Results for 'Smart Cities'

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  1. Smart City (SC) – Smart Village (SC) and the ‘Rurban’ Concept from a Malaysia-Indonesia perspective.Jalaluddin Abdul Malek & Rabeah Adawiyah - 2019 - African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure 8 (6).
    This article attempts to break down the dualism of the village-urban development phenomenon in the modernization era. In the post-2020 development transformation era such as the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 2030, the development of SC (smart city-SC) and smart village (SV) is very important and needs to be discussed. Issues and questions of the SC and SV discussions are the extent to which these two development models can break the tradition of dual-city development dualism phenomena as happened in (...)
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  2. The virtuous smart city: Bridging the gap between ethical principles and practices of data-driven innovation.Viivi Lähteenoja & Kimmo Karhu - 2023 - Data and Policy 5 (E15).
    For smart cities, data-driven innovation promises societal benefits and increased well-being for residents and visitors. At the same time, the deployment of data-driven innovation poses significant ethical challenges. Although cities and other public-sector actors have increasingly adopted ethical principles, employing them in practice remains challenging. In this commentary, we use a virtue-based approach that bridges the gap between abstract principles and the daily work of practitioners who engage in and with data-driven innovation processes. Inspired by Aristotle, we (...)
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  3. Binding the Smart City Human-Digital System with Communicative Processes.Brandt Dainow - 2021 - In Michael Nagenborg, Taylor Stone, Margoth González Woge & Pieter E. Vermaas (eds.), Technology and the City: Towards a Philosophy of Urban Technologies. Springer Verlag. pp. 389-411.
    This chapter will explore the dynamics of power underpinning ethical issues within smart cities via a new paradigm derived from Systems Theory. The smart city is an expression of technology as a socio-technical system. The vision of the smart city contains a deep fusion of many different technical systems into a single integrated “ambient intelligence”. ETICA Project, 2010, p. 102). Citizens of the smart city will not experience a succession of different technologies, but a single (...)
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  4. Smart, Age-friendly Cities and Communities: the Emergence of Socio-technological Solutions in the Central and Eastern Europe.Andrzej Klimczuk & Łukasz Tomczyk - 2016 - In Francisco Florez-Revuelta & Alexandros Andre Chaaraoui (eds.), Active and Assisted Living: Technologies and Applications. The Institution of Engineering and Technology. pp. 335--359.
    The chapter aims to introduce an integrated approach to concepts of smart cities and age-friendly cities and communities. Although these ideas are widely promoted by the European Union and the World Health Organisation, they are perceived as separate. Meanwhile, these concepts are closely intermingled in theory and practise concerning the promotion of healthy and active ageing, a universal design, usability and accessibility of age-friendly environments, reducing of the digital divide and robotic divide, and reducing of older adults’ (...)
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  5. Smart Feminist Cities: The Case of Barcelona en Comú.Laura Roberts - 2023 - In Ruth Edith Hagengruber (ed.), Women Philosophers on Economics, Technology, Environment, and Gender History: Shaping the Future, Rethinking the Past. De Gruyter. pp. 137-146.
    Barcelona en Comú, the feminist political platform currently running the city of Barcelona, is cultivating a Smart Feminist City aiming to put technology at the service of the people rather than, for example, selling citizen data to corpora- tions. This paper extends Elizabeth Grosz’s theorisation of the Bodies-Cities inter- face to a Bodies-Cities-Technologies interface to think through the implications of the ways in which a feminist city such as Barcelona is reversing the neoliberal Smart City paradigm (...)
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  6.  71
    Smart Healthy Age-Friendly Environments (SHAFE) Bridging Innovation to Health Promotion and Health Service Provision.Vincenzo de Luca, Hannah Marston, Leonardo Angelini, Nadia Militeva, Andrzej Klimczuk, Carlo Fabian, Patrizia Papitto, Joana Bernardo, Filipa Ventura, Rosa Silva, Erminia Attaianese, Nilufer Korkmaz, Lorenzo Mercurio, Antonio Maria Rinaldi, Maurizio Gentile, Renato Polverino, Kenneth Bone, Willeke van Staalduinen, Joao Apostolo, Carina Dantas & Maddalena Illario - 2024 - In Andrzej Klimczuk (ed.), Intergenerational Relations: Contemporary Theories, Studies, and Policies. London: IntechOpen. pp. 201–226.
    A number of experiences have demonstrated how digital solutions are effective in improving quality of life (QoL) and health outcomes for older adults. Smart Health Age-Friendly Environments (SHAFE) is a new concept introduced in Europe since 2017 that combines the concept of Age-Friendly Environments with Information Technologies, supported by health and community care to improve the health and disease management of older adults and during the life-course. This chapter aims to provide an initial overview of the experiences available not (...)
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  7. Building Smart Healthy Inclusive Environments for All Ages with Citizens.Willeke van Staalduinen, Carina Dantas, Joost van Hoof & Andrzej Klimczuk - 2021 - In Ivan Miguel Pires, Susanna Spinsante, Eftim Zdravevski & Petre Lameski (eds.), Smart Objects and Technologies for Social Good. Springer Verlag. pp. 255–263.
    The paper provides an introduction to the public discourse around the notion of smart healthy inclusive environments. First, the basic ideas are explained and related to citizen participation in the context of implementation of a “society for all ages” concept disseminated by the United Nations. Next, the text discusses selected initiatives of the European Commission in the field of intergenerational programming and policies as well as features of the COST Action NET4Age-Friendly: Smart Healthy Age-Friendly Environments. The following sections (...)
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  8.  83
    Editorial: Towards 2030: Sustainable Development Goal 11: sustainable cities and communities. A sociological perspective. [REVIEW]Andrzej Klimczuk, Delali A. Dovie, Agnieszka Ciesla, Rubal Kanozia, Grzegorz Gawron & Piotr Toczyski - 2024 - Frontiers in Sociology 9:1428324.
    This Research Topic addresses the eleventh Sustainable Development Goal (SDG), which is to “make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable.” Several individual targets and indicators measure progress toward this goal. Researchers study, among others, urban inclusion, the influence of urban policy on socioeconomic disparities, and gentrification. This Research Topic primarily addresses the challenges and complexities of sustainable urban planning and development concerning decent work, economic growth, and associated crises due to their significant impact on urban living.
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  9. Inteligentne miasta przyjazne starzeniu siȩ - przykłady z krajów Grupy Wyszehradzkiej.Andrzej Klimczuk & Łukasz Tomczyk - 2016 - Rozwój Regionalny I Polityka Regionalna 34:79--97.
    Podstawowym celem artykułu jest przybliżenie dwóch wzajemnie powi¸a}zanych koncepcji istotnych z perspektywy zarz¸a}dzania publicznego w ramach polityki wobec starzenia siȩ społeczeństwa na poziomie lokalnym. Pierwsza koncepcja to „inteligentne miasta", która dotyczy wykorzystania nowych technologii informacyjno-komunikacyjnych do poprawy zarz¸a}dzania miastami oraz dostarczania obywatelom innowacyjnych usług publicznych. Druga koncepcja to „miasta przyjazne starzeniu siȩ", która obejmuje optymalizacjȩ wszystkich funkcji miejskich do potrzeb wszystkich grup wiekowych oraz wykorzystanie szerokiego zaangażowania interesariuszy na rzecz poprawy jakości życia w okresie starości. Drugim celem jest wskazanie prób (...)
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  10. Sweden: A City-Centric Sharing Economy Built on Trust.Katie Berns - 2021 - In Andrzej Klimczuk, Vida Česnuityte & Gabriela Avram (eds.), The Collaborative Economy in Action: European Perspectives. Limerick: University of Limerick. pp. 323-329.
    This chapter reports on Sweden as an active and critical player within the European sharing economy. With a key focus on cities, Sweden has launched a national program, “Sharing Cities Sweden”—a strategic innovation program for smart and sustainable cities with an allocated budget of 12 million EUR over four years. The objectives of the program are to develop world-leading test-beds for the sharing economy in Stockholm, Gothenburg, Malmö, and Umeå, as well as develop a national node (...)
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  11. The Global Media and Information Literacy Week: Moving Towards MIL Cities.Saied Reza Ameli & Alireza Salehi-Nejad - 2019 - Journal of Cyberspace Studies 3 (1):1--4.
    The Global Media and Information Literacy Week commemorates the progress in achieving “MIL for all” by aggregating various MIL-related local and international events and actions across different disciplines around the world.The MIL Global Week 2018, 24 to 31 October, was marked by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization in collaboration with various organizations including the UN Alliance of Civilizations, the Global Alliance for Partnership on MIL, the International Federation of Library Associations, the International Association of School Libraries, and (...)
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  12. Urban scale digital twins in data-driven society: Challenging digital universalism in urban planning decision-making.Marianna Charitonidou - 2022 - International Journal of Architectural Computing 19:1-16.
    The article examines the impact of the virtual public sphere on how urban spaces are experienced and conceived in our data-driven society. It places particular emphasis on urban scale digital twins, which are virtual replicas of cities that are used to simulate environments and develop scenarios in response to policy problems. The article also investigates the shift from the technical to the socio-technical perspective within the field of smart cities. Despite the aspirations of urban scale digital twins (...)
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  13. Dialog międzypokoleniowy i partycypacja obywatelska we wdrażaniu koncepcji miast i gmin przyjaznych starzeniu się. Wnioski dla samorządowej polityki publicznej.Andrzej Klimczuk - 2023 - In Jan Czarzasty & Surdykowska Barbara (eds.), Terra Incognita. Obszar ekonomicznego władztwa samorządu terytorialnego a rola związków zawodowych. Scholar. pp. 119–137.
    W ostatnich latach obserwujemy intensywną debatę publiczną dotyczącą implementacji koncepcji miast i gmin przyjaznych starzeniu się (age-friendly cities and communities) oraz jej nowszej i szerszej odsłony związanej z inteligentnymi i zdrowymi przestrzeniami przyjaznymi starzeniu się (smart healthy age-friendly environments, SHAFE). Rozdział koncentruje się na zwięzłym przeglądzie obejmującym te zagadnienia. W pierwszej części artykuł przybliża podstawowe pojęcia i wybrane działania Komisji Europejskiej w obszarze upowszechniania dialogu międzypokoleniowego oraz programowania polityk relacji międzypokoleniowych. Następnie zaprezentowano krótkie omówienia studiów przypadku dotyczące wybranych (...)
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  14. Integrating Banjar Traditional Design Into Architecture of The Modern Public Park.Eka Andyka Wilis Lipaldy & Akbar Rahman - 2023 - Paragraphs Environmental Design 1:20-26.
    Among the main components of a smart city, the modern public space plays a vital and core role in the transition towards a friendly lifestyle. However, urban planning and design guidelines in many countries’ practices have radically transformed without cultural preservation purpose. Therefore, it is necessary to design public space with local cultural wisdom demonstrated as renewable criteria considered a sustainable public space solution for smart cities. This may improve places, increasing prosperity and extending expectations of modernization (...)
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  15. The Qualitative Role of Big data and Internet of Things for Future Generation-A Review.M. Arun Kumar & A. Manoj Prabaharan - 2021 - Turkish Online Journal of Qualitative Inquiry (TOJQI) 12 (3):4185-4199.
    The Internet of Things (IoT) wireless LAN in healthcare has moved away from traditional methods that include hospital visits and continuous monitoring. The Internet of Things allows the use of certain means, including the detection, processing and transmission of physical and biomedical parameters. With powerful algorithms and intelligent systems, it will be available to provide unprecedented levels of critical data for real-time life that are collected and analyzed to guide people in research, management and emergency care. This chapter provides a (...)
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  16. Climate change related urban transformation and the role of cultural heritage.Matthias Ripp & Christer Gustafsson (eds.) - 2023 - Lago, Calabria, Italy: Geographies of the Anthropocene, Il Sileno Edizioni.
    Starting with a systemic understanding of cultural heritage, climate-change related urban transformation processes are analyzed through a multi-disciplinary lens and methods that blend the arts, humanities, and sciences. Governance-specific topics range from relevant cultural markers and local policies to stimulate resilience, to a typology of heritage-related governance and the vulnerability of historic urban landscapes. A variety of contributions from the Americas, Asia, and Europe describe and analyze challenges and potential solutions for climate-change related urban transformation and the role of cultural (...)
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  17.  71
    Climate change related urban transformation and the role of cultural heritage.Matthias Ripp & Christer Gustafsson (eds.) - 2023 - Lago, Calabria, Italy: Geographies of the Anthropocene, Il Sileno Edizioni.
    Starting with a systemic understanding of cultural heritage, climate-change related urban transformation processes are analyzed through a multi-disciplinary lens and methods that blend the arts, humanities, and sciences. Governance-specific topics range from relevant cultural markers and local policies to stimulate resilience, to a typology of heritage-related governance and the vulnerability of historic urban landscapes. A variety of contributions from the Americas, Asia, and Europe describe and analyze challenges and potential solutions for climate-change related urban transformation and the role of cultural (...)
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  18. Superinteligentny Lewiatan: Zarys problemu autonomii człowieka a autonomizacji urządzeń.Adrian Mróz - 2020 - Kultura I Historia 37 (1):1-18.
    Celem niniejszej pracy jest zastosowanie wizji „Lewiatana” Thomasa Hobbesa do koncepcji superinteligencji lub nadludzkiej inteligencji, które dyskutowane jest wśród transhumanistów i poruszone jest przez takich filozofów i futurologów jak między innymi Nick Bostrom, Stanisław Lem, albo Ray Kurzweil. Inspiracją mojej pracy były pytania w rodzaju: „kiedy człowiek przestaje być autonomicznym podmiotem?” albo „czy człowiek w ogóle może być samodzielny?”. Niemniej jednak wydaje mi się, że takie pytania mogą się pojawić wtedy, kiedy człowieka rozpoznamy jako zwierzę polityczne (politikon zoon w sensie (...)
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  19. Building Inclusive Environments for All Ages with Citizens.Willeke van Staalduinen, Carina Dantas, Joost Van Hoof & Andrzej Klimczuk - 2021 - In Francisco Melero & Mike Burnard (eds.), Sheldon 3rd Online Conference Meeting: Solutions for ageing well at home, in the community and at work - Proceedings Book. Technical Research Centre of Furniture and Wood of the Region of Murcia. pp. 143–153.
    The paper provides an introduction to the public discourse around the notion of smart healthy inclusive environments. First, the basic ideas are explained and related to citizen participation in the context of implementation of a "society for all ages" concept disseminated by the United Nations. Next, the text discusses selected initiatives of the European Commission in the field of intergenerational programming and policies as well as features of the COST Action NET4Age-Friendly: Smart Healthy Age-Friendly Environments (SHAFE). The following (...)
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  20. The Importance of Flexibility in Adaptive Reuse of Industrial Heritage: Learning from Iranian Cases.Hassan Bazazzadeh, Adam Nadolny, Asma Mehan & Seyedeh Sara Hashemi Safaei - 2021 - International Journal of Conservation Science 12 (1):113-128.
    In recent years, the significance of industrial heritage has seemed to become a growing trend in international heritage studies. Concerning their attributed values and the crucial needs for urban development, this branch of cultural heritage has been considered the important grid of cities. This has caused a great acceptance of adaptive reuse practices especially among developing countries which is a smart response to an ongoing debate to reach sustainable development. The flexibility of these buildings and sites seems an (...)
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  21. Citizen Science and Social Innovation: Mutual Relations, Barriers, Needs, and Development Factors.Andrzej Klimczuk, Egle Butkeviciene & Minela Kerla (eds.) - 2022 - Lausanne: Frontiers Media.
    Social innovations are usually understood as new ideas, initiatives, or solutions that make it possible to meet the challenges of societies in fields such as social security, education, employment, culture, health, environment, housing, and economic development. On the one hand, many citizen science activities serve to achieve scientific as well as social and educational goals. Thus, these actions are opening an arena for introducing social innovations. On the other hand, some social innovations are further developed, adapted, or altered after the (...)
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  22. Mark Rowlands, The new science of the mind: from extended mind to embodied phenomenology: MIT Press, Bradford Books, 2010, 249 pages, ISBN 978-0-262-01455-7, £20.24. [REVIEW]Victor Loughlin - 2013 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 12 (4):891-897.
    Andy Clark once remarked that we make the world smart so we don’t have to be (Clark, 1997). What he meant was that human beings (along with many other animals) alter and transform their environments in order to accomplish certain tasks that would prove difficult (or indeed impossible) without such transformations. This remarkable insight goes a long way towards explaining many aspects of human culture, ranging from linguistic notational systems to how we structure our cities. It also provides (...)
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  23. The Cognitive Ecology of the Internet.Paul Smart, Richard Heersmink & Robert Clowes - 2017 - In Stephen Cowley & Frederic Vallée-Tourangeau (eds.), Cognition Beyond the Brain: Computation, Interactivity and Human Artifice (2nd ed.). Springer. pp. 251-282.
    In this chapter, we analyze the relationships between the Internet and its users in terms of situated cognition theory. We first argue that the Internet is a new kind of cognitive ecology, providing almost constant access to a vast amount of digital information that is increasingly more integrated into our cognitive routines. We then briefly introduce situated cognition theory and its species of embedded, embodied, extended, distributed and collective cognition. Having thus set the stage, we begin by taking an embedded (...)
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  24. Disbelief is a distinct doxastic attitude.Joshua Smart - 2020 - Synthese 198 (12):11797-11813.
    While epistemologists routinely employ disbelief talk, it is not clear that they really mean it, given that they often equate disbelieving p with believing ¬p. I argue that this is a mistake—disbelief is a doxastic attitude of rejection and is distinct from belief. I first clarify this claim and its opposition, then show that we must distinguish disbelieving p from believing ¬p in order to account for the fact that we continue to hold doxastic attitudes toward propositions that we reject. (...)
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  25. Dispositions and the principle of least action revisited.Benjamin T. H. Smart & Karim P. Y. Thébault - 2015 - Analysis 75 (3):386-395.
    Some time ago, Joel Katzav and Brian Ellis debated the compatibility of dispositional essentialism with the principle of least action. Surprisingly, very little has been said on the matter since, even by the most naturalistically inclined metaphysicians. Here, we revisit the Katzav–Ellis arguments of 2004–05. We outline the two problems for the dispositionalist identified Katzav in his 2004 , and claim they are not as problematic for the dispositional essentialist at it first seems – but not for the reasons espoused (...)
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  26. Phenomenal transparency and the extended mind.Paul Smart, Gloria Andrada & Robert William Clowes - 2022 - Synthese 200 (4):1-25.
    Proponents of the extended mind have suggested that phenomenal transparency may be important to the way we evaluate putative cases of cognitive extension. In particular, it has been suggested that in order for a bio-external resource to count as part of the machinery of the mind, it must qualify as a form of transparent equipment or transparent technology. The present paper challenges this claim. It also challenges the idea that phenomenological properties can be used to settle disputes regarding the constitutional (...)
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  27. Minds Online: The Interface between Web Science, Cognitive Science, and the Philosophy of Mind.Paul Smart, Robert William Clowes & Richard Heersmink - 2017 - Foundations and Trends in Web Science 6 (1-2):1-234.
    Alongside existing research into the social, political and economic impacts of the Web, there is a need to study the Web from a cognitive and epistemic perspective. This is particularly so as new and emerging technologies alter the nature of our interactive engagements with the Web, transforming the extent to which our thoughts and actions are shaped by the online environment. Situated and ecological approaches to cognition are relevant to understanding the cognitive significance of the Web because of the emphasis (...)
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  28. Minds in the Metaverse: Extended Cognition Meets Mixed Reality.Paul Smart - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (4):1–29.
    Examples of extended cognition typically involve the use of technologically low-grade bio-external resources (e.g., the use of pen and paper to solve long multiplication problems). The present paper describes a putative case of extended cognizing based around a technologically advanced mixed reality device, namely, the Microsoft HoloLens. The case is evaluated from the standpoint of a mechanistic perspective. In particular, it is suggested that a combination of organismic (e.g., the human individual) and extra-organismic (e.g., the HoloLens) resources form part of (...)
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  29. Animals as Stakeholders.Joshua Smart - 2022 - In Natalie Thomas (ed.), Animals and Business Ethics. Palgrave-Macmillan.
    Animals have moral status, and we have corresponding obligations to take their interests into account. I argue that Stakeholder Theory provides a moderate, yet principled way for businesses to do so. Animals ought to be treated as stakeholders given that they affect and are affected by the achievement of the objectives of the businesses in which they are involved. Stakeholder Theory therefore requires taking those interests into account. It does not, however, require that they be given the same weight as (...)
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  30. Mandevillian Intelligence: From Individual Vice to Collective Virtue.Paul Smart - 2018 - In Carter Joseph Adam, Clark Andy, Kallestrup Jesper, Palermos Spyridon Orestis & Pritchard Duncan (eds.), Socially-Extended Knowledge. Oxford University Press. pp. 253–274.
    Mandevillian intelligence is a specific form of collective intelligence in which individual cognitive shortcomings, limitations and biases play a positive functional role in yielding various forms of collective cognitive success. When this idea is transposed to the epistemological domain, mandevillian intelligence emerges as the idea that individual forms of intellectual vice may, on occasion, support the epistemic performance of some form of multi-agent ensemble, such as a socio-epistemic system, a collective doxastic agent, or an epistemic group agent. As a specific (...)
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  31. Minds in the Matrix: Embodied Cognition and Virtual Reality (2nd edition).Paul Smart - 2014 - In Lawrence A. Shapiro (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Embodied Cognition. New York: Routledge.
    The present chapter discusses the implications of virtual reality for the theory and practice of embodied cognitive science. The chapter discusses how recent technological innovations are poised to reshape our understanding of the materially-embodied and environmentally-situated mind, providing us with a new means of studying the mechanisms responsible for intelligent behavior. The chapter also discusses how a synthetically-oriented shift in our approach to embodied intelligence alters our view of familiar problems, most notably the distinction between embedded and extended cognition. The (...)
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  32. Beginnings of a new school of metaphysics: a facsimile reproduction with an introduction by Dino Buzzetti ; with early reviews of the book and B.H. Smart's 'A letter to Dr. Whately'.Benjamin Humphrey Smart - 1842 - Ann Arbor: Scholars' Fasimiles & Reprints.
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  33. A Critique of Humean and Anti-Humean Metaphysics of Cause and Law - final version.Benjamin Smart - manuscript
    Metaphysicians play an important role in our understanding of the universe. In recent years, physicists have focussed on finding accurate mathematical formalisms of the evolution of our physical system - if a metaphysician can uncover the metaphysical underpinnings of these formalisms; that is, why these formalisms seem to consistently map the universe, then our understanding of the world and the things in it is greatly enhanced. Science, then, plays a very important role in our project, as the best scientific formalisms (...)
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  34. On the classification of diseases.Benjamin Smart - 2014 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 35 (4):251-269.
    Identifying the necessary and sufficient conditions for individuating and classifying diseases is a matter of great importance in the fields of law, ethics, epidemiology, and of course, medicine. In this paper, I first propose a means of achieving this goal, ensuring that no two distinct disease-types could correctly be ascribed to the same disease-token. I then posit a metaphysical ontology of diseases—that is, I give an account of what a disease is. This is essential to providing the most effective means (...)
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  35. The ethics of the extended mind: Mental privacy, manipulation and agency.Robert William Clowes, Paul R. Smart & Richard Heersmink - 2024 - In Jan-Hendrik Heinrichs, Birgit Beck & Orsolya Friedrich (eds.), Neuro-ProsthEthics: Ethical Implications of Applied Situated Cognition. Berlin, Germany: J. B. Metzler. pp. 13–35.
    According to proponents of the extended mind, bio-external resources, such as a notebook or a smartphone, are candidate parts of the cognitive and mental machinery that realises cognitive states and processes. The present chapter discusses three areas of ethical concern associated with the extended mind, namely mental privacy, mental manipulation, and agency. We also examine the ethics of the extended mind from the standpoint of three general normative frameworks, namely, consequentialism, deontology, and virtue ethics.
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  36. The Ultimate Argument Against Dispositional Monist Accounts of Laws.Stephen Barker & Benjamin Smart - 2012 - Analysis 72 (4):714-722.
    Bird argues that Armstrong’s necessitarian conception of physical modality and laws of nature generates a vicious regress with respect to necessitation. We show that precisely the same regress afflicts Bird’s dispositional-monist theory, and indeed, related views, such as that of Mumford & Anjum. We argue that dispositional monism is basically Armstrongian necessitarianism modified to allow for a thesis about property identity.
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  37. Relativistic Conceptions of Trustworthiness: Implications for the Trustworthy Status of National Identification Systems.Paul Smart, Wendy Hall & Michael Boniface - 2022 - Data and Policy 4 (e21):1-16.
    Trustworthiness is typically regarded as a desirable feature of national identification systems (NISs); but the variegated nature of the trustor communities associated with such systems makes it difficult to see how a single system could be equally trustworthy to all actual and potential trustors. This worry is accentuated by common theoretical accounts of trustworthiness. According to such accounts, trustworthiness is relativized to particular individuals and particular areas of activity, such that one can be trustworthy with regard to some individuals in (...)
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  38. Applying mechanical philosophy to web science: The case of social machines.Paul R. Smart, Kieron O’Hara & Wendy Hall - 2021 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 11 (3):1-29.
    Social machines are a prominent focus of attention for those who work in the field of Web and Internet science. Although a number of online systems have been described as social machines, there is, as yet, little consensus as to the precise meaning of the term “social machine.” This presents a problem for the scientific study of social machines, especially when it comes to the provision of a theoretical framework that directs, informs, and explicates the scientific and engineering activities of (...)
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  39. Extended Computation: Wide Computationalism in Reverse.Paul Smart, Wendy Hall & Michael Boniface - 2021 - Proceedings of the 13th ACM Web Science Conference (Companion Volume).
    Arguments for extended cognition and the extended mind are typically directed at human-centred forms of cognitive extension—forms of cognitive extension in which the cognitive/mental states/processes of a given human individual are subject to a form of extended or wide realization. The same is true of debates and discussions pertaining to the possibility of Web-extended minds and Internet-based forms of cognitive extension. In this case, the focus of attention concerns the extent to which the informational and technological elements of the online (...)
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  40. The Use and Misuse of Counterfactuals in Ethical Machine Learning.Atoosa Kasirzadeh & Andrew Smart - 2021 - In Atoosa Kasirzadeh & Andrew Smart (eds.), ACM Conference on Fairness, Accountability, and Transparency (FAccT 21).
    The use of counterfactuals for considerations of algorithmic fairness and explainability is gaining prominence within the machine learning community and industry. This paper argues for more caution with the use of counterfactuals when the facts to be considered are social categories such as race or gender. We review a broad body of papers from philosophy and social sciences on social ontology and the semantics of counterfactuals, and we conclude that the counterfactual approach in machine learning fairness and social explainability can (...)
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  41. Commentaries on David Hodgson's "a plain person's free will".Graham Cairns-Smith, Thomas W. Clark, Ravi Gomatam, Robert H. Kane, Nicholas Maxwell, J. J. C. Smart, Sean A. Spence & Henry P. Stapp - 2005 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 12 (1):20-75.
    REMARKS ON EVOLUTION AND TIME-SCALES, Graham Cairns-Smith; HODGSON'S BLACK BOX, Thomas Clark; DO HODGSON'S PROPOSITIONS UNIQUELY CHARACTERIZE FREE WILL?, Ravi Gomatam; WHAT SHOULD WE RETAIN FROM A PLAIN PERSON'S CONCEPT OF FREE WILL?, Gilberto Gomes; ISOLATING DISPARATE CHALLENGES TO HODGSON'S ACCOUNT OF FREE WILL, Liberty Jaswal; FREE AGENCY AND LAWS OF NATURE, Robert Kane; SCIENCE VERSUS REALIZATION OF VALUE, NOT DETERMINISM VERSUS CHOICE, Nicholas Maxwell; COMMENTS ON HODGSON, J.J.C. Smart; THE VIEW FROM WITHIN, Sean Spence; COMMENTARY ON HODGSON, Henry (...)
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  42. Smart-entrepreneurship education in training of the hotel business specialists.Sergii Sardak & Y. Naboka S. R. Koev, L. Chepurda, S. Sardak, L. Zhylinska - 2019 - Journal of Entrepreneurship Education 22 (4):1-5.
    The article is devoted to the problems of introducing the SMART-education technology in the training and development of personnel of hotel complexes and business activities in the field of hotel business. The methodological and organizational bases for the application of SMART-education in staff training were identified; the leading qualitative features and development trends of this type of entrepreneurial educational activity were outlined. The principles of SMART-education of staff in the field of hotel business and its applied features (...)
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  43. Smart Policy: Cognitive Enhancement and the Public Interest.Nick Bostrom - 2011 - In Julian Savulescu, Ruud ter Meulen & Guy Kahane (eds.), Enhancing Human Capacities. Blackwell.
    Cognitive enhancement may be defined as the amplification or extension of core capacities of the mind through improvement or augmentation of internal or external information processing systems. Cognition refers to the processes an organism uses to organize information. These include acquiring information (perception), selecting (attention), representing (understanding) and retaining (memory) information, and using it to guide behavior (reasoning and coordination of motor outputs). Interventions to improve cognitive function may be directed at any of these core faculties.
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  44. City and Soul in Plato and Alfarabi: An Explanation for the Differences Between Plato’s and Alfarabi’s Theory of City in Terms of Their Distinct Psychology.Ishraq Ali & Mingli Qin - 2020 - Axiomathes 30 (1):91-105.
    In his political treatise, Mabadi ara ahl al-madina al-fadhila, Abu Nasr Alfarabi, the medieval Muslim philosopher, proposes a theory of virtuous city which, according to prominent scholars, is modeled on Plato’s utopia of the Republic. No doubt that Alfarabi was well-versed in the philosophy of Plato and the basic framework of his theory of city is platonic. However, his theory of city is not an exact reproduction of the Republic’s theory and, despite glaring similarities, the two theories do differ in (...)
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  45. Meaningful Human Control over Smart Home Systems: A Value Sensitive Design Approach.Steven Umbrello - 2020 - Humana.Mente Journal of Philosophical Studies 13 (37):40-65.
    The last decade has witnessed the mass distribution and adoption of smart home systems and devices powered by artificial intelligence systems ranging from household appliances like fridges and toasters to more background systems such as air and water quality controllers. The pervasiveness of these sociotechnical systems makes analyzing their ethical implications necessary during the design phases of these devices to ensure not only sociotechnical resilience, but to design them for human values in mind and thus preserve meaningful human control (...)
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  46. Street smarts.Devin Sanchez Curry - 2021 - Synthese 199 (1-2):161-180.
    A pluralistic approach to folk psychology must countenance the evaluative, regulatory, predictive, and explanatory roles played by attributions of intelligence in social practices across cultures. Building off of the work of the psychologist Robert Sternberg and the philosophers Gilbert Ryle and Daniel Dennett, I argue that a relativistic interpretivism best accounts for the many varieties of intelligence that emerge from folk discourse. To be intelligent is to be comparatively good at solving intellectual problems that an interpreter deems worth solving.
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  47.  66
    Swillsburg City Limits.Catherine McKeen - 2004 - Polis 21 (1-2):70-92.
    At Republic 370c–372d, Plato presents us with an early polis that is self-sufficient, peaceful, cooperative, and which provides a comfortable life for its inhabitants. While Glaucon derides this polis as a ‘city for pigs’, Socrates is quick to defend its virtues characterizing it as a city which is not only ‘complete’, but a ‘true’ and ‘healthy’ city. Is Plato sincere when he lauds the city of pigs? if so, why does the city of pigs degenerate so precipitously into the luxurious (...)
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  48. Re‑Narrating Radical Cities over Time and through Space: Imagining Urban Activism through Critical Pedagogical Practices.Asma Mehan - 2023 - Architecture 3 (1):92-103.
    Radical cities have historically been hotbeds of transformative paradigms, political changes, activism, and social movements, and have given rise to visionary ideas, utopian projects, revolutionary ideologies, and debates. These cities have served as incubators for innovative ideas, idealistic projects, revolutionary philosophies, and lively debates. The streets, squares, and public spaces of radical cities have been the backdrop for protests, uprisings, and social movements that have had both local and global significance. This research project aims to explore and (...)
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  49. The City as a Living Organism: Aristotle’s Naturalness Thesis Reconsidered.Xinkai Hu - 2020 - History of Political Thought 41 (4):517-537.
    In this paper, I wish to defend Aristotle’s naturalness thesis. First, I argue against the claim that the city fails to meet the criteria (e.g. separability, continuity, etc.) Aristotle sets for substantiality in the Metaphysics. Second, I examine the problem of the Principle of Transitivity of End in Aristotle’s telic argument for the naturalness of the city. I argue that the city exists for its own end. Finally, I discuss the problem of the legislator in the genesis of the city. (...)
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  50. Intuitive Cities: Pre-Reflective, Aesthetic and Political Aspects of Urban Design.Matthew Crippen - 2016 - Journal of Aesthetics and Phenomenology 3 (2):125-145.
    Evidence affirms that aesthetic engagement patterns our movements, often with us barely aware. This invites an examination of pre-reflective engagement within cities and also aesthetic experience as a form of the pre-reflective. The invitation is amplified because design has political implications. For instance, it can draw people in or exclude them by establishing implicitly recognized public-private boundaries. The Value Sensitive Design school, which holds that artifacts embody ethical and political values, stresses some of this. But while emphasizing that design (...)
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