversive behaviours (for example, having to sacrifice one persons life to save a number of other lives)7,8. In contrast, the VMPC patientsjudgements were normal in other classes of moral dilemmas. These findings indicate that, for a selective set of moral dilemmas, the VMPC is critical for normal judgements of right and wrong. The findings support a necessary role for emotion in the generation of those judgements. (shrink)
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  5. Folk teleology drives persistence judgments.David Rose, Jonathan Schaffer & Kevin Tobia - 2020 - Synthese 197 (12):5491-5509.
    Two separate research programs have revealed two different factors that feature in our judgments of whether some entity persists. One programinspired by Knobehas found that normative (...) considerations affect persistence judgments. For instance, people are more inclined to view a thing as persisting when the changes it undergoes lead to improvements. The other programinspired by Kelemenhas found that teleological considerations affect persistence judgments. For instance, people are more inclined to view a thing as persisting when it preserves its purpose. Our goal in this paper is to determine what causes persistence judgments. Across four studies, we pit normative considerations against teleological considerations. And using causal modeling procedures, we find a consistent, robust pattern with teleological and not normative considerations directly causing persistence judgments. Our findings put teleology in the drivers seat, while at the same time shedding further light on our folk notion of an object. (shrink)
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  6. Do Causal Powers Drain Away.Ned Block - 2003 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 67 (1):133-150.
    In this note, I will discuss one issue concerning the main argument of Mind in a Physical World (Kim, 1998), the Causal Exclusion Argument. The issue is (...)
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  7.  17
    The Effects of Farmland Expropriation in Vietnam.Thuy Trang, Huong T. T. Hoang, Khoi Duc, My Nguyen, Hang Khanh & Kien Le - 2016
    Thе еxprоpriаtiоn оf аgriculturаl lаnd prоvidе nеw lаnd fоr industriаl аnd urbаn еxpаnsiоn, rеfеrrеd аs cоmpulsоry аcquisitiоn, is prеvаlеnt in dеvеlоping cоuntriеs. Using Viеtnаm аs (...)
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  8. Whistleblowing and Employee Loyalty.Robert A. Larmer - 1992 - Journal of Business Ethics 11 (2):125 - 128.
    Discussions of whistleblowing and employee loyalty usually assume either that the concept of loyalty is irrelevant to the issue or, more commonly, that whistleblowing involves a moral (...)
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  9.  13
    The Effects of Farmland Expropriation.Thuy Trang, Huong T. T. Hoang, Khoi Duc, My Nguyen, Hang Khanh & Kien Le - 2017
    Thе еxprоpriаtiоn оf аgriculturаl lаnd prоvidе nеw lаnd fоr industriаl аnd urbаn еxpаnsiоn, rеfеrrеd аs cоmpulsоry аcquisitiоn, is prеvаlеnt in dеvеlоping cоuntriеs. Using Viеtnаm аs (...)
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  10.  86
    Legal Directives and Practical Reasons.Noam Gur - 2018 - Oxford University Press.
    This book investigates law's interaction with practical reasons. What difference can legal requirementse.g. traffic rules, tax laws, or work safety regulationsmake to normative reasons (...)relevant to our action? Do they give reasons for action that should be weighed among all other reasons? Or can they, instead, exclude and take the place of some other reasons? The book critically examines some of the existing answers and puts forward an alternative understanding of law's interaction with practical reasons. -/- At the outset, two competing positions are pitted against each other: Joseph Raz's view that (legitimate) legal authorities have pre-emptive force, namely that they give reasons for action that exclude some other reasons; and an antithesis, according to which law-making institutions (even those that meet prerequisites of legitimacy) can at most provide us with reasons that compete in weight with opposing reasons for action. These two positions are examined from several perspectives, such as justified disobedience cases, law's conduct-guiding function in contexts of bounded rationality, and the phenomenology associated with authority. -/- It is found that, although each of the above positions offers insight into the conundrum at hand, both suffer from significant flaws. These observations form the basis on which an alternative position is put forward and defended. According to this position, the existence of a reasonably just and well-functioning legal system constitutes a reason that fits neither into a model of ordinary reasons for action nor into a pre-emptive paradigmit constitutes a reason to adopt an (overridable) disposition that inclines its possessor towards compliance with the system's requirements. (shrink)
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  11. Technoprogressive Biopolitics and Human Enhancement.James Hughes - 2010 - In Jonathan D. Moreno & Sam Berger (eds.), Progress in Bioethics: Science, Policy, and Politics. MIT Press.
    A principal challenge facing the progressive bioethics project is the crafting of a consistent message on biopolitical issues that divide progressives. -/- The regulation of enhancement technologies is (...) one of the issues central to this emerging biopolitics, pitting progressive defenders of enhancement, “technoprogressives,” against progressive critics. This essay [PDF] will argue that technoprogressive biopolitics express the consistent application of the core progressive values of the Enlightenment: the right of individuals to control their own bodies, brains and reproduction according to their own conscience, under democratic states that work for the public good. -/- Insofar as left bioconservatives want to ensure the safety of therapies and their equitable distribution, these concerns can be addressed by thorough and independent regulation and a universal health care system, and a progressive bioethics of enhancement can unite both enthusiasts and skeptics. Insofar as bioconservative concerns are motivated by deeper hostility to the Enlightenment project however, by assertion of pre-modern reverence for human uniqueness for instance, then a common program is unlikely. -/- imageAfter briefly reviewing the political history and contemporary landscape of biopolitical debates about enhancement, the essay outlines three meta-policy contexts that will impact future biopolicy: the pressure to establish a universal, cost-effective health insurance system, the aging of industrial societies, and globalization. Technoprogressive appeals are outlined that can appeal to key constituencies, and build a majority coalition in support of progressive change. Finally, some guiding principles for a technoprogressive approach to biopolicy are offered. (shrink)
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  12. Consciousness and Intentionality.Angela Mendelovici & David Bourget - 2020 - In Uriah Kriegel (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of the Philosophy of Consciousness. New York, USA: Oxford University Press. pp. 560-585.
    Philosophers traditionally recognize two main features of mental states: intentionality and phenomenal consciousness. To a first approximation, intentionality is the aboutness of mental states, and phenomenal consciousness (...)
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  13. Blocking the A Priori Passage.Andreas Elpidorou - 2014 - Acta Analytica 29 (3):285-307.
    I defend the claim that physicalism is not committed to the view that non-phenomenal macrophysical truths are a priori entailed by the conjunction of microphysical truths , (...)
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  14. Asking Too Much? Civility Vs. Pluralism.Alison Reiheld - 2013 - Philosophical Topics 41 (2):59-78.
    In a morally diverse society, moral agents inevitably run up against intractable disagreements. Civility functions as a valuable constraint on the sort of behaviors which moral agents (...)
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  15. Dilemmas in Access to Medicines: a Humanitarian PerspectiveAuthors' Reply.Ezekiel J. Emanuel & Govind Persad - 2017 - Lancet 387 (10073):1008-1009.
    Our Viewpoint argues that expanding access to less effective or more toxic treatments is supported not only by utilitarian ethical reasoning but also by two other ethical (...)
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  16. Dance Appreciation: The View From the Audience.Aili Bresnahan - 2017 - In David Goldbatt, Lee Brown & Stephanie Patridge (eds.), Aesthetics: A Reader in the Philosophy of the Arts, 4th edition. New York: pp. 347-350.
    Dance can be appreciated from all sorts of perspectives: For instance, by the dancer while dancing, by the choreographer while watching in the wings, by the musician (...)
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  17. Racial Profiling and Jury Trials.Annabelle Lever - 2009 - The Jury Expert 21 (1):20-35.
    How, if at all, should race figure in criminal trials with a jury? How far should attorneys be allowed or encouraged to probe the racial sensitivities of (...)
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  18. Intentionality, Evaluative Judgments, and Causal Structure.Jason Shepard & Wolff Phillip - 2013 - Proceedings of the 35th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society 35:3390-3395.
    The results from a number of recent studies suggest that ascriptions of intentionality are based on evaluative considerations: specifically, that the likelihood of viewing a persons (...)actions as intentional is greater when the outcome is bad than good (see Knobe, 2006, 2010). In this research we provide an alternative explanation for these findings, one based on the idea that ascriptions of intentionality depend on causal structure. As predicted by the causal structure view, we observed that actions leading to bad outcomes are associated with negative social pressures (Experiment 1), that these negative pressures give rise to a specific kind of causal structure (Experiment 2), and that when these causal structures are pitted against the badness of the outcome, intentionality judgments track with causal structure and not badness (Experiment 3). While the badness of an outcome may have an indirect effect on judgments of intentionality, our results suggest that the factors that affect judgments of intentionality most directly are non-evaluative and objective. (shrink)
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  19. Meaning and Modernity: Social Theory in the Pragmatic Attitude.Eugene Rochberg-Halton - 1986 - Chicago, IL, USA: University of Chicago Press.
    The twentieth-century obsession with meaning often fails to address the central questions: Why are we here? Where are we going? In this radical critique of modernity, (...)Eugene (Rochberg-) Halton resurrects pragmatism, pushing it beyond its traditional formulations to meet these questions head on. Drawing on the works of the early pragmatists such as John Dewey, George Herbert Mead, and particularly C.S. Peirce, Meaning and Modernity is an ambitious attempt to reconstruct concepts from philosophical pragmatism for contemporary social theory. Through a vigorous and illuminating dialogue with other perspectives in the social sciences, (Rochberg-) Halton reveals the value of the pragmatic attitude as a mode of thought, one which speaks to the contemporary hunger for significance in a world where rationalized technique has all too often severed subject and object from their living context... Throughout the work is a sustained critique of modern culture in which (Rochberg-) Halton brings his reconstruction of the pragmatic atttude to bear on twentieth-century thought and its counterparts in the expressive arts. His engaging analysis encompasses figures as diverse as Simmel, Freud, Wittgenstein, Schoenberg, Adolph Loos, Mumford, Melville, the "Vienna School of Fantastic Realism," and Doris Lessing. The author's semiotic approach to culture allows him to move freely and easily across many disciplines, including anthropology, sociology, communications, art, literature, and philosophy. This is a work of rare originality and power that is sure to provoke discussion, for Rochberg-Halton creates new premises for understanding the human web of meaning. In a review published in the London Times Literary Supplement, Charles Townshend said that (Rochberg-) Halton's, “answer to the dilemma of modernity is a still more striking synthesis, which he labelscritical animism’ (as distinct from primitive animism). Meaning and Modernity belies its conventional exterior: it is a passionate tract against the 'diabolical tyranny of the rational'...He pits his researches into the attitudes of Chicagoans to their household goods and to their city against the abstract semioticians who have emptied signs of their capacity to 'live objectively in the transactions people have with them'...Such humanism will probably strike his fellow social theorists as downright weird, but his work shows that the cracking shell of modernism will provide a rich intellectual agenda.”. (shrink)
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  20.  51
    The Extended Mind Argument Against Phenomenal Intentionality.Cody Turner - 2021 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 20:1-28.
    This paper offers a novel argument against the phenomenal intentionality thesis (or PIT for short). The argument, which Ill call the extended mind argument against phenomenal (...)intentionality, is centered around two claims: the first asserts that some source intentional states extend into the environment, while the second maintains that no conscious states extend into the environment. If these two claims are correct, then PIT is false, for PIT implies that the extension of source intentionality is predicated upon the extension of phenomenal consciousness. The argument is important because it undermines an increasingly prominent account of the nature of intentionality. PIT has entered the philosophical mainstream and is now a serious contender to naturalistic views of intentionality like the tracking theory and the functional role theory (Loar 1987, 2003; Searle 1990; Strawson 1994; Horgan and Tienson 2002; Pitt 2004; Farkas 2008; Kriegel 2013; Montague 2016; Bordini 2017; Forrest 2017; Mendelovici 2018). The extended mind argument against PIT challenges the popular sentiment that consciousness grounds intentionality. (shrink)
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  21. Children Prioritize Humans Over Animals Less Than Adults Do.Matti Wilks, Lucius Caviola, Guy Kahane & Paul Bloom - 2021 - Psychological Science 1 (32):27-38.
    Is the tendency to morally prioritize humans over animals weaker in children than adults? In two pre-registered studies (N = 622), 5- to 9-year-old children and (...) adults were presented with moral dilemmas pitting varying numbers of humans against varying numbers of either dogs or pigs and were asked who should be saved. In both studies, children had a weaker tendency to prioritize humans over animals than adults. They often chose to save multiple dogs over one human, and many valued the life of a dog as much as the life of a human. While they valued pigs less, the majority still prioritized ten pigs over one human. By contrast, almost all adults chose to save one human over even one hundred dogs or pigs. Our findings suggest that the common view that humans are far more morally important than animals appears late in development and is likely socially acquired. (shrink)
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  22.  12
    Is Ethical Theory Opposed to Moral Practice?Shashi Motilal - 2015 - Journal of the Indian Council of Philosophical Research 32 (3):289-299.
    Many philosophers in the Anglo-American tradition have held that the predominant modern western theories of ethics like Kants deontological theory and Mills Utilitarianism have failed (...)
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  23. The Pitfalls of Microphysical Realism.Muhammad Ali Khalidi - 2011 - Philosophy of Science 78 (5):1156-1164.
    Microphysical realism is the position that the only real entities and properties are found at the most fundamental level of nature. In this article, I challenge microphysical (...)
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  24. Performing the Discourse of Sexuality Online.David Kreps - 2013 - In Steven Warburton & Stylianos Hatzipanagos (eds.), Digital Identity and Social Media. Hershey, PA: IGI Global. pp. 118-132.
    This chapter focuses on Foucault, Butler, and video-sharing on sexual social networking sites. It argues that the use and prevalence of video-sharing technologies on sexual social (...) networking websites has a direct impact on notions of sexual identity. Though sometimes pitted against one another and at times contradictory, the ideas of Michel Foucault and Judith Butler on the nature and expression of sexuality and gender identities in fact gel rather well, and both can help us to gain a deeper and more rounded picture of the impact and importance of the burgeoning phenomenon of internet dating websites in general, and sexual social networking in particular. (shrink)
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  25.  44
    Reply to Philip Woodwards Review of The Phenomenal Basis of Intentionality.Angela Mendelovici - 2019 - Philosophical Psychology 32 (8):1261-1267.
    Philip Woodward's review of The Phenomenal Basis of Intentionality (PBI) raises objections to the specific version of the phenomenal intentionality theory proposed in PBI, especially to (...)identity PIT, representationalism, the picture of derived mental representation, some tentative proposals regarding intentional structure, and the matching theory of truth and reference. In this reply, I argue that the version of PIT defended in PBI can withstand these objections. (shrink)
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  26. Pragmatist Aesthetics and the Experience of Technology.David L. Hildebrand - 2018 - In Anders Buch & Theodore Schatzki (eds.), Questions of Practice in Philosophy and Social Theory. New York, NY, USA: pp. 114-135.
    Abstract: For most people, mobile phones and various forms of personal information technology (PIT) have become standard equipment for everyday life. Recent theorists such as Sherry Turkle (...)
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  27. Les limites de lévaluation économique de la biodiversité.Virginie Maris & Jean-Pierre Revéret - 2009 - Les ateliers de l'éthique/The Ethics Forum 4 (1):52-66.
    Devant le constat du déclin toujours plus rapide de la diversité biologique et les limites des res- sources disponibles pour lenrayer, il est nécessaire de déterminer (...)quels moyens devraient être engagés dans sa protection. Pour ce faire, une méthode efficace serait dévaluer les bénéfices tirés de la biodiversité afin destimer rationnellement les coûts légitimes de sa protection. Lévaluation économique, qui se présente demblée sur un mode quantitatif, serait alors un outil précieux. Dans ce texte, nous présentons différentes méthodes dévaluation économique de la biodiversité ainsi que certaines de leurs limites méthodologiques. Par la suite, nous montrons quen dépit de ses avantages pratiques, lévaluation économique échoue représenter lensemble des valeurs en jeu dans la protection de la biodiversité. Nous décrivons alors trois types de valeurs incommen- surables avec des bénéfices économiques : la valeur de legs, qui renvoie aux obligations de trans- mission du patrimoine naturel dont nous avons hérité ; la valeur dexistence, qui renvoie la considération morale dintérêts autres que ceux des êtres humains ; la valeur de transformation, qui renvoie la capacité dexaminer et de critiquer nos préférences et inclinaisons afin dinclure celles-ci dans une vision du monde rationnelle et cohérente. Pour conclure, nous plaidons en faveur de lélaboration de méthodes de concertation et dévaluation participatives et pluralistes permettant de rendre compte de la diversité et de lhétérogénéité des valeurs de la biodiversité. (shrink)
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  28. Destruction or Persistence? New Perspectives on the Relationship Between Feudalism and Capitalism.Cody Franchetti - 2014 - International Review of Social Sciences and Humanities Vol. 6, 6 (2):121-125.
    This essay is a short but impacting observation of the economy of the Middle Ages in light of recent economic historiansdiscoveries: not only are some conventional (...)
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  29.  85
    Wrestling with the Eleatics in Plato's Parmenides.Heather Reid & Lidia Palumbo - 2020 - In Athletics, Gymnastics, and Agon in Plato. Sioux City, IA, USA: pp. 185-198.
    This paper interprets the Parmenides agonistically as a constructive contest between Platos Socrates and the Eleatics of Western Greece. Not only is the dialogue set in (...)the agonistic context of the Panathenaic Games, it features agonistic language, employs an agonistic method, and may even present an agonistic model for participation in the forms. The inspiration for this agonistic motif may be that Parmenides and his student Zeno represent Western Greece, which was a key rival for the mainland at the Olympics and other Panhellenic festivals. This athletic rivalry was complemented by a philosophical rivalry, which is dramatized in the dialogue by pitting a very young (flyweight) Socrates against the Eleatic (heavyweight) Parmenides. Through dialectic, an agonistic form of philosophy attributed to the Eleatics, Plato subjects his theory of forms to a variety of conceptual challenges. This process is described as gymnasia (training) at 135d, and the power of dialectic and philosophy itself are said to depend on it. The object of gymnasia (136c) is to achieve a full view (kyriōs diopsethai) of the truth. This philosophicalvisioncorresponds to the physical fitness achieved through athletic training, and it distinguishes philosophers (lovers of wisdom) from philtheamones (lovers of images) as explained at Republic 475d-476c. Just as trained athletes are able to participate in the contest while spectators merely watch it, philosophers are able to discern intelligible forms through the particulars that participate in them. In the words of the Seventh Letter 341c, it takes prolonged communion (synousia) with an idea to ignite the philosophical light in ones soul. The Parmenidess gymnasia provides an agonistic model for this process, inviting its readers to participate in philosophical training and develop a vison that transcends the material in a way these Eleatic spectators were unable to do. (shrink)
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