Results for 'Pl Olcott'

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  1. The x86 language has Turing Complete memory access.Pl Olcott - manuscript
    An abstract machine having a tape head that can be advanced in 0 to 0x7FFFFFFF increments an unlimited number of times specifies a model of computation that has access to unlimited memory. The technical name for memory addressing based on displacement from the current memory address is relative addressing.
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  2. Does the halting problem place an actual limit on computation?P. Olcott - manuscript
    Hehner and Stoddart agree that the halting problem has an inconsistent, unsatisfiable specification. Hehner and Macias agree that a key issue with the halting problem is that it requires a: subjective specification(Hehner) / context dependent function(Macias). When a problem has an unsatisfiable specification because this specification is inconsistent then the unsatisfiability of the specification is anchored in its error thus does not actually limit computation.
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  3. Termination Analyzer H is Not Fooled by Pathological Input D.P. Olcott - manuscript
    A pair of C functions are defined such that D has the halting problem proof's pathological relationship to simulating termination analyzer H. When D correctly simulated by H must be aborted to prevent its own infinite execution then H is necessarily correct to reject D as specifying non-halting behavior. This exact same reasoning is applied to the Peter Linz Turing machine based halting problem proof.
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  4. Minimal Type Theory (MTT).Pete Olcott - manuscript
    Minimal Type Theory (MTT) is based on type theory in that it is agnostic about Predicate Logic level and expressly disallows the evaluation of incompatible types. It is called Minimal because it has the fewest possible number of fundamental types, and has all of its syntax expressed entirely as the connections in a directed acyclic graph.
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  5. Refuting Incompleteness and Undefinability.Pete Olcott - manuscript
    Within the (Haskell Curry) notion of a formal system we complete Tarski's formal correctness: ∀x True(x) ↔ ⊢ x and use this finally formalized notion of Truth to refute his own Undefinability Theorem (based on the Liar Paradox), the Liar Paradox, and the (Panu Raatikainen) essence of the conclusion of the 1931 Incompleteness Theorem.
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  6. Semantic WFF(x) specified syntactically.Pete Olcott - manuscript
    Hypothesis: WFF(x) can be applied syntactically to the semantics of formalized declarative sentences such that: WFF(x) ↔ (x ↦ True) ∨ (x ↦ False) (see proof sketch below) For clarity we focus on simple propositions without binary logical connectives.
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  7. Formalizing Self-Reference Paradox using Predicate Logic.Pete Olcott - manuscript
    We begin with the hypothetical assumption that Tarski’s 1933 formula ∀ True(x) φ(x) has been defined such that ∀x Tarski:True(x) ↔ Boolean-True. On the basis of this logical premise we formalize the Truth Teller Paradox: "This sentence is true." showing syntactically how self-reference paradox is semantically ungrounded.
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  8. Rebutting the Sipser Halting Problem Proof V2.P. Olcott - manuscript
    A simulating halt decider correctly predicts what the behavior of its input would be if this simulated input never had its simulation aborted. It does this by correctly recognizing several non-halting behavior patterns in a finite number of steps of correct simulation. -/- When simulating halt decider H correctly predicts that directly executed D(D) would remain stuck in recursive simulation (run forever) unless H aborts its simulation of D this directly applies to the halting theorem.
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  9.  84
    Simulating (partial) Halt Deciders Defeat the Halting Problem Proofs.P. Olcott - manuscript
    A simulating halt decider correctly predicts whether or not its correctly simulated input can possibly reach its own final state and halt. It does this by correctly recognizing several non-halting behavior patterns in a finite number of steps of correct simulation. Inputs that do terminate are simply simulated until they complete.
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  10. Rebutting the Sipser Halting Problem Proof.P. Olcott - manuscript
    MIT Professor Michael Sipser has agreed that the following verbatim paragraph is correct (he has not agreed to anything else in this paper) -------> -/- If simulating halt decider H correctly simulates its input D until H correctly determines that its simulated D would never stop running unless aborted then H can abort its simulation of D and correctly report that D specifies a non-halting sequence of configurations.
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  11. Simulating Halt Decider Applied to the Halting Theorem.P. Olcott - manuscript
    The novel concept of a simulating halt decider enables halt decider H to to correctly determine the halt status of the conventional “impossible” input D that does the opposite of whatever H decides. This works equally well for Turing machines and “C” functions. The algorithm is demonstrated using “C” functions because all of the details can be shown at this high level of abstraction. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---- Simulating halt decider H correctly determines that D correctly simulated by H would remain stuck in (...)
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  12.  52
    Simulating Halt Deciders Defeat the Halting Theorem.P. Olcott - manuscript
    The novel concept of a simulating halt decider enables halt decider H to to correctly determine the halt status of the conventional “impossible” input D that does the opposite of whatever H decides. This works equally well for Turing machines and “C” functions. The algorithm is demonstrated using “C” functions because all of the details can be shown at this high level of abstraction.
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  13. Halting problem proofs refuted on the basis of software engineering ?P. Olcott - manuscript
    This is an explanation of a possible new insight into the halting problem provided in the language of software engineering. Technical computer science terms are explained using software engineering terms. No knowledge of the halting problem is required. -/- It is based on fully operational software executed in the x86utm operating system. The x86utm operating system (based on an excellent open source x86 emulator) was created to study the details of the halting problem proof counter-examples at the much higher level (...)
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  14. Halting problem undecidability and infinitely nested simulation.P. Olcott - manuscript
    The halting theorem counter-examples present infinitely nested simulation (non-halting) behavior to every simulating halt decider. The pathological self-reference of the conventional halting problem proof counter-examples is overcome. The halt status of these examples is correctly determined. A simulating halt decider remains in pure simulation mode until after it determines that its input will never reach its final state. This eliminates the conventional feedback loop where the behavior of the halt decider effects the behavior of its input.
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  15. Defining a Decidability Decider.Pete Olcott - manuscript
    By extending the notion of a Well Formed Formula to include syntactically formalized rules for rejecting semantically incorrect expressions we recognize and reject expressions that have the semantic error of Pathological self-reference(Olcott 2004). The foundation of this system requires the notion of a BaseFact that anchors the semantic notions of True and False. When-so-ever a formal proof from BaseFacts of language L to a closed WFF X or ~X of language L does not exist X is decided to be (...)
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  16. Halting problem undecidability and infinitely nested simulation (V2).P. Olcott - manuscript
    The halting theorem counter-examples present infinitely nested simulation (non-halting) behavior to every simulating halt decider. Whenever the pure simulation of the input to simulating halt decider H(x,y) never stops running unless H aborts its simulation H correctly aborts this simulation and returns 0 for not halting.
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  17. Halting problem undecidability and infinitely nested simulation (V3).P. Olcott - manuscript
    By making a slight refinement to the halt status criterion measure that remains consistent with the original a halt decider may be defined that correctly determines the halt status of the conventional halting problem proof counter-examples. This refinement overcomes the pathological self-reference issue that previously prevented halting decidability.
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  18. Proof that Wittgenstein is correct about Gödel.P. Olcott - manuscript
    The conventional notion of a formal system is adapted to conform to the sound deductive inference model operating on finite strings. Finite strings stipulated to have the semantic property of Boolean true provide the sound deductive premises. Truth preserving finite string transformation rules provide valid the deductive inference. Conclusions of sound arguments are derived from truth preserving finite string transformations applied to true premises.
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  19. Philosophy of Logic – Reexamining the Formalized Notion of Truth.Pete Olcott - manuscript
    Because formal systems of symbolic logic inherently express and represent the deductive inference model formal proofs to theorem consequences can be understood to represent sound deductive inference to true conclusions without any need for other representations such as model theory.
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  20. Halting problem undecidability and infinitely nested simulation (V5).P. Olcott - manuscript
    This is an explanation of a key new insight into the halting problem provided in the language of software engineering. Technical computer science terms are explained using software engineering terms. -/- To fully understand this paper a software engineer must be an expert in the C programming language, the x86 programming language, exactly how C translates into x86 and what an x86 process emulator is. No knowledge of the halting problem is required.
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  21. Prolog detects pathological self reference in the Gödel sentence.P. Olcott - manuscript
    This sentence G ↔ ¬(F ⊢ G) and its negation G ↔ ~(F ⊢ ¬G) are shown to meet the conventional definition of incompleteness: Incomplete(T) ↔ ∃φ ((T ⊬ φ) ∧ (T ⊬ ¬φ)). They meet conventional definition of incompleteness because neither the sentence nor its negation is provable in F (or any other formal system). -- .
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  22. Halting Problem Proof from Finite Strings to Final States.Pete Olcott - manuscript
    If there truly is a proof that shows that no universal halt decider exists on the basis that certain tuples: (H, Wm, W) are undecidable, then this very same proof (implemented as a Turing machine) could be used by H to reject some of its inputs. When-so-ever the hypothetical halt decider cannot derive a formal proof from its input strings and initial state to final states corresponding the mathematical logic functions of Halts(Wm, W) or Loops(Wm, W), halting undecidability has been (...)
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  23. Deductively Sound Formal Proofs.P. Olcott - manuscript
    Could the intersection of [formal proofs of mathematical logic] and [sound deductive inference] specify formal systems having [deductively sound formal proofs of mathematical logic]? All that we have to do to provide [deductively sound formal proofs of mathematical logic] is select the subset of conventional [formal proofs of mathematical logic] having true premises and now we have [deductively sound formal proofs of mathematical logic].
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  24. Tarski Undefinability Theorem Succinctly Refuted.Pete Olcott - manuscript
    If the conclusion of the Tarski Undefinability Theorem was that some artificially constrained limited notions of a formal system necessarily have undecidable sentences, then Tarski made no mistake within his assumptions. When we expand the scope of his investigation to other notions of formal systems we reach an entirely different conclusion showing that Tarski's assumptions were wrong.
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  25. Formalizing the logical (self-reference) error of the Liar Paradox.Pete Olcott - manuscript
    This paper decomposes the Liar Paradox into its semantic atoms using Meaning Postulates (1952) provided by Rudolf Carnap. Formalizing truth values of propositions as Boolean properties of these propositions is a key new insight. This new insight divides the translation of a declarative sentence into its equivalent mathematical proposition into three separate steps. When each of these steps are separately examined the logical error of the Liar Paradox is unequivocally shown.
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  26. Eliminating Undecidability and Incompleteness in Formal Systems.Pete Olcott - manuscript
    To eliminate incompleteness, undecidability and inconsistency from formal systems we only need to convert the formal proofs to theorem consequences of symbolic logic to conform to the sound deductive inference model. -/- Within the sound deductive inference model there is a (connected sequence of valid deductions from true premises to a true conclusion) thus unlike the formal proofs of symbolic logic provability cannot diverge from truth.
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  27. The Notion of Truth in Natural and Formal Languages.Pete Olcott - manuscript
    For any natural (human) or formal (mathematical) language L we know that an expression X of language L is true if and only if there are expressions Γ of language L that connect X to known facts. -/- By extending the notion of a Well Formed Formula to include syntactically formalized rules for rejecting semantically incorrect expressions we recognize and reject expressions that evaluate to neither True nor False.
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  28. Defining Gödel Incompleteness Away.P. Olcott - manuscript
    We can simply define Gödel 1931 Incompleteness away by redefining the meaning of the standard definition of Incompleteness: A theory T is incomplete if and only if there is some sentence φ such that (T ⊬ φ) and (T ⊬ ¬φ). This definition construes the existence of self-contradictory expressions in a formal system as proof that this formal system is incomplete because self-contradictory expressions are neither provable nor disprovable in this formal system. Since self-contradictory expressions are neither provable nor disprovable (...)
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  29. Philosophy of Logic – Reexamining the Formalized Notion of Truth.Pete Olcott - manuscript
    Tarski "proved" that there cannot possibly be any correct formalization of the notion of truth entirely on the basis of an insufficiently expressive formal system that was incapable of recognizing and rejecting semantically incorrect expressions of language. -/- The only thing required to eliminate incompleteness, undecidability and inconsistency from formal systems is transforming the formal proofs of symbolic logic to use the sound deductive inference model.
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  30. Refuting Tarski and Gödel with a Sound Deductive Formalism.P. Olcott - manuscript
    The conventional notion of a formal system is adapted to conform to the sound deductive inference model operating on finite strings. Finite strings stipulated to have the semantic value of Boolean true provide the sound deductive premises. Truth preserving finite string transformation rules provide the valid deductive inference. Sound deductive conclusions are the result of these finite string transformation rules.
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  31. Halting problem undecidability and infinitely nested simulation (V4).P. Olcott - manuscript
    A Simulating Halt Decider (SHD) computes the mapping from its input to its own accept or reject state based on whether or not the input simulated by a UTM would reach its final state in a finite number of simulated steps. -/- A halt decider (because it is a decider) must report on the behavior specified by its finite string input. This is its actual behavior when it is simulated by the UTM contained within its simulating halt decider while this (...)
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  32. Defining a Decidability Decider for the Halting Problem.Pete Olcott - manuscript
    When we understand that every potential halt decider must derive a formal mathematical proof from its inputs to its final states previously undiscovered semantic details emerge. -/- When-so-ever the potential halt decider cannot derive a formal proof from its input strings to its final states of Halts or Loops, undecidability has been decided. -/- The formal proof involves tracing the sequence of state transitions of the input TMD as syntactic logical consequence inference steps in the formal language of Turing Machine (...)
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  33. Tarski Undefinability Theorem Terse Refutation.P. Olcott - manuscript
    Both Tarski and Gödel “prove” that provability can diverge from Truth. When we boil their claim down to its simplest possible essence it is really claiming that valid inference from true premises might not always derive a true consequence. This is obviously impossible.
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  34. Minimal Type Theory (YACC BNF).Pete Olcott - manuscript
    This is the formal YACC BNF specification for Minimal Type Theory (MTT). MTT was created by augmenting the syntax of First Order Logic (FOL) to specify Higher Order Logic (HOL) expressions using FOL syntax. Syntax is provided to enable quantifiers to specify type. FOL is a subset of MTT. The ASSIGN_ALIAS operator := enables FOL expressions to be chained together to form HOL expressions.
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  35. Provability with Minimal Type Theory.Pete Olcott - manuscript
    Minimal Type Theory (MTT) shows exactly how all of the constituent parts of an expression relate to each other (in 2D space) when this expression is formalized using a directed acyclic graph (DAG). This provides substantially greater expressiveness than the 1D space of FOPL syntax. -/- The increase in expressiveness over other formal systems of logic shows the Pathological Self-Reference Error of expressions previously considered to be sentences of formal systems. MTT shows that these expressions were never truth bearers, thus (...)
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  36. Proving the Reality of Global Warming.P. Olcott - manuscript
    When we look at 800,000 year ice core data CO2 levels since 1950 have risen at a rate of 123-fold faster than the fastest rate in 800,000 years. When we see that this rise is precisely correlated with global carbon emissions the human link to climate change seems certain and any rebuttal becomes ridiculously implausible. The 800,000 year correlation between CO2 and global temperatures seems to be predicting at least 9 degrees C of more warming based on current CO2 levels.
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  37. Expressing Truth directly within a formal system with no need for model theory.Pete Olcott - manuscript
    Because formal systems of symbolic logic inherently express and represent the deductive inference model formal proofs to theorem consequences can be understood to represent sound deductive inference to deductive conclusions without any need for other representations.
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  38. Carbon Fee Fail-Safe and Safeguard.P. Olcott - manuscript
    The fail-safe makes sure the fee is high enough to meet carbon emission reduction targets. The safeguard keeps the fee from getting any higher than needed. -/- One of the ways that we could account for the unpredictability of the price elasticity of demand for carbon would be to provide a fail-safe mechanism to ensure that we definitely stay on the carbon reduction schedule. If we keep Energy Innovation Act (HR 763) essentially as it is and scale up the annual (...)
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  39. The Prolog Inference Model refutes Tarski Undefinability.Pete Olcott - manuscript
    The generalized conclusion of the Tarski and Gödel proofs: All formal systems of greater expressive power than arithmetic necessarily have undecidable sentences. Is not the immutable truth that Tarski made it out to be it is only based on his starting assumptions. -/- When we reexamine these starting assumptions from the perspective of the philosophy of logic we find that there are alternative ways that formal systems can be defined that make undecidability inexpressible in all of these formal systems.
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  40.  99
    Making Carbon fee just steep enough to meet emission reduction targets.P. Olcott - manuscript
    One of the ways that we could account for the unpredictability of the price elasticity of demand for carbon would be to provide a fail-safe mechanism to ensure that we definitely stay on the carbon reduction schedule. If we kept Energy Innovation Act (HR 763) essentially as it is and scale up the annual carbon fee increase by Number-of-Years-Behind-Schedule * 0.15.
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  41. Curriculum Management and Graduate Programmes’ Viability: The Mediation of Institutional Effectiveness Using PLS-SEM Approach.Valentine Joseph Owan, Emmanuel E. Emanghe, Chiaka P. Denwigwe, Eno Etudor-Eyo, Abosede A. Usoro, Victor O. Ebuara, Charles Effiong, Joseph O. Ogar & Bassey A. Bassey - 2022 - Journal of Curriculum and Teaching 11 (5):114-127.
    This study used a partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) to estimate curriculum management's direct and indirect effects on university graduate programmes' viability. The study also examined the role of institutional effectiveness in mediating the nexus between the predictor and response variables. This is a correlational study with a factorial research design. The study's participants comprised 149 higher education administrators (23 Faculty Deans and 126 HODs) from two public universities in Nigeria. A structured questionnaire designed by the researchers was (...)
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  42. Mediating effects of protective factors on COVID-19 anxiety and academic performance of K to 12 Filipino Learners: A PLS-SEM analysis with WarpPLS.Kevin Caratiquit - 2022 - Journal of Social, Humanity, and Education 2 (3):225-243.
    Purpose: This study investigates the interrelationship among COVID-19 anxiety, mindfulness, COVID-19 information avoidance, preventive behavior, and academic performance. Research methodology: The study assessed protective factors as mediators of COVID-19 anxiety and academic performance using WarpPLS. The study participants were K-12 Filipino students from a secondary school in Cagayan, Philippines, identified through convenience sampling. Results: COVID-19 anxiety, mindfulness, information avoidance, and preventive behavior were found to be negatively correlated. Preventive behavior is associated with improved academic performance. Conversely, there was a negative (...)
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  43.  93
    Logika u filozofiji Franje pl. Markovića [Logic in philosophy of Franjo pl. Marković].Srećko Kovač - 2016 - In Stipe Kutleša (ed.), Filozofijsko djelo Franje pl. Markovića. Zagreb: Matica hrvatska. pp. 57-73.
    Logic has a fundamental role in the philosophy of Franjo Marković (1845-1914). His theory of concepts and reasoning is analyzed, especially with respect to the essential role of the principle of sufficient reason and in connection with the concept of causality. The interplay of various types of evidence in Marković's inductive-deductive logic is analysed by means of contemporary justification logic tools.
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  44. Joint mediation of psychosis and mental stress on alcohol consumption and graduates’ job performance: A PLS structural equation modeling.Valentine Joseph Owan, Jennifer Uzoamaka Duruamaku-Dim, Abigail Edem Okon, Levi Udochukwu Akah & Daniel Clement Agurokpon - 2022 - International Journal of Learning in Higher Education 30 (1):89-111.
    Previous research has interlinked alcohol consumption (AC), mental stress (MS), psychotic experiences (PE), and academic performance (AP) of students and psychological behavior of the general population. The current study seems to be the first to consider the joint and partial mediation effects of MS and PE in linking AC to graduates’ job performance in specific areas such as teamwork (TW), communication competence (CC), customer service (CS), and job functions (JF). A virtual cross-section of 3,862 graduates with self-reported cases of having (...)
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  45. A New Theory On The Quraanic Term Hadd(pl.Hudood).Faizan Kirmani - 2020 - Journal Of Legal Studies And Research 3 (6):23.
    Although this concept already existed that for the notion of punishments the term Hadd (pl.Hudood) is very feebly defined in Islamic Law. But to point out a deficiency in anything is much easier than to tell why this deficiency occurs and how should it be overcome? According to the beliefs of Abrahamic religions, God is the King of this world and it is agreed principle of English as well as Arabic language that words of King always considered correct and pure (...)
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  46.  83
    On the provability logic of bounded arithmetic.Rineke Verbrugge & Alessandro Berarducci - 1991 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 61 (1-2):75-93.
    Let PLω be the provability logic of IΔ0 + ω1. We prove some containments of the form L ⊆ PLω < Th(C) where L is the provability logic of PA and Th(C) is a suitable class of Kripke frames.
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  47. The Role Played by Public Libraries in Promoting Information Literacy and User Education.Sidharta Chatterjee, Mousumi Samanta & Sujoy Dey - 2021 - IUP Journal of Knowledge Management 19 (1):36-49.
    Public Libraries (PLs) continue to contribute a great deal to user education in local communities. This paper analyzes the importance of PLs in driving community literacy through promotion of user education for the progressive improvement of the society. The paper stresses the relevance and value of PLs by reassessing the benefits they accrue by analyzing the impact of PLs on community and social education. As indigenous knowledge repositories, PLs play a significant role as community information service providers by driving community (...)
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  48. Education and Political Participation.My Nguyen, Huong T. T. Hoang, Thuy Trang, Khoi Duc, Kien Le & Hang Khanh - 2017
    Whilе thе rоbust аnd pоsitivе аssоciаtiоn bеtwееn еducаtiоn аnd pоliticаl еngаgеmеnt hаs bееn widеly dоcumеntеd, thе dirеct cаusаl link is still а subjеct оf dеbаtе. This study cоntributеs tо thе оngоing dеbаtе by еxаmining whеthеr thеrе еxists а cаusаl еffеct оf еducаtiоn оn pоliticаl еngаgеmеnt. Explоiting thе plаusibly еxоgеnоus vаriаtiоn in еducаtiоn inducеd by thе cоmpulsоry schооling rеfоrms аcrоss 39 cоuntriеs, wе find thаt еducаtiоn cultivаtеs pоliticаl intеrеst, prоmоtеs thе аcquisitiоn оf pоliticаl knоwlеdgе, аnd fоstеrs suppоrtivе аttitudеs tоwаrds pоliticаl frееdоms. (...)
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  49. Introduction: The 2030 Agenda.Eric Palmer - 2015 - Journal of Global Ethics 11 (3):262-269.
    (Article part 2 of 2) This introduction notes the contributions of authors to the second issue of the Journal of Global Ethics 2015 Sustainable Development Goals Forum. It briefly explains the process through which the Sustainable Development Goals have developed from their receipt in 2014 to their passage in September 2015 by the UN General Assembly, and it considers their development in prospect. The Millennium Development Goals, which spanned 1990–2015, present a case study that reveals the changeability of such long-term (...)
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  50. The Impacts of War on Human Capital.My Nguyen, Khoi Duc, Huong T. T. Hoang, Thuy Trang, Kien Le & Hang Khanh - 2020 - WP.
    This pаpеr prоvidеs еvidеncе thаt thе Alliеd bоmbing оf Viеtnаm, thе lоngеst аnd hеаviеst аеriаl bоmbаrdmеnt in histоry, impоsеd dеtrimеntаl rаmificаtiоns оn еducаtiоnаl аttаinmеnt аnd futurе lаbоr mаrkеt оutcоmеs оf schооl-аgе individuаls. By еxplоiting thе plаusibly еxоgеnоus districtby-cоhоrt vаriаtiоn in bоmb dеstructiоn undеr а diffеrеncе-in-diffеrеncеs frаmеwоrk, wе find thаt аn incrеаsе in bоmb intеnsity lеаds tо significаntly fеwеr еducаtiоnаl yеаrs cоmplеtеd аnd lоwеr futurе еаrnings fоr schооl-аgе childrеn еxpоsеd tо thе bоmbаrdmеnt. Wе furthеr shоw thаt bоth thе supply-sidе fаctоrs (inаdеquаtе (...)
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