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Paul Studtmann
Davidson College
  1.  42
    Multiple Moralities: A Game-Theoretic Examination of Indirect Utilitarianism.Paul Studtmann & Shyam Gouri-Suresh -
    In this paper, we provide a game-theoretic examination of indirect utilitarianism by comparing the expected payoffs of attempts to apply a deontological principle and a utilitarian principle within the context of the Prisoner’s Dilemma (PD). Although many of the best-known utilitarians and consequentialists have accepted some indirect form of their respective views, the results in this paper suggest that they have been overly quick to dismiss altogether the benefits of directly enacting utilitarian principles. We show that for infallible moral agents, (...)
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  2.  21
    1/(4π ) √(H_vol/Vol).Paul Studtmann - manuscript
    In this note, I discuss a very simple solution to the cosmological constant problem. The solution has three main components. First, the magnetic field of the vacuum of observable spacetime results from a particle that vibrates at a frequency equal to a harmonic number that is a function of the total volume of the spacetime of the observable universe. More precisely, the particle vibrates at a frequency equal to H_vol, where H_n is the n^th harmonic number and vol is the (...)
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  3.  83
    God and the Numbers.Paul Studtmann - manuscript
    According to Augustine, abstract objects are ideas in the Mind of God. Because numbers are a type of abstract object, it would follow that numbers are ideas in the Mind of God. Let us call such a view the Augustinian View of Numbers (AVN). In this paper, I present a formal theory for AVN. The theory stems from the symmetry conception of God as it appears in Studtmann (2021). I show that Robinson’s Arithmetic is a conservative extension of the axioms (...)
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  4.  52
    Identity to Essence.Paul Studtmann - manuscript
    The idea that a being can be identical to its own essence has a long and venerable history in theological speculation. As with many ideas in theology, however, such an idea has never been given an adequate mathematical formulation. The key to such a formulation, I argue, is introducing an essence axiom into non-well-founded set theory. According to such an axiom, for every set, x, there is a set that contains all and only those sets that contain x. With such (...)
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  5.  35
    God and the Numbers.Paul Studtmann - manuscript
    According to Augustine, abstract objects are ideas in the Mind of God. Because numbers are a type of abstract object, it would follow that numbers are ideas in the Mind of God. Let us call such a view the Augustinian View of Numbers (AVN). In this paper, I present a formal theory for AVN. The theory stems from the symmetry conception of God as it appears in Studtmann (2021). I show that Robinson’s Arithmetic, Q, can be interpreted by the theory (...)
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  6.  65
    God and Spacetime.Paul Studtmann - manuscript
    In The Divine Fractal, Studtmann (2021) introduced a novel conception of God, what he calls the symmetry conception, and showed that such a conception not only can be formalized within extensional non-well-founded set theory but also entails the Thomistic view that God is identical to her essence. In this paper, I show that Studtmann’s symmetry conception of God can be integrated into a recent approach to quantum gravity, namely causal set theory. The theory that results has two significant consequences. First, (...)
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  7.  50
    Evolution and Autonomy.Paul Studtmann & Shyam Gouri-Suresh - manuscript
    The use of evolutionary game theory to explain the evolution of human norms and the behavior of humans who act according to those norms is widespread. Both the aims and motivation for its use are clearly articulated by Harms and Skyrms (2008) in the following passage: "A good theory of evolution of norms might start by explaining the evolution of altruism in Prisoner’s Dilemma, of Stag Hunting, and of the equal split in the symmetric bargaining game. These are not well-explained (...)
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  8.  35
    The Divine Fractal: 1st Order Extensional Theology.Paul Studtmann - 2021 - Philosophia 54:1-21.
    In this paper, I present what I call the symmetry conception of God within 1st order, extensional, non-well-founded set theory. The symmetry conception comes in two versions. According to the first, God is that unique being that is universally symmetrical with respect to set membership. According to the second, God is the universally symmetrical set of all sets that are universally symmetrical with respect to set membership. I present a number of theorems, most importantly that any universally symmetrical set is (...)
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  9.  63
    Universalizing and the We: Endogenous Game Theoretic Deontology.Paul Studtmann & Shyam Gouri Suresh - 2020 - Economics and Philosophy 37 (2):244-259.
    The Nash counterfactual considers the question: what would happen were I to change my behaviour assuming no one else does. By contrast, the Kantian counterfactual considers the question: what would happen were everyone to deviate from some behaviour. We present a model that endogenizes the decision to engage in this type of Kantian reasoning. Autonomous agents using this moral framework receive psychic payoffs equivalent to the cooperate-cooperate payoff in Prisoner’s Dilemma regardless of the other player’s action. Moreover, if both interacting (...)
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